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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Scale sensitivity and question order in the contingent valuation method2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1746-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evidence in the literature. It was also found that the respondents' cognitive ability is more important for showing scale sensitivity when respondents are asked about a larger risk reduction first ('top-down' approach), also reinforcing the result that a 'bottom-up' approach is more consistent with answers in line with theoretical predictions for a larger proportion of respondents.

  • 2.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Norwegian University of Science & Technology.
    A critique of the European Green City Index2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Siemens (Germany) sponsored the research by the Economist Intelligence Unit (London), which resulted in the publication of the European Green City Index report, in which the environmental performance of 30 large cities in Europe was analysed. It provided city administrations with an idea of where they stood vis-a-vis their European counterparts. However, while adopting such performance evaluation methodologies, it is important to set targets and goals, and to be aware of pitfalls that may exist in the course of a blind pursuit of a higher Green Score. City administrations are usually segmented into different divisions and departments; often each division strives towards its own set of targets and goals, without being aware (or without being concerned, even if it is aware) of the overlaps, conflicts and synergies that may exist with the targets and goals of the others. The Green City Index needs to be considered together with an Urban Socio-Economic Index, which can be suitably structured with the inter-linkages with the indicators of the Green City Index explicitly described.

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