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  • 1.
    Breen, C.
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Clegg, F.
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Thompson, S.
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BillerudKorsnäs.
    Exploring the interactions between starches, bentonites and plasticizers in sustainable barrier coatings for paper and board2019In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 183, article id 105272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective food packaging is a major factor in the current global drive to minimise food waste. Starch is an excellent oxygen barrier for packaging but it is brittle and moisture sensitive. The addition of layered minerals and plasticizers can significantly improve the moisture barrier and flexibility of the resulting composite. Some combinations of starch and plasticizer are incompatible but our results show that the addition of bentonite ensures the formation of coherent starch films with much improved moisture barrier regardless of the starch-plasticizer compatibility. It was clearly demonstrated that improvement of the moisture barrier was critically dependent on the layer charge of the bentonite used. Starch was readily accommodated in the interlayer space of bentonites with a layer charge of <0.4 electrons per formula unit but was not adsorbed if the layer charge was above this value. Starch-bentonite-plasticizer coatings prepared using bentonites with the lower layer charge routinely produced higher barriers to water vapour. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the base paper was reduced from 780 to 340 ± 20 g m2 day−1 when coated with starch alone. This was further reduced to 48 or 66 g m2 day−1 if glycerol or lower charge bentonite, respectively, was added to the starch. Optimised coatings of starch-lower charge bentonite-plasticizer provided WVTR values of ≤10 g m2 day−1 whereas WVTR values for comparative coatings prepared using the higher charge bentonites were three to four times higher (35 ± 7 g m2 day−1). Scanning electron micrographs provided clear evidence for the presence of 60 nm thick supramolecular layers formed from starch-bentonite-plasticizer in the samples coated on either glass or paper. The WVTR values for these low-eco footprint coatings are competitive with proprietary coatings prepared using petroleum derived resins.

  • 2.
    Nyflött, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bonnerup, Chris
    Stora Enso.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    The influence of clay orientation and crystallinity on oxygen permeation in dispersion barrier coatings2016In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 126, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study oxygen permeability in dispersion barriers produced from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports was investigated. To determine the oxygen permeability, two measurement methods were used: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). It was found that with increasing kaolin content the oxygen permeability increased, up to about 5 wt% kaolin, whereafter the oxygen permeability decreased, as was expected. The increased (> 5%) kaolin loading lowered the diffusion because of an increased tortuosity. Structural information about the dispersion-barrier coatings, such as kaolin orientation and polymer crystallinity, was obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kaolin orientation was influenced by the drying temperature, the thickness of the samples, and the kaolin concentration. The polymer crystallinity increased in thicker samples. The drying temperature did not show any clear effect on the crystallinity of thin samples, while for the thicker barriers, combined with a kaolin concentration lower than 20 wt%, a higher crystallinity was achieved at lower drying temperatures. This study demonstrates the strong influence of chemical and physical structures on the permeability of the investigated coatings.

  • 3.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Montmorillonite clay for starch-based barrier dispersion coating: Part 1 The influence of citric acid on viscosity and barrier properties2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, p. 160-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starch-based coating formulations were draw-down coated on a paper substrate and the effect on the water vapor transmission rate, WVTR, upon montmorillonite addition was compared to that of the pure the starch matrix without added plasticizer and for poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, and citric acid, CA, as potential plasticizers. Both potential plasticizers were added at a ratio of 3 to 10 to starch. Addition of CA to the starch solution substantially lowered the WVTR of the coated papers compared to coating with a pure starch or PEG-plasticized coating. The WVTR of the papers coated with starch and CA was lower than that obtained for paper coated with non-plasticized montmorillonite-starch dispersions, and approximately similar to paper coated with montmorillonite-starch dispersions plasticized with PEG or with citric acid. Addition of montmorillointe was effective in reducing the WVTR in the case of PEG-plasticized starch but not in the case of CA. These differences in WVTR were indicated to be due to differences in the viscosity and the clay swelling indicating that CA and PEG affected the state of dispersion differently. CA was also investigated as a dispersing agent by addition in small quantities to the montmorillonite dispersion at different pH values. When this clay dispersion was added to a suspension already containing PEG, CA gave slightly reduced plastic viscosity and there was also a weak correlation between low plastic viscosity and WVTR.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Larsson, Johan
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Montmorillonite clay for starch-based barrier dispersion coating: Part 2 Pilot trials and PE-lamination2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 97-98, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite clays have been shown to improve the barrier properties of thermoplastic starch coatings. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to scale-up a recipe containing poly(ethylene glycol)-plasticized starch and a citric acid-dispersed montmorillonite to pilot scale and to achieve water vapor barrier properties which are comparable to those achieved in laboratory scale. The results are compared with those obtained with two commercial synthetic barrier dispersions. The combination of a polyethylene film laminated on top of a 3 g/m2 starch-based coating showed the potential to give also oxygen barrier properties to the multilayer structure when applied on a paper substrate.

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