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  • 1.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Looney, Erin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Jensen, Mallory
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Lai, Barry
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU, A. Getz vei 2B, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, nr 5, s. 1-6, artikel-id 055705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

  • 2.
    Castellanos, Sergio
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kivambe, Maulid
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Hofstetter, Jasmin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Lai, Barry
    Argonne Photon Source, Illinois, USA.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Variation of dislocation etch-pit geometry: An indicator of bulk microstructure and recombination activity in multicrystalline silicon2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, nr 18, s. 1-7, artikel-id 183511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocation clusters in multicrystalline silicon limit solar cell performance by decreasing minoritycarrier diffusion length. Studies have shown that the recombination strength of dislocation clusterscan vary by up to two orders of magnitude, even within the same wafer. In this contribution, wecombine a surface-analysis approach with bulk characterization techniques to explore theunderlying root cause of variations in recombination strength among different clusters. We observethat dislocation clusters with higher recombination strength consist of dislocations with a largervariation of line vector, correlated with a higher degree of variation in dislocation etch-pit shapes(ellipticities). Conversely, dislocation clusters exhibiting the lowest recombination strength containmostly dislocations with identical line vectors, resulting in very similar etch-pit shapes. Thedisorder of dislocation line vector in high-recombination clusters appears to be correlated withimpurity decoration, possibly the cause of the enhanced recombination activity. Based on ourobservations, we conclude that the relative recombination activity of different dislocation clustersin the device may be predicted via an optical inspection of the distribution and shape variation ofdislocation etch pits in the as-grown wafer.

  • 3.
    Ghavanini, Farzan
    et al.
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jackman, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Lundgren, Per
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Direct measurement of bending stiffness and estimation of Young’s modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the bending stiffness of as-grown vertically aligned carbon nanofibers using atomic force microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope. We show that the assumption of a uniform internal structure is inadequate in describing nanofibers mechanical properties and that a dual phase model is needed. We present a model in which different Young’s moduli are assigned to the inner graphitic core and the outer amorphous carbon shell and show that it provides a better fit to the measurements. We obtain values of 11±8 GPa and 63±14 GPa for the Young’s modulus of the inner core and the outer shell, respectively.

  • 4.
    Gåård, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Hirvonen Grytzelius, Joakim
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental study of the relationship between temperature and adhesive forces for low-alloyed steel, stainless steel and titanium using atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 103, nr 12, artikel-id 124301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5. Hahn, Giso
    et al.
    Zechner, C.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fath, Peter
    Willeke, G.
    Bucher, E.
    Enhanced Carrier Collection observed in Mechanically Structured Silicon with Small Diffusion Length1999Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 86, nr 12, s. 43-47 mflArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the silicon bulk Ldiffis an important characteristicof optoelectronic devices fabricated from low cost silicon wafers. In this study computer simulationshave been carried out to calculate the beneficial effects of a macroscopic surface texturization on thecharge carrier generation and the collection probability. Textured solar cells should be able tocollect charge carriers more effectively resulting in an increased current due to the special emittergeometry resulting from the texture, decreased reflection losses, and the inclined penetration of thelight. In order to prove this expected behavior, deeply V-textured solar cells have been processedand characterized on low cost silicon reaching an Ldiffof about 25 mm. Spatially resolved highresolution measurements of the internal quantum efficiency exhibit a strongly increased signal in thetexture tips which is the first experimental proof of the increased charge carrier collectionprobability of deeply textured solar cells. This effect can further be seen in cross sectional electronbeam induced current measurements and the mechanical texture results in an overall gain in shortcircuit current density of about 11% and in efficiency of about 8% relatively.

  • 6.
    Inglese, Alessandro
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Vahlman, Henri
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in p-type siliconstudied by injection- and temperature-dependent lifetime spectroscopy2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, nr 12, artikel-id 125703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Jackman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes in the rippled and buckled phase2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, nr 8, s. 084318-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the mechanical behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for bending strains beyond the onset for rippling and buckling. We found a characteristic drop in the bending stiffness at the rippling and buckling onset and the relative retained stiffness was dependent on the nanotube dimensions and crystallinity. Thin tubes are more prone to buckle, where some lose all of their bending stiffness, while thicker tubes are more prone to ripple and on average retain about 20\% of their bending stiffness. In defect rich tubes the bending stiffness is very low prior to rippling but these tubes retain up to 70\% of their initial bending stiffness.

  • 8.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik. Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Boulfrad, Yacine
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Savin, Hele
    Preventing light-induced degradation in multicrystalline silicon2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, nr 15, artikel-id 154902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Fenning, David P.
    Backlund, Daniel J.
    Verlage, Erik
    Gorgulla, Angelika
    Estreicher, Stefan K.
    Savin, Hele
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Nickel: A very fast diffuser in silicon2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 20, artikel-id 204906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Finland.
    Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 23, artikel-id 234901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Wiklund, S.
    Interface formation of Bi on ceramic ZnO : A simple model varistor grainboundary1994Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 76, s. 7405-7409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12. McHugo, S. A.
    et al.
    Thompson, A. C.
    Mohammed, A.
    Lamble, G.
    Perichaud, I.
    Martinuzzi, S.
    Werner, M.
    Rinio, Markus
    Institute for Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Silbermannstr. 1, D-09596 Freiberg, Germany .
    Koch, Wolfgang
    Hoefs, H.-U.
    Häßler, Christian
    Nanometer–scale metal precipitates in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2001Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 89, nr 8, s. 4282-4288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have utilized characterization methods to identify the nature of metal impurityprecipitates in low performance regions of multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Specifically, we haveutilized synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy to study theelemental and chemical nature of these impurity precipitates, respectively. We have detectednanometer-scale precipitates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Au in multicrystalline silicon materials from avariety of solar cell manufacturers. Additionally, we have obtained a direct correlation between theimpurity precipitates and regions of low light-induced current, providing direct proof that metalimpurities play a significant role in the performance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells.Furthermore, we have identified the chemical state of iron precipitates in the low-performanceregions. These results indicate that the iron precipitates are in the form of oxide or silicatecompound. These compounds are highly stable and cannot be removed with standard siliconprocessing, indicating remediation efforts via impurity removal need to be improved. Futureimprovements to multicrystalline silicon solar cell performance can be best obtained by inhibitingoxygen and metal impurity introduction as well as modifying thermal treatments during crystalgrowth to avoid oxide or silicate formation.

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