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  • 1.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Cost-benefit analysis: Leakage reduction by rehabilitating old water pipelines: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2012Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 277-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in water and wastewater treatment, as cost components: Case study of Oslo, Norway2011Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 189-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting a systems-approach to an urban water and wastewater system, while applying a triple bottom line strategy to management, entails a careful analysis of all the sub-systems and components thereof with a view to improving service levels, optimising expenditure, augmenting investments, and also reducing the life-cycle environmental impacts associated with setting up, maintaining and operating the system. The scope for optimising expenses is system-wide, though it varies from one sub-system to another, depending on inherent lock-ins and external factors beyond the direct control of the water and wastewater utility. Optimising the consumption of energy and chemicals and improving the cost-efficiency thereof, is always on the agenda of water treatment plants (WTPs) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper analyses the consumption of and the expenditure on chemicals and energy at Oslo's WTPs and WWTPs over time. Energy and chemicals for water and wastewater treatment, on an average account for 10.8% of the total operational expenses in the water supply sub-system and 13.7% for the wastewater handling sub-system. There is a perceptible increase in this share from 5.2% in 2004 to 14.9% in 2009 for water and 12.3% to 14.2% for wastewater. Chemicals cost more than energy for the WWTPs, while it was the other way round for the WTPs. The total real cost of energy and chemicals per cubic metre, in year-2007 currency, was between 4 and 5.2 Euro cents for the WTPs, and between 1 and 4.5 Euro cents for the WTPs. The total (WTP + WWTP) per-capita real costs of energy and chemicals, expressed in year-2007 currency, rose from around 10 Euros in year 2000 to about 12.2 Euros in year 2007.

  • 3.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    NTNU, Norway.
    Sægrov, Sveinung
    NTNU, Norway.
    Behzadian, Kouroush
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Kapelan, Zoran
    Metabolism-modelling approaches to long-term sustainability assessment of urban water services2015Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a discernible need for a holistic, long-term and sustainability approach in decision-making in water and wastewater utilities around the world. Metabolism-based modelling, which can quantify various flows within an urban water system (UWS), has shown its effective usability for a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of intervention strategies and can be used by any water utility for future planning of UWS. This study presents the main principles of a holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework which can be simulated by using two analytical, conceptual, mass-balance-based models to quantify relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) associated with the metabolic flows of the urban water cycle. These two models are WaterMet2 (WM2) and dynamic metabolism model (DMM), developed recently under the aegis of the EU TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) project. There are clear differences between the two models which make them useful in different contexts and circumstantial situations. DMM is a mass-balance consistent model which quantifies and presents annually-aggregated performance values for system wide energy consumption, emissions, environmental impacts and costs for the entire UWS though it is also possible to derive corresponding indicators for individual sub-systems (e.g. water distribution and wastewater transport). WM2 is the opposite of this, it is a distributed metabolism model which simulates water related and other resource flows throughout the UWS components with a higher resolution both spatially (e.g. multiple water resources and service reservoirs) and temporally (e.g. daily and monthly), and thereby is useful in contexts where utilities would like to focus on further details of the UWS metabolism with the aim to understand and solve specific problems. Overall, these two complementary metabolism-based approaches enable any water utility to quantitatively explore and understand the influences of different external drivers and intervention strategies on future performance profiles linked to any physical, environmental and economic criteria.

  • 4.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Hammervold, Johanne
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Methodology for determining life-cycle environmental impacts due to material and energy flows in wastewater pipeline networks: A case study of Oslo (Norway)2011Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 119-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Pauliuk, Stefan
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ind Ecol Programme, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Muller, Daniel B.
    Exploring urban mines: Pipe length and material stocks in urban water and wastewater networks2014Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 274-283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Ugarelli, Rita
    et al.
    Bologna university, Bologna, Italy.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Di Federico, Vittorio
    Bologna university, Bologna, Italy.
    Saegrov, Sveinung
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Historical analysis of blockages in wastewater pipelines in Oslo and diagnosis of causative pipeline characteristics.2010Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 335-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Oslo is evaluating strategies for the selection of appropriate materials for the pipelines and manholes of its wastewater network. The overarching motive is to minimise construction-related failures over the system lifetime and also ensure that it is able to avert flooding events. This paper analyses the blockage records of the last 16 years (1991-2006) in the wastewater pipeline network of Oslo. For the purpose of the analysis, the pipeline stock is categorised on the basis of pipe diameter, material of fabrication, slope and age. Proneness to blockages is studied and attempts are made to correlate the same to the size, material, slope and age. The analyses performed confirm that older and small diameter sewage pipelines made of concrete, laid almost horizontal to the ground surface are the high-priority candidates, and more importantly enables one to compare among the different categories and classes of pipelines.

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