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  • 1.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 2, article id 1700493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

  • 2.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Recombination in ingot cast siliconsolar cells2011In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 760-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority carrier recombination is studied in multicrystalline ingot cast silicon solar cells. The normalized recombination strength G of dislocations is obtained by correlating topogramsof the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with those of the dislocation densityr.G is obtained by fitting an extended theory of Donolato to the experimental data. The measured G-values vary significantly between adjacent dislocation clusters and correlate with the spatial pattern of the dislocations. All G-values are strongly dependent on the parameters of the solar cell process. The influence of phosphorus diffusion and hydrogenation is shown. After solidification of the silicon, impurities from the crucible enter the ingot and deteriorate its border regions during cooling to room temperature. These deteriorated border regions can be significantly improved byan additional low temperature anneal that is applied after phosphorus diffusion. The experiments indicate that the mechanism of the anneal is external phosphorus gettering into the emitter.

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