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  • 1.
    Gustavsson, Anders
    et al.
    I3 Innovus, Stockholm.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Jacobi, Frank
    Allgulander, Christer
    Alonso, Jordi
    Beghi, Ettore
    Dodel, Richard
    Ekman, Mattias
    Faravelli, Carlo
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Gannon, Brenda
    Jones, David Hilton
    Jennum, Poul
    Jordanova, Albena
    Jönsson, Linus
    Karampampa, Korinna
    Knapp, Martin
    Kobelt, Gisela
    Kurth, Tobias
    Lieb, Roselind
    Linde, Mattias
    Ljungcrantz, Christina
    Maercker, Andreas
    Melin, Beatrice
    Moscarelli, Massimo
    Musayev, Amir
    Norwood, Fiona
    Preisig, Martin
    Pugliatti, Maura
    Rehm, Juergen
    Salvador-Carulla, Luis
    Schlehofer, Brigitte
    Simon, Roland
    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Vallat, Jean-Michel
    Van den Bergh, Peter
    den Bergh, Peter Van
    van Os, Jim
    Vos, Pieter
    Xu, Weili
    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
    Jönsson, Bengt
    Olesen, Jes
    Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.2011Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 718-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.

    AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.

    METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.

    RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.

    DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.

    RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.

  • 2.
    Gustavsson, Anders
    et al.
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Jacobi, Frank
    Germany.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Alonso, Jordi
    Spain.
    Beghi, Ettore
    Ist Mario Negri, Lab Malottie Neurol, Milan, Italy..
    Dodel, Richard
    Univ Marburg, Dept Neurol Marburg, D-35032 Marburg, Germany..
    Ekman, Mattias
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Faravelli, Carlo
    Italy.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Karolinska Institute.
    Gannon, Brenda
    England.
    Jones, David Hilton
    England.
    Jennum, Pout
    Denmark.
    Jordanova, Albena
    Belgium.;Bulgaria.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karampampa, Korinna
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knapp, Martin
    Belgium.
    Kobelt, Gisela
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;European Hlth Econ, Mulhouse, France..
    Kurth, Tobias
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Lieb, Roselind
    Univ Basel, Dept Psychol, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland..
    Linde, Mattias
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.;St Olavs Hosp, Div Neurol & Neurophysiol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Ljungcrantz, Christina
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Maercker, Andreas
    Univ Zurich, Dept Psychol, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umea Univ, Dept Oncol, Umea, Sweden..
    Moscarelli, Massimo
    USA.
    Musayev, Amir
    Optumlnsight, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norwood, Fiona
    England.
    Preisig, Martin
    Switzerland.
    Pugliatti, Maura
    Italy.
    Rehm, Juergen
    Canada.
    Salvador-Carulla, Luis
    Spain.
    Schlehofer, Brigitte
    Germany.
    Simon, Roland
    Portugal.
    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
    Denmark, Switzerland.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Norway.
    Vallat, Jean-Michel
    France.
    Van den Bergh, Peter
    Belgium.
    van Os, Jim
    England.
    Vos, Pieter E.
    Netherlands.
    Xu, Weili
    Karolinska Institute.
    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
    Germany.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Olesen, Jes
    Denmark.
    Corrigendum to “Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010” [Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 21 (2011) 718–779]2012Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 237-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.

  • 3. Wittchen, H U
    et al.
    Jacobi, F
    Rehm, J
    Gustavsson, A
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Jönsson, B
    Olesen, J
    Allgulander, C
    Alonso, J
    Faravelli, C
    Fratiglioni, L
    Jennum, P
    Lieb, R
    Maercker, A
    van Os, J
    Preisig, M
    Salvador-Carulla, L
    Simon, R
    Steinhausen, H-C
    The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.2011Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 655-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU.

    METHOD: Stepwise multi-method approach, consisting of systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of existing data sets, national surveys and expert consultations. Studies and data from all member states of the European Union (EU-27) plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway were included. Supplementary information about neurological disorders is provided, although methodological constraints prohibited the derivation of overall prevalence estimates for mental and neurological disorders. Disease burden was measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY).

    RESULTS: Prevalence: It is estimated that each year 38.2% of the EU population suffers from a mental disorder. Adjusted for age and comorbidity, this corresponds to 164.8million persons affected. Compared to 2005 (27.4%) this higher estimate is entirely due to the inclusion of 14 new disorders also covering childhood/adolescence as well as the elderly. The estimated higher number of persons affected (2011: 165m vs. 2005: 82m) is due to coverage of childhood and old age populations, new disorders and of new EU membership states. The most frequent disorders are anxiety disorders (14.0%), insomnia (7.0%), major depression (6.9%), somatoform (6.3%), alcohol and drug dependence (>4%), ADHD (5%) in the young, and dementia (1-30%, depending on age). Except for substance use disorders and mental retardation, there were no substantial cultural or country variations. Although many sources, including national health insurance programs, reveal increases in sick leave, early retirement and treatment rates due to mental disorders, rates in the community have not increased with a few exceptions (i.e. dementia). There were also no consistent indications of improvements with regard to low treatment rates, delayed treatment provision and grossly inadequate treatment. Disability: Disorders of the brain and mental disorders in particular, contribute 26.6% of the total all cause burden, thus a greater proportion as compared to other regions of the world. The rank order of the most disabling diseases differs markedly by gender and age group; overall, the four most disabling single conditions were: depression, dementias, alcohol use disorders and stroke.

    CONCLUSION: In every year over a third of the total EU population suffers from mental disorders. The true size of "disorders of the brain" including neurological disorders is even considerably larger. Disorders of the brain are the largest contributor to the all cause morbidity burden as measured by DALY in the EU. No indications for increasing overall rates of mental disorders were found nor of improved care and treatment since 2005; less than one third of all cases receive any treatment, suggesting a considerable level of unmet needs. We conclude that the true size and burden of disorders of the brain in the EU was significantly underestimated in the past. Concerted priority action is needed at all levels, including substantially increased funding for basic, clinical and public health research in order to identify better strategies for improved prevention and treatment for disorders of the brain as the core health challenge of the 21st century.

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