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  • 1.
    Aarnio-Linnanvuori, Essi
    University of Helsinki.
    Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2013:1, s. 131-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what environmental education can be in societal school subjects. The environmental texts in textbooks do not always draw on the specific content of the societal subject in question but repeat content from the natural sciences. Therefore, I suggest contexts and perspectives for discussing environmental issues that would comport with these subjects and supplement existing environmental education at school.

  • 2.
    Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Barn och fred. En pilotstudie om förskolebarns förståelse av fred2018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:4, s. 65-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt FN:s mål om hållbar utveckling (Agenda 2030) betonas bland annat främjandet av en kultur av fred och icke-våld. Utvecklingen i finländska styrdokument för förskolan visar däremot att temat fred har nedtonats. Denna studie vill genom ämnesdidaktisk samverkan mellan bildkonst och religion synliggöra 6-åringars förståelse av fred, deras sätt att samtala om och i teckningar gestalta ett liv i fred med varandra. Den kvalitativa temaanalysen visade att barn i denna pilotstudie förstår fred som tillstånd, fred som relationer, fred som förhandlingar och fred som möte och handling. Samtal kring barnens teckningar och de visuella konkretiseringarna stöder tolkningen. Pilotstudien har genom pedagogiska och ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv på lärande för fred uppmärksammat vikten av att barns lärandeprocesser om fred, icke-våld och globalt medborgaskap behöver beakta kravet på tid, rum, språk och struktur för interaktion, tolkning, fördjupning och handling.

  • 3.
    Ahonen, Sirkka
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Kan ett inbördeskrig försonas i ett historieklassrum? Teori och praktik2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:3, s. 19-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing Post-Conflict Reconciliation in a History Classroom. Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    In a post-conflict society, history education may prolong the conflict on a symbolical level by fostering biased narratives of guilt and victimhood. To avoid this it is necessary to open and maintain a reconciling dialogue in history classrooms. The theory of deliberative communication, launched by Jürgen Habermas, has been applied to pedagogy by Tomas Englund. Deliberative pedagogical discourse implies an equal distribution of power in classroom interaction. Predetermined standpoints are avoided and majority decisions not pursued. Participants are expected to listen to each other instead of rushing to express their individual opinion. Deliberative discussion is founded on the ethos of social inclusion. Three concrete cases illustrate the chances of dialogical history education in post-conflict societies: Finland after the civil war of 1918, South Africa after the end of apartheid, and Bosnia-Hercegovina after the war of 1992–1995. South Africa provides the only example of a prompt post-conflict introduction of dialogical history education. The Afrikaner narrative of heroism and victimhood was after 1994 reserved a place in the new post-colonial history curriculum at the side of the narratives of apartheid and the Black resistance. The viability of dialogical history education has been monitored by attitude surveys. South African surveys reveal that dialogue does not inevitably rule out an identification with the traditional identity narratives. In Bosnia-Herzegovina only little has been achieved in introducing a dialogue in history education but there are signs of students, parents and teachers aspiring to inclusive lessons. The reconciliatory potential imbedded in the multiperspectival nature of the historical knowledge is available in history education.

  • 4.
    Ahonen, Sirkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Post-Conflict History Education in Finland, South Africa and Bosnia-Herzegovina2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 90-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A post-conflict society tends to get locked in a history war. As the practice of history in its broad sense is a moral craft, representations of guilt and victimhood prevail in social memory. The representations are often bolstered by mythical references, wherefore deconstruction of myths is expected from history education for the purposes of post-conflict reconciliation. This article deals with the post-conflict uses of history in Finland, South Africa and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The three cases constitute examples of a class war, a race conflict and an ethno-religious armed clash. The memory politics and history curricula differ between the cases. Their comparison indicates, how far an imposition of one ´truth´, a dialogue of two ´truths´ and segregation of different memory communities are feasible strategies of post-conflict history education. The article suggests that history lessons can be an asset instead of a liability in the pursuit of reconciliation.

  • 5.
    Aldrin, Viktor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Aldrin, Emilia
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hur förmedlas kristendomen i läromedelstexter för gymnasieskolan? En ideologikritisk analys2018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:2, s. 23-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at investigating how the image of the religion of Christianity is constructed in Swedish textbooks for the Upper Secondary School (gymnasieskolan), with a specific focus on the perspective from which the text considers the religion and how this perspective creates possibilities for and limitations of pupils’ identification. Introductions of Christianity through text and images were selected from six current textbooks; five printed and one digital. The method used for analysis was ideological text criticism with a combination of Linguistic and Theological perspectives. Three aspects were highlighted in the analysis: interest making strategies, demands of previous knowledge, and subject perspectives. The study showed that the examined texts did not express Christianity as the cultural norm as considered in previous research. Instead there seemed to be an ambivalence in the perspective from which the textbooks considered the religion. Demands of previous knowledge as well as subject positions varied highly both within and between textbooks.

  • 6.
    Alvén, Fredrik
    Malmö universitet.
    Var framtiden bättre förr? Temporal orientering i skolpolitiska dokument2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:2, s. 1-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study of how the purpose of school in general and the civic education in particular has been told at the formal curricula. The used material are governmental documents about the compulsory school. The method used emanates from the concept of historical consciousness. It is however the concept´s narrative and temporal content that is the starting point, when David Carr´s theory of lived stories is used to understand temporal perceptions behind the formal curricula. Two time periods with different purposes for the school and the civic education, emanating from different temporal orientations, have been found, namely 1969-1980 and 1994-2011. During the first time period the temporal orientation was rather short in time, and the future vision clear. The purpose of school and civic education were told to prepare the citizens to cooperate in labour intensive workingplaces. Cooperation and willingness to defer to the collective, were the most important abilities. During the second time period the temporal orientation becomes more prolonged, a distant past was used to meet an uncertain future. The purpose of school and civic education were now told to foster a western moral cultural heritage together with a new creative entrepreneurial spirit.

  • 7.
    Ammert, Niklas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Kakoulidou, Kristina
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Rapport från XIII:e konferensen med Nationella nätverket för historiedidaktisk forskning, 8-10 maj 2019, Linnéuniversitetet2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:2, s. 209-211Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Arrhenius, Mattias
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Datorbaserade animationer i geografiundervisningen. En studie om gymnasieelevers lärande i mötet med datorbaserade animationer om bergartscykeln. Recension av Eva Lundqvist2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2, s. 165-167Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bagoly-Simó, Péter
    et al.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Uhlenwinkel, Anke
    Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.
    Why Physical Geography? An analysis of justifications in teacher magazines in Germany2016Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:1, s. 23-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    School geography is often quite different from academic geography and there are good reasons for that, as school is preparing young people to be able to lead the life they value instead of just training them to learn specific subject contents. In some countries school geography is understood as being mainly a social science. Nonetheless physical geography often plays an important part in textbooks and in everyday teaching in these countries. This presentation will examine how physical geography topics are justified in specialist teacher magazines in Germany. Are they justified by simply pointing at the value of the academic knowledge itself? Are they justified by claiming students’ special interest in these topics? Or are they justified by showing the value of physical geography in promoting social aims such as sustainable development, freedom or equality?

  • 10.
    Bahous, Rima
    et al.
    Lebanese American University, Lebanon.
    Nabhani, Mona
    Lebanese American University, Lebanon.
    Rabo, Annika
    Stockholm University.
    Parochial education in a global world? Teaching history and civics in Lebanon2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2013:1, s. 57-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory article is based on a researchproject which runs 2011-2013 that examines how global processes are expressedin educational policies and pedagogical texts in Lebanon, Sweden and Turkey byfocusing on school subjects like civics, history, geography, and religion. In thistext we discuss the development ofeducation in Lebanon, the development of history and civics after the civilwar, and on opinions about these school subjects in order to make a preliminaryanalysis of how the future Lebanese citizen is depicted in policies,curricula, and textbooks. Lebanon is interesting because of its uniqueeducation system in which foreign international institutions rather thannational ones have the task of preparing individuals for a globalized world.Material for the study were collected from a sample of curricula used inprivate and public or national schools for history and civics/citizenshipeducation in grade 8 as well as interviews and conference proceedings andconversations with activists, teachers and principals. We also reviewedfindings of relevant empirical studies conducted in Lebanon. Our datacollection was guided by three questions: how is the right citizen depicted inthe Lebanese material? How is the relationship between national and globalperspectives treated in guidance documents and pedagogical texts? What civicrights and obligations are given attention and what individuals are included/excluded? Our preliminary findings imply that there is no consensus on theimportance of teaching a unified history and civics book and subjects inLebanon. Other findings indicate that private and international schools have agreater impact than national schools on preparing Lebanese students as futurecitizens. 

  • 11.
    Behnke, Yvonne
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    How textbook design may influence learning with geography textbooks2016Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:1, s. 38-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how textbook design may influence students’ visual attention to graphics, photos and text in current geography textbooks. Eye tracking, a visual method of data collection and analysis, was utilised to precisely monitor students’ eye movements while observing geography textbook spreads. In an exploratory study utilising random sampling, the eye movements of 20 students (secondary school students 15–17 years of age and university students 20–24 years of age) were recorded. The research entities were double-page spreads of current German geography textbooks covering an identical topic, taken from five separate textbooks. A two-stage test was developed. Each participant was given the task of first looking at the entire textbook spread to determine what was being explained on the pages. In the second stage, participants solved one of the tasks from the exercise section. Overall, each participant studied five different textbook spreads and completed five set tasks. After the eye tracking study, each participant completed a questionnaire. The results may verify textbook design as one crucial factor for successful knowledge acquisition from textbooks. Based on the eye tracking documentation, learning-related challenges posed by images and complex image-text structures in textbooks are elucidated and related to educational psychology insights and findings from visual communication and textbook analysis.

  • 12. Berg, Mikael
    Historielärares historier: Ämnesbiografi och ämnesförståelse hos gymnasielärare i historia: Recension av David Ludvigsson2011Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 80-83Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Bergström, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ekström, Linda
    Stockholms Universitet.
    "Att lyssna på lärarna" – en metodologisk utmaning2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 120-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher education today is expected to strongly focus on pedagogical content knowledge. This means, among other things, increased attention to practice. However, how practice is to be analyzed and for what purpose practice is analyzed is still up for debate. In this article we turn to the growing field of civics didactics to shed light on these questions. The analysis is based on a qualitative content analysis of twelve Swedish dissertations in civics didactics. Our findings suggest that the field of civics didactics has contributed with important suggestions on how practice and academic knowledge may enrich each other. However, we also find that the ways that practice has been analyzed are characterized by methodological challenges. To overcome these, and to contribute to the civics didactics research and future independent research projects within the teacher education, we call for a broader research agenda. This means a stronger focus on methodological questions, on other kinds of research projects and on developing the practice of teaching, rather than solely describing it.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ekström, Linda
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Mellan ämne och didaktik – om ämnesteorins roll inom samhällskunskapsdidaktiken2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 93-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogical content knowledge is generally understood as a "bridge" between content and pedagogy, and therefore assumed to be theoretically informed by theories on both the content knowledge in question, and on general pedagogical knowledge. In this article we analyze whether this bridge exists in eleven Swedish civic didactics dissertations. This is done by developing a typology of how theory is used in relation to research problems and analytical frameworks. Our findings suggest that theories on content knowledge are downplayed in favor of pedagogical theories. We argue the need for strengthening the pillar of content knowledge, benefitting both research and teaching.

  • 15.
    Bergum Johanson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Pedersen, Helge Christian
    UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    «La elva leve»: Alta-saken som rollespill i historieundervisninga2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:2, s. 72-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual staging of a role play for school pupils called “La elva leve” (‘Let the River Live’) at Alta museum addresses the conflict over the building of a hydroelectric power plant in the Alta-Kautokeino watercourse between 1978-82. The confrontation has an important legacy, not least by bringing the issue of Sámi Indigenous rights into the national limelight. This article discusses how the role play might serve as a starting point for teaching pupils about the conflict’s consequences for Sámi rights, and interrogates the degree to which this kind of role play might benefit the pupils’ awareness of history. Drawing on observations and interviews, we found that the pupils were strongly engaged in the play and that they found it both interesting and educational. However, while they also gained more knowledge about the conflict itself, there was little evidence that they connected the conflict to the Sámi struggle for indigenous rights, or that their historical consciousness expanded significantly.

  • 16.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Gullberg, Tom
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Hilli, Charlotta
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Mot en ämnesintegrativ helhetssyn – ett digitalt utvecklingsprojekt i finländsk lärarutbildning2014Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. 170-187-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The school teaching in Finland is traditionally divided into different subject lessons. Although several curricula for decades have stressed the importance of integrating subjects to each other, the didactical development of subject integrated teaching has been quite week. The authors of this article are all involved in the training of subject teachers for the Swedish schools in Finland. The article stresses the importance of integrating subject content knowledge into value education. With the theoretical discussion as a starting point, the authors describe their subject integrated project for student teachers in history, social science, religion, philosophy and literature. During the working process it was obvious that the student teachers used their own subject content knowledge, but as they worked in mixed subject groups, they also realized how to co-operate and ask questions to persons with other kinds of subject content knowledge and perspectives. It was challenging for the student teachers to combine new subject integrated perspectives with new digital methods, but considering the ambitions of the curricula, these kinds of integrated processes seems to be important in teacher training.

  • 17.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Molin, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala University.
    Research on Geography Education. Introduction to Nordidactica 2016:12016Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:1, s. i-viArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Blanck, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Lödën, Hans
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Med samhället i centrum – Medborgarskapsutbildningen och samhällskunskapsämnets relevans2017Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, s. 28-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to suggest "society" and "social analytical thinking" as the core concepts for the social science (Swedish: samhällskunskap) subject. Thus, the article contributes to the ongoing research debate on social science education by exploring the question whether social science is at risk of losing its position as the central citizenship subject in Swedish school. This risk is problematized and discussed. The authors argue that the relevance of the social science subject matter would be clarified and strengthened by making "society" and "social analytical thinking" into the core concepts of the subject. The proposal means that the scientific disciplines (i.e., political science, sociology, economics and law) that contribute to the social sciences subject by relating to these concepts can clarify the discipline-specific knowledge and perspectives that are considered crucial for a society to be formed and survive. The article also discusses community engagement and what may be a relevant level of ambition for compulsory citizenship education, from the perspective of the citizen as "a reflective spectator". The possibilities to develop the pupils' community, or social, engagement is illustrated by means of current Swedish classroom research on teachers' use of concepts and social analytical thinking in teaching.

  • 19.
    Broman, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet Odense, University of Southern Denmark.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    Syddansk Universitet Odense, University of Southern Denmark.
    Introduction 2013:1 Globalization and School Subjects2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2013:1, s. i-viiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Bråten, Oddrun M.H.
    Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim.
    Research on Religious Education in Nordic Countries: Introduction to Nordidactica 2015:22015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. i-viiiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of the journal Nordidactica focuses on research in the field of religious education (RE). In Oddrun M. H. Bråten’s article, a methodology for comparative studies is presented and a comparative analysis conducted, centering on the use of the concepts of ‘learning about and from’ in Religious Education in England and Norway. In Jonathan Doney’s article we can read about the impact of the Ecumenical movement on the history of RE in England. Elisabet Haakedal discusses and compares two action research projects. Martin Ubani and a team of Finnish researchers present findings from research on RE teacher students. Gunnar J. Gunnarson and colleagues present findings from a study of Icelandic youths in a plural society, where they use theory of friendship and fear. Kathrine Kjærgaard provides us with insights into Greenlandic RE. In Mette Buchardt’s article, we can read about the role of Cultural Protestantism in developments in RE in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Together these articles give a glimpse into the rich area of RE research today. In this introduction, I present the articles before offering some perspectives on the texts, promoting a more general discussion using my methodology as an analytical device.

  • 21.
    Bråten, Oddrun M.H.
    Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim.
    Should there be wonder and awe? A three-dimensional and four levels comparative methodology used to discuss the "learning from" aspect of English and Norwegian RE2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I will discuss how the idea of ‘learning about and from’ religion in Religious Education (RE) exist in both the English and Norwegian context. A main purpose of this article is to present a suggested template for comparative studies in religious education, where the discussion of this particular issue serves as example of how this can be applied. This template is a synthesis of two sets of ideas. The first is an idea of three dimensions in comparative education: supranational, national and sub-national processes. The second is the idea of levels of curriculum: societal, institutional, instructional and experiential. A basic criterion for my concept of comparative studies is a conception of comparative studies as studies of developments in specific countries/ nations in a supranational perspective. This methodology provides a framework for capturing different levels of national processes within a supranational context, which I believe are relevant for further international and comparative studies of religion in education.

  • 22.
    Buchardt, Mette
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Cultural Protestantism and Nordic Religious Education: An incision in the historical layers behind the Nordic Welfare state model2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 131-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed to a model of religious education which in complex ways combines secularization in the meaning of division of the church-state relation with sacralization of the state and its so-called culture.

  • 23.
    Buchardt, Mette
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark. A historical and institutional perspective on an epistemological discussion2017Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 49-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish University of Education in 2000. The article situates his doctoral dissertation "The school for life. Studies concerning the pedagogical ideas of N. F. S. Grundtvig" (1965) in its institutional context and compares the forms of knowledge it produced with three PhD dissertations defended during the 2000s and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus will be on the relation between the academic disciplines studying religion and the educational sciences in their many disciplinary forms and on the relation between the field of sciences and the field of educational practice.

  • 24.
    Bøndergaard Butters, Nanna
    Børne- og ungdomsforvaltningen, Københavns Kommune.
    Når elever gør kultur og bruger historie2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:3, s. 53-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Students Do Culture and Use History

    The article discusses the production and reproduction of cultural identities, cultural communities, cultural experiences and differences in three different history classrooms. The empirical case study material consists of observations followed by three individual interviews with history teachers. The setting is an urban Danish public school, with 60 per cent plurilingual students. Central analytical concepts are derived from social constructivism and, in particular, a dynamic and complex understanding of culture. History is here understood as a subject in which culture is preserved and transmitted but also as a subject in which culture and identities are developed, negotiated and differentiated. The article suggests that intercultural history education should be about making the students aware of these processes as they take place during history lessons, as metareflection on the historical knowledge construction process. The empirical case study suggests this is not yet the case as teachers’ intentions to implement intercultural perspectives are challenged by curricular demands.

  • 25.
    Børhaug, Kjetil
    University of Bergen.
    Watching, assessing, participating.: Globalising political education in Norwegian upper secondary education2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:1, s. 17-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transnational governance is expanding rapidly. From a political education perspective, an important question is to what extent and how these are included in the political universe that adolescents are being prepared for at school. Of particular interest is social science, which is part of social studies in primary and lower secondary school, before it develops into a variety of social science courses in upper secondary school. Including the transnational level in political education may mean critical thinking about current transnational issues as well as understanding how to participate politically with a transnational aim. Are these elements included in Norwegian political education in social science at school? And if so, is such participation related to notions of influence, power and conflicting interests? Or are notions of participation based on classical idealism? The research method is an analysis of selected social science textbooks in Norwegian upper secondary education. Textbooks are not assumed to determine teaching, but they are assumed to frame the field within which teachers develop their practice. The analysis shows that in the textbooks political education is expanded to a transnational level, where both political judgement of issues as well as participation are elaborated upon.

  • 26.
    Christensen, Anders Stig
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Demokrati- og medborgerskabsbegreber i grundskolens samfundsfag i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Tyskland2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 64-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizenship education and social science education aims at preparing the students for participation in the development of democratic societies. But which concept of democracy is the education based on, and aimed at? This article takes as its point of departure a discussion of concepts of democracy/citizenship including liberal, communitarian, republican and deliberative democracy. Through an analysis of curricula from social science education or citizenship education in lower secondary schools in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and politische Bildung (political education) in Berlin-Brandenburg, it is discussed which concepts of citizenship prevail in these, and, in the case of Denmark and Sweden, how these have developed in the last 40 years. Furthermore it is discussed, with reference to the German "Beutelsbacher-Konsensus" whether the citizenship education should be aimed at one concept of democracy if this concept is contested in itself.

  • 27.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Editorial 2014:2 To stærke tendenser i Nordidactica – temanumre og artikler af enkeltforskere2014Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:2, s. i-ivArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk universitet Odense.
    Editorial 2015:1: Fagdidaktiske artikler i religion geografi, historie og samfundsfag og review af svenske samfundsfagsdidaktiske afhandlinger2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. i-iiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense.
    Interdisciplinaritet – en udfordring til fagdidaktikken2014Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. i-xivArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This editorial outlines a theoretical, general didactical framework for analysing demands for interdisciplinarity that we see arising in the school system, and why they occur. It also outlines a theoretical, subject specific didactically framework for analysing challenges school subjects are facing when meet with the requirement of interdisciplinarity. The intention is to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the theme of interdisciplinarity in Social Science Education in primary and secondary education and also to set a frame which cuts across the questions taken up in the various articles of this issue. It thus provides a scaffold for transverse reflections on general and subject specific didactic problems related to interdisciplinarity in primary and secondary education and in teacher training programmes. We also give short introductions to how each article in Nordidactica 2014:1 contributes to the theme of interdisciplinarity. For more adequate introductions we refer to the abstracts of the articles themselves.

  • 30.
    Dessingué, Alexandre
    University of Stavanger.
    Dynamisk kulturarv, kritisk literacy og (fler)kulturforståelse i norsk grunnskole?2016Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:2, s. 22-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 and 2011 several political leaders in Europe took distance from the multicultural society model. The concept of cultural heritage has been central to this political debate. But this concept is also central in education and actively used both in the general part of the curriculum in Norway and also in the curricula of several subjects. This article examines how «cultural heritage» is defined and used in three central curricula: Norwegian, Religious Studies and Ethics (KRLE), and Social Sciences, at a macro level (subject’s purpose) and also at a micro level (learning outcomes). To analyze how this concept is used in these curricula is an important premise for being able to think critically about this concept within the classroom. It also creates a better prerequisite for understanding the extent to which these subjects are focusing on a more or less dynamic and inclusive understanding of identity, as well as a self-reflexive and critical skills development

  • 31.
    Doney, Jonathan
    University of Exeter.
    How did it become possible? Supranational Ecumenical developments and changes in Religious Education during the 1960s and 1970s2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 24-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing historiographies of Religious Education (RE) are often written from within national boundaries, reflecting the particular relationship between church and state within those bounded spaces; further, they often focus on the question ‘what happened?’. During the 1960s significant developments took place in the supranational discourse of Christian ecumenism, including the expansion of dialogue between Christians and those of other worldviews (both religious and non-religious) particularly as a result of the Second Vatican Council (1962-5) and the work of the World Council of Churches (established 1948). These supranational ecumenical discourses transcend national boundaries and thus have potential to influence even the most nationally-orientated educational systems. However, their significance has hitherto been overlooked. Using a method derived from the historical work of Michel Foucault, which focuses on the question ‘how did this become possible?’, this paper demonstrates the extent to which an awareness of supranational ecumenical discourses enriches understandings of the development of World Religions Teaching in Religious Education. The English context is used as an exemplar, through a single case study, and the potential of the approach is discussed in relation to other national contexts.

  • 32.
    Duesund, Knut
    Högskolan i Telemark.
    Is There a Potential for Norway to Learn from the Ethics Education in the Educational System of India?2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2013:2, s. 142-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the on-going debate about how the Norwegian educational system can meet increasing diversity in schools. The focus here is to investigate ethics education in the Indian educational system and thereafter discuss to what extent Norway can learn from India. The background study in India was carried out to clarify the justification for, content of and pedagogy for ethics education and draws attention to the intended as well as the implemented sector of education. The following discussion highlights the main findings from the background study and relates these findings both to the current discussion in Norway and to international research in the field. The article concludes that Norway would do well to consider what can be learned from the Indian approach to ethics education in order to meet the challenges of the increasing diversity in the Norwegian schools.

  • 33.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Södertörns högskola.
    Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths2013Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’) delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

  • 34.
    Eliasson, Per
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Nordgren, Kenneth
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Vilka är förutsättningarna i svensk grundskola för en interkulturell historieundervisning?2016Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:2, s. 47-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first major quantitative study of how teachers at the compulsory school look at the subject of History and its conditions. The article focuses on elements of the survey related to the content of teaching and how teachers perceive the conditions for the intercultural mission of the subject. The historical content in the form of selected time periods and geographic focus forms a clear canon: in grades 1–3 local history and Swedish history, in 4–6 Swedish and Nordic history, and in 7–9 Western European history with global, but mainly Eurocentric, outlooks. In terms of students’ skills to interpret history they encounter the result is to some extent contradictory. Empathy and critical thinking are highly valued but the actual work to develop these abilities is of lesser importance. Instead, storytelling is stressed as the major form of education. Teachers in grades 7–9 emphasize that long lines of development are important in their teaching. History’s orienting function leans more to the future and contemporary perspectives in grades 7–9, while students’ perspective on their own historical background ranked highest in 1–3 and 4–6. Future and contemporary issues are highlighted as a pattern in which racism and xenophobia become more important in higher grades while environmental issues decrease in importance. Multiculturalism and diversity issues occupy an intermediate position in this context but are perceived as important by teachers on all levels. An overall conclusion is that in the tension that exists between the traditions of the subject and an external pressure for change teachers need support to deal with the intercultural perspective.

  • 35.
    Eskelund Knudsen, Heidi
    University College Lillebält Danmark.
    Historiefagets forhold till redegörelse2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 47-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses the concept of narrative (redegørelse) as it appears in teachers’ and students’ utterances in and about history as a subject matter. The main finding of the article concerns the observation that narrative on the one hand reflects a dichotomy between narrative understood as both knowledge transfer and knowledge construction. On the other hand, since history teaching is organized and regulated through ideas of cognitive taxonomy thinking and progression, narrative gets evaluated and assessed as knowledge transfer only. The article discusses the fact that narrative as knowledge construction appears in the way teachers and students reflect on subject issues meanwhile the transferring of a grand and common narrative occupy a great deal of the history teaching. In the light of a postmodern perspective, the article draws the conclusion that history as a subject matter can gain from considering its approach to narrative as knowledge construction.

    The findings of the article rely on thorough and in-depth analysis of teachers’ and students’ utterances transformed into speech act codes established during ethnographic field-studies in Danish upper secondary schools. In supporting the study, theorists such as J.L. Austins, Ole Togeby, Kathy Charmaz and Peter Seixas have all been helpful.

  • 36.
    Eskelund Knudsen, Heidi
    University College Lillebælt, Danmark..
    Viden mellem elev og fag – historieundervisning som dynamisk kommunikation2018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:1, s. 45-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article puts a fundamental focus on conceptions of knowledge in relation to history as a school subject. And in particularly the conceptions as they are reflected and expressed through history teaching and attempts to establish relations between the student and the subject matter i.e. the disciplinary basis and origin of history as school subject. The article takes a theoretical position on a problem in history teaching practice. The problem concerns an often seen accentuation of the student as a basic didactical concern in history teaching when it comes to learning subject oriented content. The article questions this approach by emphasising the important and central role that teaching plays regarding communication processes between the student and the subject. The article argues that the teaching situation regarded as communication has the ability to create links and connect between the student and the subject matter due to the fact that teaching and learning represent fundamentally different systems existing next to each other yet disconnected in teaching situations. A didactical analysis which is focusing solely on the student when discussing history teaching issues risks discussing an aspect of teaching to which there is no access. The article therefore examines how links and connections between the student and the subject matter might become possible if teaching regarded as a communication situation is aware of distinguishing between pieces of information, how this information is communicated, received and understood. An important aspect of this, concerns to what extent the process is influencing episodic or semantic student knowledge. The theoretical approach that supports the article discussion is based on concepts from systems theory and cognitive psychology.

  • 37.
    Falkevall, Björn
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Exempel-vis. Det oväntade och föreställningar om religionskunskapslärares professionella kunnande2017Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:2, s. 44-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is a critical interpretation of different perceptions of teacher’s professional knowledge as it is implicit in evidence based studies and Learnings Studies, two common ways of grounding the professional knowledge in educational science and in school politics today and therefore studied in teacher education. These two perceptions are analyzed with two metaphors from a research overview by Clandinin & Clandinin, called the conduit metaphor and teacher as curriculum maker. Strengths and shortcomings are pointed out. Especially in relation to unexpected events in teaching situations. A third perception of teacher’s professional knowledge is introduced and labelled teacher as jazz musician and the professional knowledge is viewed as improvisation. Based on the assumption from Gudmundsdottir experienced teachers have developed a curriculum story that helps them to improvisator – the re-active dimension of teaching. The two later perceptions are used in discussing three cases from students teaching. The thesis advocated is that the metaphor jazz - improvisation gives wider focus on RE as a school subject with content and meaning than the other two.

  • 38.
    Franck, Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2017:42017Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, s. i-iiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Franck, Olof
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för didaktik och pedagogisk profession.
    Gränsöverskridande värden i icke konfessionell etikundervisning: ämnesidentitet och multidisciplinärt lärande i ämnet religionskunskap2014Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. 188-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally religious education (RE), in a Swedish context, includes ethics education. The syllabus of the subject included in the latest school reform for compulsory school (Lgr11) present clear and detailed prescriptions regarding ethical issues which have to be taught. At the same time there could, in the national policy documents, be found explicit regulations that the teaching of ethics, like many other areas, should not be restricted to RE. Pedagogical integration is recommended. A multidisciplinary ethics education can be motivated in many ways, pedagogically as well as with reference to subject considerations. Such an education gives rise to challenging questions concerning which contributions RE may be supposed to develop in relation to school´s comprehensive teaching in ethics. More precisely, there seems to be a need to identify and explain how these contributions are to be apprehended and interpreted within the context of RE, but also in relation to other subjects. In this article the core content of the new syllabus in RE is discussed methodologically as well as with reference to subject considerations. A few ethical profiles characteristic of the subjects of social sciences are presented. Some important challenges regarding the need for specifying the meaning of the concept of ethics, interpreted within the context of RE, are elaborated. One issue that is highlighted concerns to what extent non confessional RE may create specified and constructive contributions to a multidisciplinary ethics education. In relation to the focusing of this theme, a critical discussion regarding an essentialistic interpretation of the relation between ethics and religion within RE is carried out.

  • 40.
    Franck, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Osbeck, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2018:22018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:2, s. i-iiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Franck, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Osbeck, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2018:32018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:3, s. i-iiArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Franck, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Osbeck, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2018:42018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:4, s. i-vArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Gestsdóttir, Súsanna Margrét
    et al.
    Universiteit van Amsterdam.
    van Drie, Jannet
    Universiteit van Amsterdam.
    van Boxtel, Carla
    Universiteit van Amsterdam.
    Teaching historical thinking and reasoning in upper secondary schools in Iceland: results of an observation study2019Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:2, s. 90-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe the teaching of historical thinking and reasoning in upper secondary education in Iceland and to what extent teachers teach for these higher order thinking skills in their daily practice. We used the observation instrument, Teach-HTR, to rate 54 history lessons. It is now apparent that some form of HTR is present in nearly all of them. Nearly all included teacher’s demonstration of historical thinking and reasoning and teachers also engaged students in individual or group assignments that asked for various HTR activities. However, it does not seem to be built upon in a strategic manner and certain areas are almost completely left out. The vocabulary of HTR is not deliberately used, which indicates that teachers may be drawing more from their education as historians than as history teachers. This study may provide important indicators for professional development that can be of use in teacher training and professionalization. With the help of the instrument Teach-HTR and the literature it should be possible to design a program that helps teachers focus on basic components of historical thinking and reasoning and specific behaviour, discourse and activities that bring it forward.

  • 44.
    Grahn, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fakta, normativitet eller pluralism? - Didaktiska typologier inom gymnasieskolans geografiundervisning om klimatförändringar: Recension av Per Sund2011Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 77-79Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Gregers Eriksen, Kristin
    University of South-Eastern Norway Drammen.
    Education for sustainable development and narratives of Nordic exceptionalism: The contributions of decolonialism2018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:4, s. 21-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that approaches embedded in technology optimism hold a hegemonic stance in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Norway. A monolithic focus on technology also leads to a lack of emphasis on the possible contributions of Social Studies. Although sustainable development is commonly understood as having the global goal of “saving the planet,” ESD remains situated within a colonial epistemological regime. In spite of its good intentions, ESD may in fact contribute to the construction and reproduction of differences between “Us” and “Them,” denoting the Global North and South. The aim of this paper is to explore the contributions of decolonial perspectives in providing possible interruptions of the hegemonic narratives, and fostering transformation. The paper exemplifies how current practices of ESD can serve to sustain rather than change the global economic and political systems. It is argued that decolonial perspectives can be tools for disrupting mainstream ESD.

  • 46.
    Grice, Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Epistemic beliefs and knowledge creation among upper-secondary students in transdisciplinary education for sustainable development2014Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. 146-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs of upper-secondary school students (n=208) involved in a transdisciplinary project regarding sustainable development. Specifically the dimensions of knowledge and knowing are explored and interpreted through a questionnaire, the Survey of Epistemological Beliefs in Transdisciplinary Education (SEBTE). A three-dimensional framework underpins the self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Results from exploratory factor analysis suggest five factors or dimensions: Transdisciplinary knowledge, Quick knowledge, Certain knowledge, Simple knowledge and Collaborative knowledge. According to multiple regression analysis (MRA), three out of those dimensions of epistemic beliefs have a positive impact on the students’ appreciation of the school project. Variables male and technoscientific students had a negative impact. The educational context of transdisciplinary education for sustainable development can be understood in terms of the learning metaphor of knowledge creation. Knowledge about students’ epistemic beliefs is assumed to be a useful insight to both in-service and pre-service teachers embarking on transdisciplinary projects.

  • 47.
    Grubbström, Ann
    Uppsala universitet.
    Recension av Pontus Hennerdals doktorsavhandling Education Through Maps. The Challenges of Knowing and Understanding the World2018Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2018:2, s. 45-48Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Gullberg, Tom
    Åbo Akademi.
    Historieundervisning och historiebruk i en språklig minoritetskontext. Identitetsformande undervisning i minoritetsskolor i Danmark, Tyskland och Finland2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:3, s. 34-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    History Teaching and the Use of History in a Linguistic Minority Context. Minority Schools in Denmark, Germany and Finland as a Field of Research on Education for Identity Construction

    Apart from subject knowledge and historical thinking skills, didactical theories generally consider identity as an important issue for history education. The article discusses history teaching and its function in identity construction in schools for language minority groups. It focuses on identity formation processes in three kinds of minority schools: upper secondary schools for the German minority in Southern Denmark, upper secondary schools for the Danish minority in the Northern part of Germany, and upper secondary schools for the Swedish-speaking population in Finland. The content and the educational aims of the school subject history are compared in these minority school systems and conclusions are drawn in relation to a theoretical model of the use of history. It is concluded that history is used in a political-educational and existential way in the Danish minority schools, with a strong focus on minority issues, while the German minority schools have a more neutral and "Danish" approach to German history in Denmark, with some elements of non-use of history (i.e. discreet treatment of the German occupation during the WW II). As Swedish is equal to Finnish as a national language, the Swedish schools in Finland could be expected to have the same approach in history teaching as the Finnish schools – the curriculum has the same content and aims in both cases – but there is an explicit ambition in the Swedish schools to use history in a more existential and ideological way in relation to Finland’s shared history with Sweden. The comparison of history teaching in minority schools turned out to improve the didactical understanding of the use of history in history teaching.

  • 49.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    From religious homogeneity to secularization, diversity and pluralism2017Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 1-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the article three Icelandic research projects are examined, two doctoral theses and one master’s thesis, with a view to mapping the knowledge that those projects have created while also considering what knowledge is lacking in the field of research in religious education in Iceland. The selected projects are chosen on the basis of their focus on religious education at schools, and they are examined from the perspective of what knowledge they have provided and what conclusions can be drown from their results about the status and role of religious education in compulsory schools in Iceland. Research in the field of religious education in Iceland has been rather limited, and the question arises, what knowledge is available in that area in the country? All three projects reflect the development of Icelandic society from being relatively homogeneous in religious matters to growing secularization and increasing religious diversity and pluralism. Although their objectives are different, they clearly show how the development of the society affects emphases in the school’s religious education. Therefore their results and discussion provide a foundation of knowledge on religious education in compulsory schools in Iceland or other multicultural societies. In the first projects the historical development in Iceland is described and compared with the development in the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) and it effectively creates the background for the other projects. The development of Christian and religious education in Iceland is shaped by the development of the society. In the two other research projects the conclusion is that religious education must take into account the increasing diversity and put the students and their diverse experiences in focus. The emphasis is placed on the idea that the approach to religious education needs to be multicultural, precisely because there are students in the schools with different cultural and religious backgrounds and experiences. It is necessary to take this into account, since factors such as family, home and school affect each other.

  • 50.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Finnbogason, Gunnar E.
    University of Iceland.
    Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna
    University of Iceland.
    Jónsdóttir, Halla
    University of Iceland.
    Friendship, diversity and fear. Young people´s life views and life values in a multicultural society2015Ingår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 94-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces initial findings from a study on young people‘s (18 years and older) life views and life values in Iceland. The research project is located within a broad theoretical framework and uses interdisciplinary approaches of religious education, multicultural studies and pedagogy. Methodological approaches are both quantitative and qualitative. The first part of the research is a survey which was conducted among altogether 904 students in seven upper secondary schools in the Reykjavík area and other areas of Iceland in 2011 and 2012. In addition to covering measures of background variables and religious affiliations, statements in the survey included themes such as views of life, self-understanding, relation to others, values and value judgments, religions, and diversity and social change. The article focuses especially on findings from the survey related to friendship, attitudes towards diversity, fear and insecurity in a multicultural society. The findings indicate that the participants generally have positive attitudes towards diversity. The majority of participants find it inspiring to have friends of different origins and find it important to respect different cultural and religious traditions. The majority of participants also have strong opinions against racism and bullying. Friends are important and most of the participants are of the opinion that friends are one of the things that provide security. At the same time only a minority is afraid of being unpopular, losing the confidence of their friends or being bullied. But when the fear is about disgracing oneself or about not being able to meet the requirements at school the proportion is higher. Although economic crisis in Iceland seems to have an effect on the life of the young people answering the survey, most of them are of the opinion that the future holds a lot of opportunities. The results are useful for further discussions on young people´s life views, self-understanding, and social and moral competence, for example in school context and in connection with subjects like Social Studies, Religious Education, Life Skills Education and Intercultural Education.

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