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  • 1.
    Fredman, David
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Haas, Jan
    Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Ban, Yifang
    Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Jonsson, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Djarv, Therese
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ringh, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective registry-based study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e014801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. Method OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Results Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). Conclusion The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting locations for AED installation.

  • 2.
    Friberg, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborgs University.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Osika, W
    Self-perceived psychosomatic health in Swedish children, adolescents and young adults: an internet-based survey over time2012In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The authors investigated self-perceived psychosomatic health in young people (10–24 years of age) in Sweden and analysed different samples during the years 2005 and 2007–2010 via a community website.

    Design Repeated cross-sectional surveys: (1) single question on a single day in 2005. (2) One specific question delivered on each of eight separate days in 2005. (3) The same eight questions delivered to smaller groups on the same day in 2007 and then again to randomly selected subjects in 2010.

    Setting Validated questionnaires launched on the internet by a recognised Swedish community site. Study participants were invited to answer questions about their health with full anonymity as they logged into their personal area.

    Participants 10–24-year-old children, adolescents and young adults.

    Primary and secondary outcome measures Self-reported psychosomatic health in terms of sex and age over time.

    Results A large number of responses were obtained (up to 140 000). The response rate for the single item on stress was 41%. A high percentage of young subjects responded that they felt stressed very often/often; the numbers were higher for women (47%) than for men (29%). Older teenaged women had more psychosomatic complaints than did men of similar ages; in contrast, among 10–12-year-old children, the percentage of psychosomatic complaints was similar for men and women. When comparing results obtained in 2010 with those obtained in 2007, young people of both sexes had a slightly better self-perceived health status in 2007.

    Conclusions During the period 2005–2010 a high percentage of young people, particularly females, 16–18 years of age, had psychosomatic complaints and considered themselves as being often or very often stressed. These complaints were more pronounced in the older age groups. When directing questions to a large community, internet-based surveys appear to be valuable tools.

                     

  • 3. Molarius, Anu
    et al.
    Granstrom, Fredrik
    Linköping Universitet.
    Educational differences in psychological distress?: Results from a population-based sample of men and women in Sweden in 20122018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e021007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Mental health problems are more frequent in socially disadvantaged groups, but the results vary between different studies, different populations and different measures of mental health. This paper investigated the association between educational level, economic difficulties and psychological distress in men and women in Sweden. Methods The study population included 24 510 respondents aged 25-74 years who responded to a survey questionnaire in Mid-Sweden in 2012 (response rate 53%). Psychological distress was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, and multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses, adjusting for age, employment status and social support. Results The prevalence of psychological distress was higher in women (16.4%) than in men (11.3%; p<0.001). Persons with low and medium educational level had a lower risk of psychological distress than persons with high educational level after adjustment for confounders. Economic difficulties had a strong association with psychological distress (OR 2.80 (95% CI 2.39 to 3.27) and OR 2.40 (95% CI 2.12 to 3.71) in men and women, respectively) after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion We found a strong association between economic difficulties and psychological distress in this study, but no inverse association between educational level and psychological distress. On the contrary, persons with high education had more psychological distress than persons with low and medium education when age, employment status and social support were taken into account. The findings were similar in men and women.

  • 4.
    Moula, Alireza
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Addelyan Rasi, Hamideh
    Can a psychosocial intervention programme teaching coping strategies improve the quality of life of Iranian women? A non-randomised quasi-experimental study2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Simonsen, Bjoerg O.
    et al.
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Dept Qual & Patient Safety, Brumunddal, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Unit Appl Clin Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway..
    Daehlin, Gro K.
    Gjoevik Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Care & Nursing, Gjoevik, Norway..
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Farup, Per G.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Unit Appl Clin Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.;Innlandet Hosp Trust, Dept Res, Gjoevik, Norway..
    Improvement of drug dose calculations by classroom teaching or e-learning: a randomised controlled trial in nurses2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 10, article id e006025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Insufficient skills in drug dose calculations increase the risk for medication errors. Even experienced nurses may struggle with such calculations. Learning flexibility and cost considerations make e-learning interesting as an alternative to classroom teaching. This study compared the learning outcome and risk of error after a course in drug dose calculations for nurses with the two methods. Methods: In a randomised controlled open study, nurses from hospitals and primary healthcare were randomised to either e-learning or classroom teaching. Before and after a 2-day course, the nurses underwent a multiple choice test in drug dose calculations: 14 tasks with four alternative answers (score 0-14), and a statement regarding the certainty of each answer (score 0-3). High risk of error was being certain that incorrect answer was correct. The results are given as the mean (SD). Results: 16 men and 167 women participated in the study, aged 42.0 (9.5) years with a working experience of 12.3 (9.5) years. The number of correct answers after e-learning was 11.6 (2.0) and after classroom teaching 11.9 (2.0) (p=0.18, NS); improvement were 0.5 (1.6) and 0.9 (2.2), respectively (p=0.07, NS). Classroom learning was significantly superior to e-learning among participants with a pretest score below 9. In support of e-learning was evaluation of specific value for the working situation. There was no difference in risk of error between groups after the course (p=0.77). Conclusions: The study showed no differences in learning outcome or risk of error between e-learning and classroom teaching in drug dose calculations. The overall learning outcome was small. Weak precourse knowledge was associated with better outcome after classroom teaching.

  • 6.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England; .
    Quint, Jennifer K.
    Imperial Coll London, Resp Epidemiol Occupat Med & Publ Hlth, London.
    Abuabara, Katrina
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Dermatol, Program Clin Res, San Francisco.
    Langan, Sinead
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England; St Johns Inst Dermatol, Dept Dermatol, London, England.
    Association between childhood allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status in later life: systematic review protocol2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e017245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on allergic diseases, educational attainment and occupational status, and if possible, calculate meta-analytic summary estimates for the associations. Methods Systematic electronic searches in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and education Resources Information Center (ERIC); hand search in reference lists of included papers and conference reports; search for unpublished studies in clinical trial registers and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report; data extraction; and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) will be performed. Analysis Data will be summarised descriptively, and meta-analysis including meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneities will be performed if possible. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination in a peer-reviewed, open-access, international scientific journal is planned.

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