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  • 1.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Jönköping University.
    Homod, Raad Z.
    Basrah University for Oil and Gas, IRQ.
    Masonry in the Context of Sustainable Buildings: A Review of the Brick Role in Architecture2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 22, article id 14734Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of combining various parts to create a structure is called building. The most effective and significant component of any construction is masonry. The Colosseum, buildings from ancient Greece and Rome, Central American buildings, and Mycenaean structures all used this material as one of their primary building elements. The oldest form is dry masonry of irregularly shaped stones. The ecological qualities of masonry, as a restorative material with a low impact on the environment, as well as the environmental control capacity of the massive wall, bring masonry back to attention as a suitable material for sustainable building in the context of current concerns for sustainable architecture. This article takes the form of a review of the journey of masonry as the primary construction material—from prehistoric structures to modern-day edifices. This article will go through the fundamentals of masonry construction to support its usage in structures throughout history and in many architectural styles, as a crucial representation of human construction in architectural history. This article aims to create a historical review, presenting masonry as an essential building material and assessing its role in the history of building materials

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  • 2.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Alasadi, Asaad
    University of Basra, Iraq.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Al-Samaraee, Sammera
    Basrah University for Oil & Gas, Iraq.
    Assessing the Role and Efficiency of Thermal Insulation by the "BIO-GREEN PANEL" in Enhancing Sustainability in a Built Environment2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 13, article id 10418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressing concern of climate change and the imperative to mitigate CO2 emissions have significantly influenced the selection of outdoor plant species. Consequently, evaluating CO2's environmental effects on plants has become integral to the decision-making process. Notably, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings is significant in tackling the consequences of climate change and addressing energy deficiencies. This article presents a novel approach by introducing plant panels as an integral component in future building designs, epitomizing the next generation of sustainable structures and offering a new and sustainable building solution. The integration of environmentally friendly building materials enhances buildings' indoor environments. Consequently, it becomes crucial to analyze manufacturing processes in order to reduce energy consumption, minimize waste generation, and incorporate green technologies. In this context, experimentation was conducted on six distinct plant species, revealing that the energy-saving potential of different plant types on buildings varies significantly. This finding contributes to the economy's improvement and fosters enhanced health-related and environmental responsibility. The proposed plant panels harmonize various building components and embody a strategic approach to promote health and well-being through bio-innovation. Furthermore, this innovative solution seeks to provide a sustainable alternative by addressing the challenges of unsustainable practices, outdated standards, limited implementation of new technologies, and excessive administrative barriers in the construction industry. The obtained outcomes will provide stakeholders within the building sector with pertinent data concerning performance and durability. Furthermore, these results will enable producers to acquire essential information, facilitating product improvement.

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  • 3.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jonkoping University, Sweden..
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Homod, Raad Z.
    Basrah University for Oil and Gas, Iraq..
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jonkoping University, Sweden..
    Environmental profile on building material passports for hot climates2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 3720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vernacular building materials and models represent the construction methods and building materials used in a healthy manner. Local building materials such as gravel, sand, stone, and clay are used in their natural state or with minor processing and cleaning to mainly satisfy local household needs (production of concrete, mortar, ballast, silicate, and clay bricks and other products). In hot climates, the concept of natural building materials was used in a form that can currently be applied in different kinds of buildings. This concept depends on the proper consideration of the climate characteristics of the construction area. A material passport is a qualitative and quantitative documentation of the material composition of a building, displaying materials embedded in buildings as well as showing their recycling potential and environmental impact. This study will consider two usages of building materials. The first is the traditional use of building materials and their importance in the application of vernacular building strategies as an essential global bioclimatic method in sustainable architecture. The second is the affordable use of new building materials for their availability and utilization by a large part of society in a way to add more detail to research. The article aims to create an objective reading and analysis regarding specific building materials in order to generate a competent solution of materials that is suitable for building requirements in hot climates. This study evaluates the most suitable Building Material Passports needed in hot climates, where the environmental profile must be analyzed to confirm the use of natural materials.

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  • 4.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Reviewing and Integrating AEC Practices into Industry 6.0: Strategies for Smart and Sustainable Future-Built Environments2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 13464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the possible ramifications of incorporating ideas from AEC Industry 6.0 into the design and construction of intelligent, environmentally friendly, and long-lasting structures. This statement highlights the need to shift away from the current methods seen in the AEC Industry 5.0 to effectively respond to the increasing requirement for creative and environmentally sustainable infrastructures. Modern building techniques have been made more efficient and long-lasting because of AEC Industry 6.0’s cutting-edge equipment, cutting-edge digitalization, and ecologically concerned methods. The academic community has thoroughly dissected the many benefits of AEC Industry 5.0. Examples are increased stakeholder involvement, automation, robotics for optimization, decision structures based on data, and careful resource management. However, the difficulties of implementing AEC Industry 6.0 principles are laid bare in this research. It calls for skilled experts who are current on the latest technologies, coordinate the technical expertise of many stakeholders, orchestrate interoperable standards, and strengthen cybersecurity procedures. This study evaluates how well the principles of Industry 6.0 can create smart, long-lasting, and ecologically sound structures. The goal is to specify how these ideas may revolutionize the building industry. In addition, this research provides an in-depth analysis of how the AEC industry might best adopt AEC Industry 6.0, underscoring the sector-wide significance of this paradigm change. This study thoroughly analyzes AEC Industry 6.0 about big data analytics, the IoT, and collaborative robotics. To better understand the potential and potential pitfalls of incorporating AEC Industry 6.0 principles into the construction of buildings, this study examines the interaction between organizational dynamics, human actors, and robotic systems.

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  • 5.
    Ariza, Marta Romero
    et al.
    University of Jaén, Spain.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Belgium; Karel de Grote University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Belgium .
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Van Petegem, Peter
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Parra, Gema
    University of Jaén, Spain.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Promoting Environmental Citizenship in Education: The Potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire to Measure Impact of Interventions2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 20, p. 1-20, article id 11420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy documents across the globe call for citizen engagement to fight climate change emergencies and build more sustainable societies. They also recognize the key role of formal and non-formal education in preparing citizens to address those challenges. However, there is a need to identify appropriate instruments to evaluate the impact of educational interventions on people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, which are essential components of the action competence required to become environmental citizens and agents of change. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) to evaluate different educational interventions aimed at increasing environmental citizenship. It presents three sub-studies from Spain, Belgium, and Sweden using the SCQ with varying contexts, duration, and target groups yet sharing common pedagogical features in the interventions. Pre-intervention scores indicate a common pattern of high sustainability knowingness, moderate sustainability attitudes, and lower sustainability behaviors in the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) of sustainability consciousness, and a positive impact on sustainability behavior after the intervention. These findings are especially significant when compared to previous studies. We therefore conclude that the SCQ is useful for detecting the effects of learning interventions of varying designs and contexts that address environmental citizenship. The results are discussed in terms of key pedagogical features of the educational interventions, and the appropriateness and sensitivity of the instrument in detecting changes in the intended direction. It concludes with implications for research and practice and suggestions for future lines of work.

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  • 6.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Exploring the Role of the Economy in Young Adults’ Understanding of Sustainable Development2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-17, article id 2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theeconomicdimensionisoneofthecentralperspectivesinbothsustainabledevelopment and education for sustainable development. The role of the economy in sustainable development has been discussed extensively over the years and different views exist about how economic activities affect other sustainability dimensions. How young people view the relationships among economic perspectives and sustainable development seems to be an underemphasized perspective in sustainability education and underexplored in the field of sustainability education research. This study uses cluster analysis, which is an explorative approach, to identify and analyze young peoples’viewsoftherelationshipsbetweeneconomicgrowth,economicdevelopmentandsustainable development. Six hundred and thirty eight students (age 18–19) from 15 schools across Sweden responded to a questionnaire probing (1) views on these relationships, and (2) their environmental consciousness. Four clusters of students differing in their views on the economy in sustainable development were identified in the analysis: un-differentiating positive, nuanced ambivalent, two-way convinced, and critical. Further analysis indicated that some groups differed in their perception of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of education for sustainable development.

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  • 7.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Sustainable Societal Transformation.
    Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PRT; Universidade de Lisboa, PRT.
    Cabral, Pedro
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PRT.
    Romeiras, Maria M.
    Universidade de Lisboa, PRT.
    Global Mangrove Deforestation and Its Interacting Social-Ecological Drivers: A Systematic Review and Synthesis2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 8, article id 4433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, mangrove forests are substantially declining, and a globally synthesized database containing the drivers of deforestation and drivers' interactions is scarce. Here, we synthesized the key social-ecological drivers of global mangrove deforestation by reviewing about two hundred published scientific studies over the last four decades (from 1980 to 2021). Our focus was on both natural and anthropogenic drivers with their gradual and abrupt impacts and on their geographic coverage of effects, and how these drivers interact. We also summarized the patterns of global mangrove coverage decline between 1990 and 2020 and identified the threatened mangrove species. Our consolidated studies reported an 8600 km(2) decline in the global mangrove coverage between 1990 and 2020, with the highest decline occurring in South and Southeast Asia (3870 km(2)). We could identify 11 threatened mangrove species, two of which are critically endangered (Sonneratia griffithii and Bruguiera hainseii). Our reviewed studies pointed to aquaculture and agriculture as the predominant driver of global mangrove deforestation though their impacts varied across global regions. Gradual climate variations, i.e., sea-level rise, long-term precipitation, and temperature changes and driven coastline erosion, salinity intrusion and acidity at coasts, constitute the second major group of drivers. Our findings underline a strong interaction across natural and anthropogenic drivers, with the strongest interaction between the driver groups aquaculture and agriculture and industrialization and pollution. Our results suggest prioritizing globally coordinated empirical studies linking drivers and mangrove deforestation and global development of policies for mangrove conservation.

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  • 8.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Univ Antwerp, Fac Social Sci, Res Unit Edubron, Dept Training & Educ Sci, Prinsstr 13, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The Effectiveness of Education for Sustainable Development2015In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 15693-15717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet's resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the world communities have agreed upon addressing SD through international treaties. As a response Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been launched as an answer to cope with sustainability. However, empirical studies are a missing link in the discourse around ESD, where decisions and implementation strategies are heavily based on policy recommendations and gut feelings by practitioners. We used data from 2413 students in grades 6, 9, and 12 from 51 schools across Sweden to study the effectiveness of ESD. In line with the current debate on the definition of ESD, we quantified the extent to which teaching can be labeled as holistic and/or pluralistic. Through a series of descriptive analyses and the estimation of structural equation models, our results indicate that ESD can indeed impact on student outcomes in terms of their sustainability consciousness. The results of this study reveal the key role ESD plays in addressing SD, paving the way for a more sustainable future.

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  • 9.
    Borg, Farhana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Local and Global Aspects: Teaching Social Sustainability in Swedish Preschools2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 3838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although policy documents emphasize the importance of integrating social, economic, andenvironmental dimensions into education for sustainability (EfS), there is a lack of studies investigating how social sustainability can be included in preschool teaching. Therefore, this study aimsto increase knowledge about preschool teachers’ teaching practices relating to social sustainability.This study uses EfS as a conceptual framework that includes a holistic view of sustainability addressing social, economic, and environmental aspects, as well as pluralistic teaching approach from atransformative perspective. To explore the views and teaching practices, individual interviews wereconducted with 12 preschool teachers from eight preschools that took part in a school developmentproject. The project included professional development workshops for teachers on EfS and localimplementation efforts. Thematic content analysis was conducted. The interviews made it apparentthat the teachers initially viewed sustainability from an environmental perspective; however, afterinvolvement in the school development project, they began to integrate the social sustainabilitydimension into their teaching. The teachers associated local sustainability challenges with those facedinternationally. To a certain extent, children’s agency was noted in pluralistic educational activitiesthat supported children’s active participation. The level at which preschool teachers integrated socialsustainability into their teaching varied.

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  • 10.
    Chu, W.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Verghese, K.
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Wever, R.
    Linköping University.
    Glad, W.
    Linköping University.
    Tensions and opportunities: An activity theory perspective on date and storage label design through a literature review and co-creation sessions2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-pack date and storage labeling is one of the direct information carriers used by the food industry to communicate product shelf-life attributes to consumers. However, it is also one of the major factors that contribute to consumer food waste issues. This study aims to systematically understand the existing tensions within the current date and storage labeling system and explore the potential opportunities for design to intervene. First, we conducted a literature review to identify tensions that the consumer encounters in their food edibility assessment system and summarize the corresponding proposal for actions. 12 tensions and 16 proposals for action were identified and further framed according to a conceptual model developed in this study. Following this, the literature findings were refined and grounded in co-creation sessions in consumer workshops and industry practitioner interviews to develop specific labeling-related design implications. The findings indicate the importance of investigating the role that date and storage labeling play from a system level. Furthermore, we suggest that the conceptual model developed in this study can be used not only as a framework that guides researchers to identify and analyze labeling-related food waste problems that each individual consumer encounters, but also as a guideline that assists packaging design practitioners in exploring potential design opportunities to solve the problem from a system perspective.

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  • 11.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Desirable Effects from Disturbance Ecology: A Paradox within Conservation Management2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, article id 7049Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of natural disturbances for biodiversity is well-documented in the disturbance ecology literature. Natural disturbances such as fire, wind, and flooding strongly influence ecosystems by creating short and long-term ecological processes. Conservation management of protected areas should consider the importance of natural disturbances since natural shifts in ecosystems are, in a long-term perspective, necessary to maintain high biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to explore how and if natural disturbances are incorporated in the management of Swedish national parks and to identify possible examples of barriers for this incorporation. The design of the study is a multiple comparative case study based on a document study and completed with qualitative interviews. The cases consist of propositions and management plans for 15 Swedish national parks established between 1962 and 2018. The document analysis generated four main categories: historic/future and positive/negative perceptions of natural disturbances. The results indicate that there are positive perceptions concerning the inclusion of disturbance ecology in the management of national parks. However, there are also obstacles and challenges around natural disturbances within Swedish national parks. These obstacles are, in some cases, explained by practical implications such as the closeness to surrounding societies and in others explained by paradoxes such as visitors’ perceptions of national parks and the wilderness. 

  • 12.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Carpoolers' perceived accessibility of carpooling2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 8976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to constitute a realistic option to existing travel modes, carpooling needs to be able to offer adequate levels of accessibility. Insights into how carpooling services affect perceived accessibility up until now remain unexplored. In this study we explore carpooling experiences of 122 users in Sweden and examine a number of possible determinants of the perceived accessibility of carpooling. Results show that carpooling is not perceived by the users as particularly accessible with low levels across the sample. Moreover, multiple linear hierarchical regression analyses show that simplicity of travel, population density, years of education, and school and work-trips appear to affect perceptions of accessibility of carpooling, whereas travel time and cost appear not to. The final model explains a third of the variance in perceived accessibility of carpooling, thus nearly two thirds of the variation is still unaccounted for. Future research should explore further possible determinants of perceived accessibility of carpooling in order to explain, understand, and counteract the low levels of accessibility that appear to be linked to this specific travel mode.

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  • 13.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Public Transport Quality, Safety, and Perceived Accessibility2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 3563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service quality in public transport is proposed as a key determinant of perceived accessibility, the ease to live the life one wants with the help of the transport system, as low service quality may be a barrier for use, decreasing the ease to participate in daily activities. The first aim was to validate the direct relationship between public transport quality and perceived accessibility. Secondly, we analyzed the mediating role of safety perceptions to better explain the link between service quality and perceived accessibility. Public transport travelers (n = 4944) from five northern European cities were surveyed. Results from PLS-SEM modeling show that service quality has a significant and direct relationship with perceived accessibility, especially regarding functionality. An indirect relationship through travel safety perceptions was also observed, highlighting information and comfort as main drivers. High car use, low public transport use, increasing age, and being a woman were also associated with greater perceived accessibility. City comparisons yielded a number of significant differences. Our results contribute to the research literature by highlighting the importance of service quality in public transport for perceptions of accessibility in daily travel. In particular, we argue that functionality is the core attribute to focus on, and that attributes related to travel safety perceptions should be carefully considered when planning for sustainable transport.

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  • 14.
    Gannan, Ismail
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kubaji, Hussam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Siwale, Workson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Streamlined social footprint analysis of the nascent bio-pelletssub-sector in Zambia2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1-17, article id 5492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change concerns have goaded countries towards seeking renewable energy options (bio-energy being one of them), to replace/supplant the conventional fossil-fuel alternatives (coal, oil and natural gas) in vogue. Fuel-pellets - at the confluence of the forestry, agriculture, waste management and bio-energy sectors - when produced from biomass-residues, serve the dual purpose of ensuring energy security and environmental sustainability.  By valorising more and more organic wastes to bio-energy products, one could, to use the old adage, ‘kill two birds with one stone’.  Social-LCA is a method used to analyse a very wide range of social issues associated with the stakeholders in a value-chain – workers, local community dwellers, society, global consumers, banks, investors, governments, researchers, international organizations and NGOs. In this analysis, the authors commence with a highly-focused, niche literature review on the social dimension of sustainability in the African energy / bio-energy sector. The streamlined social footprint analysis inspired by the relatively lesser number of such studies for this sector in Africa, is not a novel addition per se to the S-LCA knowledge base. The purpose of application is to shed light on something in Zambia, which must be understood better, known and studied better, in order so as to bring about much-needed alterations in the direction of sustainable development. While the questions addressed to four different groups of stakeholders encompass a clutch of sustainable development goals, gender equality (SDG 5) and the need for greater interest on the part of governments and investors (SDG 9) to look at sustainable alternatives to the status quo, stand out as concerns which need to be tided over. This paper and the streamlined social footprint analysis carried out, is all the more relevant and timely, when one considers some key changes which have happened in Zambia over the last five years – The implementation of the National Energy Policy in 2019, and the creation of the Ministry of Green Economy in 2021.These are verily  in Zambia, are harbingers of positive change auguring well for future developments in the  supporting developments in the bio-energy (and bio-pellets) sector, not just in Zambia, but by way of emulating and learning, in other countries on the continent.    

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  • 15.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Dishwashers: Literature Review to Summarise the Multi-Dimensionality of Sustainable Production and Consumption2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 1-21, article id 10302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automatic dishwasher is a water-using, energy-demanding contraption with 40-50 different component parts fashioned out of different materials-metals and non-metals-which over the last 70 years has evolved in its role as a comfort-enhancing, convenience-providing, time-saving white good in the kitchen of the modern urban household, especially in the countries of the developed world. Its lifecycle, which spans about 12-13 years on average, lends itself to research in a variety of sustainability aspects-politico-legal/regulatory, economic, environmental, social and techno-functional-and fields-thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, acoustics, economics, chemistry, microbiology, materials science, design engineering, wastewater treatment, energy engineering, consumer behaviour, and, of late, sustainable consumption and production. The end goal of this review is to present the automatic dishwasher-almost ubiquitous and taken-for-granted in the western world these days-as a candidate for progressive research and development, resulting in its continued evolution. The author facilitates this by providing an overview of the different aspects of sustainability addressed by researchers thus far. It at once reinforces the importance of transdisciplinary research, finds answers to a clutch of 'what', 'why', 'where', 'how', 'who', and 'when' questions, and reminds us that improvement/s in one aspect must not undermine or thwart those in any of the others. It is the first of its kind, as far as the automatic dishwasher is concerned; it is a well-structured review of 84 peer-reviewed journal publications focusing on the dishwasher, accessed through Scopus and contacting researchers through ResearchGate, spanning the time period 1980-2021, originating in 21 countries (with Germany leading the pack, with 22% of the publications), and sourced from 63 different journals. Over a 16-year period between 1998 and 2014, both the energy use and water consumption of dishwashers decreased by well over 40%. Consumers in the USA, reportedly, are willing to pay up to 90% more for a higher-rated dishwasher. Interestingly, a publication from Germany states that manual dishwashing, if done in accordance with the Best Practice Tips (recommended by another German study), can have a 20% lower environmental footprint than automatic dishwashers.

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  • 16.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Bosomworth, Karyn
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Moloney, Susie
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Kristianssen, Ann-Catrin
    Örebro universitet.
    Fünfgeld, Hartmut
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Can Regional-Scale Governance and Planning Support Transformative Adaptation?: A Study of Two Places2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 24, p. 1-17, article id 6978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that climate change adaptation is best leveraged at the local scale is a well-institutionalized script in both research and formal governance. This idea is based on the argument that the local scale is where climate change impacts are “felt” and experienced. However, sustainable and just climate futures require transformations in systems, norms, and cultures that underpin and reinforce our unsustainable practices and development pathways, not just “local” action. Governance interventions are needed to catalyse such shifts, connecting multilevel and multiscale boundaries of knowledge, values, levels and organizational remits. We critically reflect on current adaptation governance processes in Victoria, Australia and the Gothenburg region, Sweden to explore whether regional-scale governance can provide just as important leverage for adaptation as local governance, by identifying and addressing intersecting gaps and challenges in adaptation at local levels. We suggest that regional-scale adaptation oers possibilities for transformative change because they can identify, connect, and amplify small-scale (local) wins and utilize this collective body of knowledge to challenge and advocate for unblocking stagnated, institutionalized policies and practices, and support transformative change.

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  • 17.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Uppsala universitet; RMIT University, AUS.
    Glover, Leigh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    The climate just city2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, p. 1-20, article id 1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are increasingly impacted by climate change, driving the need for adaptation and sustainable development. Local and global economic and socio-cultural influence are also driving city redevelopment. This, fundamentally political, development highlights issues of who pays and who gains, who decides and how, and who/what is to be valued. Climate change adaptation has primarily been informed by science, but the adaptation discourse has widened to include the social sciences, subjecting adaptation practices to political analysis and critique. In this article, we critically discuss the just city concept in a climate adaptation context. We develop the just city concept by describing and discussing key theoretical themes in a politically and justice-oriented analysis of climate change adaptation in cities. We illustrate our arguments by looking at recent case studies of climate change adaptation in three very different city contexts: Port Vila, Baltimore City, and Karlstad. We conclude that the social context with its power asymmetries must be given a central position in understanding the distribution of climate risks and vulnerabilities when studying climate change adaptation in cities from a climate justice perspective.

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  • 18.
    Graversgaard, Morten
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Smith, Laurence
    SOAS University of London, UK.
    Gertz, Flemming
    SEGES, Landbrug & Fødevarer F.M.B.A., Denmark.
    Højberg, Anker Lajer
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Langford, John
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Martinez, Grit
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    Mostert, Erik
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Ptak, Emilia
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Peterson, Heidi
    University of Minnesota, MN, USA; International Plant Nutrition Institute, MN, USA.
    Stelljes, Nico
    Ecologic Institute, Germany.
    van den Brink, Cors
    Royal Haskoning DHV, The Netherlands; Groningen University, The Netherlands.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Opportunities and barriers for water co-governance: A critical analysis of seven cases of diffuse water pollution from agriculture in Europe, Australia and North America2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) and its governance has received increased attention as a policy concern across the globe. Mitigation of DWPA is a complex problem that requires a mix of policy instruments and a multi-agency, broad societal response. In this paper, opportunities and barriers for developing co-governance, defined as collaborative societal involvement in the functions of government, and its suitability for mitigation of DWPA are reviewed using seven case studies in Europe (Poland, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands and UK), Australia (Murray-Darling Basin) and North America (State of Minnesota). An analytical framework for assessing opportunities and barriers of co-governance was developed and applied in this review. Results indicated that five key issues constitute both opportunities and barriers, and include: (i) pressure for change; (ii) connected governance structures and allocation of resources and funding; (iii) leadership and establishment of partnerships through capacity building; (iv) use and co-production of knowledge; and (v) time commitment to develop water co-governance

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  • 19.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Shared Mobility: Evolving Practices for Sustainability2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 21, article id 12148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory paper to the Special Issue “Shared Mobility “ aims (1) to present and differentiate the diversity of practices and services that constitute the shared mobility sector; (2) to emphasize the contribution of each published article; and (3) to identify knowledge gaps of knowledge and provide further research avenues. With the contribution from 29 authors affiliated to social sciences and transportation research institutions in seven countries (Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, Greece, Belgium, Norway, and Australia), new understandings of the potential, drivers, barriers, and limitations of diverse shared mobility solutions for a more sustainable society are presented. The common message across the special issue is that the shared mobility sector is constantly evolving, while aiming to attain sustainability goals. Several papers have taken a psychological approach to explain the adoption of shared mobility practices (e.g., carsharing), yet these findings may be context-dependent, which future research should further investigate (e.g., differences between platform-based and self-service modes). We also call for researchers to pay attention to how traditional transit services can be combined with newer shared mobility services (e.g., micro-mobility), but also to informal public transport systems, as we identify these as important developing areas.

  • 20.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Societal Risk Research, CSR (from 2020). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Alkan-Olsson, Johanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Collaboration Adrift: Factors for Anchoring into Governance Systems, Distilled from a Study of Three Regulated Rivers2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 6, article id 4980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration has the potential to aid the balancing of values and goals that belong to different, sometimes competing, policy fields, such as energy, climate adaptation and nature conservation-a key component of sustainable governance. However, we need to know more of how collaboration can function as integrating (and integrated) components of governance systems. Three regulated Swedish rivers are used here as examples to explore factors that influence this function. The following factors are identified: transparency of value trade-offs, understanding of collaboration and governance, interplay between public sectors, integrating funding mechanisms, clarity of mandate, strategic use of networks and consistency of the governance system. As a consequence of the poor management of these factors in our case, water quality and ecology values are not integrated in strategic decision making, e.g., regarding hydropower, urban development or climate adaptation. Instead, they are considered add-ons, or "decorations". The Swedish case illustrates the meaning of the factors and their great importance for achieving sustainable governance.

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  • 21.
    Hoppstadius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    A Sustainable Everyday Life for Counterurbanising Swedish Families2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 5523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though urbanisation is the prevailing trend in modern societies, the net migration balance of Sweden's largest cities has been negative for the past few years, and overrepresented among these migrants are families with young children. The stories of counterurbanisation have often relied on rather stereotypical representations of unsustainable city life versus sustainable rural life, thus strengthening the much criticised rural-urban binary. The aim of this article is to explore how the counterurbanising families' ideas of "a sustainable everyday life" developed during and after the migration event. We uncover the needs, ideological foundations, practices, capacities, social atmosphere, temporality, and place-based understanding of one's own role and responsibilities in society by studying what the families do in their everyday lives, what they are striving to achieve, and how they understand sustainability. Counterurbanising families represent a driven group that are not primarily guided by economic wants-as many of their active choices are lifestyle-driven. Our theoretical foundation highlights the structures and dimensions of social sustainability, relational place, and learning, contrasted with the subjectivity of everyday life in the urban-rural transition. Forty-five in-depth interviews (1-2 h) were conducted via video conference software, and the material was analysed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the views and understandings of social sustainability among counterurbanising young families highlight place-based needs and conditions, with implications for sustainability and mobility research, individuals, and contemporary society as a whole in navigating the somewhat diminishing rural-urban dichotomy.

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  • 22.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Sustainability transitions at the frontline: Lock-in and potential for change in the local planning arena2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores challenges and possibilities for integrating goals of long-term sustainable development into urban planning practice, with a specific focus on local institutional conditions for sustainability transitions. The analysis is based on a qualitative single case study of a large urban development process: the development of a new city district in Hyllie in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Hyllie was branded as a flagship project for sustainable urban development, with particularly high ambitions on climate neutrality and sustainable energy consumption. Several innovative elements were initiated in the development process, for instance the “climate contract” betweenthemunicipalityandlargeenergycompanies. Inthepaper,thisclimatecontractisdiscussed as an initiative with a promising potential for sustainability transitions. In practice, however, the outcome of the development in Hyllie in terms of sustainable development is ambiguous, since the district is also framed around luxury shopping, entertainment, and an ambition to attract visitors from a long distance. The Hyllie development illustrates pre-requisites for work on sustainable development in a decentralized and market-oriented planning context. Theoretically, the analysis is inspired by the multi-level perspective (MLP) and institutional theory. The results illustrate how the development process was shaped by a complex interplay between actors with differing agendas and targets at different stages in the process. These results are applied in a general discussion of challenges and possibilities for urban planning to contribute substantially to a transition to long-term sustainable development. Overall, the analysis demonstrates the importance of considering specific local institutional conditions in strategic work for long-term sustainability.

  • 23.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms unversitet.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Tipping to Staying on the Ground: Internalized Knowledge of Climate Change Crucial for Transformed Air Travel Behavior2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1-18, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel accounts for a major share of individual greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for people in high-income countries. Until recently, few have reduced flying because of climate concerns, but currently, a movement for staying on the ground is rising. Sweden has been a focal point for this movement, particularly during 2018–2019, when a flight tax was introduced, and air travel reduction was intensely discussed in the media. We performed semi-structured interviews with Swedish residents, focusing primarily on individuals who have reduced flying because of its climate impact. We explore how such individual transformation of air travel behavior comes about, and the phases and components of this process. Applying a framework of sustainability transformation, we identify incentives and barriers in personal and political spheres. We show that internalized knowledge about climate change and the impact of air travel is crucial for instigating behavioral change. Awareness evokes negative emotions leading to a personal tipping point where a decision to reduce or quit flying is made. However, the process is often counteracted by both personal values and political structures promoting air travel. Even individuals with a strong drive to reduce flying feel trapped in social practices, norms and infrastructures. Hence, we argue that personal and political spheres interact complexly and to reduce flying at larger scales, interventions are needed across spheres, e.g., change of norms, effective policy instruments and better alternatives to air travel. 

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  • 24.
    Jamei, Elmira
    et al.
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Chan, Melissa
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Chau, Hing Wah
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Gaisie, Eric
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Perceived Accessibility and Key Influencing Factors in Transportation2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 17, p. 1-22, article id 10806Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility is commonly assessed using indicators calculated from spatial data. Comparatively perceived accessibility cannot be adequately reflected by these calculated measures because it involves the perception to participate in spatially dispersed opportunities. This highlights the need to understand and consider perceived accessibility for planning and evaluation of transport systems from a complementary perspective. Therefore, this study aims to offer a systematic review concerning the interpretations of perceived accessibility in transport, its concept, major social drivers, barriers, evaluation methods and key influencing factors. This review also highlights the importance of perceived safety and service quality in public transport and their relationship with perceived accessibility in daily travel. The paper argues that perceived accessibility with due consideration of perceived safety and service quality will contribute to the development from mobility-based to accessibility-based planning.

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  • 25.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Digital transformation as an enabler for advanced services in the sanitation sector2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People in Base of the Pyramid markets still face difficulties when it comes to sanitation. Container-based Sanitation (CBS) services represent a promising advanced sanitation service. Despite the observed outcomes of CBS services, organizations face obstacles when providing these services. To overcome these obstacles, digital transformations of these services are being carried out. We rely on multiple case studies to understand these digital transformations. Our findings highlight (1) the challenges these case organizations faced before engaging in the digital transformation, (2) their individual digital transformation pathways, and (3) a general framework for digital transformations in BoP markets.

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  • 26.
    Kjeang, Are
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Palm, Jenny
    Lunds universitet.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Local Energy Advising in Sweden: Historical Development and Lessons for Future Policy-Making2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1-13, article id 2275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, energy-consulting services, here referred to as local energy advising (LEA), have traditionally contributed to improving household energy efficiency. The aim of this article is to analyze the development of this service from the 1970s, when the consultancy came into being, to the present day, through a review of documents and published literature. The analysis enables the understanding of the evolution of local energy advising as a policy instrument, and provides valuable insights for the future. Local energy advising has often been subsidized by the Swedish government and used as a state policy measure rather than a municipal one. As a policy measure, the function of the service has changed over time. In the early period, the oil crisis was a fact and the local advisers were used to inform households. In the 1980s, however, the task of energy-advising was taken over by the energy companies in the spirit of market liberalization. In the 1990s, Sweden became a member of the European Union, and the emphasis was put on general information campaigns. Recently, the development of decentralized energy systems (including micro-energy systems) has necessitated targeting individuals with information. One important lesson to learn from the historical development of LEA is the imperativeness of providing energy advising at the local rather than the state level for better efficiency.

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  • 27.
    Kowasch, Matthias
    et al.
    University College of Teacher Education Styria, AUT; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, NOR; Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, DEU.
    Cruz, Joana P.
    Universidade do Porto, PRT.
    Reis, Pedro
    Universidade de Lisboa, PRT.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kicker, Katharina
    University of Graz, AUT.
    Climate Youth Activism Initiatives: Motivations and Aims, and the Potential to Integrate Climate Activism into ESD and Transformative Learning2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 21, p. 1-25, article id 11581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For about two years, the climate youth activism initiative Fridays for Future has addressed climate emergency, receiving considerable attention because of their consistent protests every week in many different locations worldwide. Based on empirical studies in Austria and Portugal, this paper investigates the motivations of students to participate in the movement and the solutions proposed by young activists to fight against climate emergency. Moreover, we discuss the integration of climate change activism into ESD (education for sustainable development) and transformative learning processes, and how this enables environmental citizenship. The results of the studies reveal that emotions and feelings of solidarity and collective aims are motives to participate in the strikes. The young activists sometimes propose innovative and sometimes radical solutions to climate emergency. Both demonstrations and exhibitions as forms of bottom-up climate activism initiatives contribute to engagement in political dialogue and scientific knowledge transfer. They can be seen as "triggers of change " for transformative learning.

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  • 28.
    Lotfi Akbarabadi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Sirjani, Reza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Achieving Sustainability and Cost-Effectiveness in Power Generation: Multi-Objective Dispatch of Solar, Wind, and Hydro Units2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 2407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the power system, economic power dispatch is a popular and fundamental optimization problem. In its classical form, this problem only considers thermal generators and does not take into account network security constraints. However, other forms of the problem, such as economic emission dispatch (EED), are becoming increasingly important due to the emphasis on minimizing emissions for environmental purposes. The integration of renewable sources, such as solar, wind, and hydro units, is an important aspect of EED, but it can be challenging due to the stochastic nature of these sources. In this study, a multi-objective algorithm is developed to address the problem of economic emission power dispatch with the inclusion of these renewable sources. To account for the intermittent behavior of solar, wind, and hydro power, the algorithm uses Lognormal, Weibull, and Gumbel distributions, respectively. The algorithm also considers voltage limitations, transmission line capacities, prohibited areas of operation for thermal generator plants, and system restrictions. The multi-objective real coded non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (R-NSGA-II) is applied to the problem and includes a procedure for handling system restrictions to meet system limitations. Results are extracted using fuzzy decision-making and are analyzed and discussed. The proposed method is compared to other newer techniques from another study to demonstrate its robustness. The results show that the proposed method despite being older is cost-significant while maintaining the same or lower emissions. These results were observed consistently and did not happen by chance, detailed explanation of why and how is discussed.

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  • 29.
    Mattsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Avoidance of Supermarket Food Waste—Employees’ Perspective on Causes and Measures to Reduce Fruit and Vegetables Waste2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 16, article id 10031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying causes of food waste at grocery retail level is crucial for the development of effective measures to reduce waste. Frontline employees manage food waste in their day-to-day operations; however, there is a paucity of research that draws attention to their knowledge of and approach to causes and measures to reduce food waste. In this empirical study, a mixed methods approach is adopted, using multiple interviews and participatory observations with employees, and primary quantitative data on fruit and vegetable waste for one year from the supermarkets. The results illuminate the fact that the role of employees is central for reducing food waste, and from their perspective, the causes and measures can be divided into four different main themes covering policy, practice, people and product. The analysis involves 73 different fruit and vegetables categories, and the fruit and vegetables waste at the three supermarkets is 60 tonnes. The results also reveal different causes for different fruit and vegetables categories, implying that generic descriptions of causes are not enough to use as bases for planning reduction measures. The paper provides a base for planning and implementing reduction measures for the grocery retail sector, which contribute to a sustainable food supply chain. 

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  • 30.
    Mikhelkis, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm Exergi.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Techno-economic and partial environmental analysis of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCU/S): Case study from proposed waste-fed district-heating incinerator in Sweden.2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 15, article id 5922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aspires to become totally carbon dioxide-neutral by 2045. Indisputably, what is needed is not just a reduction in emissions of CO2 (greenhouse gases in general) from the technosphere, but also manipulated diversion of CO2 from the atmosphere to ‘traps’ in the lithosphere, technosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The case study in this paper is focused on Stockholm Exergi’s proposed waste-to-energy incineration plant in Lövsta, which is keen on incorporating carbon capture and storage (CCS), but is also interested in understanding the potential of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCU/S) in helping it to achieve ‘carbon-dioxide-negativity’. Waste-to-energy incineration plants (in cases where the petro-plastics in the waste mix can be substantially reduced) are a key component of a circular bio-economy, though the circularity here pertains to recovering energy from materials which may or may not be recyclable. CCS (storage in the North Sea) is compared with CCU/S (CO2 sintered into high-quality building blocks made of recycled slag from the steel sector) from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. The comparative analysis shows, inter alia, that a hybridized approach – a combination of CCS and CCU/S, is worth investing in. CCU/S, at the time of writing, is simply a pilot project in Belgium – a possible creatively-destructive technology which may or may not usurp prominence from CCS. The authors believe that political will and support with incentives, subsidies and tax rebates are indispensable to motivate investments in such ground-breaking technologies and looking away from the easier route of paying carbon taxes or purchasing emission rights.

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  • 31.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    School leaders’ experiences of implementing education for sustainable development: Anchoring the transformative perspective2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we consider the problem of ensuring that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is firmly embedded in a school through appropriate management and planning of the school’s activities (or characteristics of the school organization). To this end, we identify the domains of school organization that would benefit from particular structures and routines in order to embed ESD. We identify these domains by thematically analyzing responses of interviewed leaders of schools employing a transformative approach to ESD. We divided the leaders into two groups, based on the extent to which their respective schools employed a transformative approach to ESD. We analyzed the differences in responses of the two groups, enabling us to identify and compare the structures that school leaders in the respective groups believe to be important. In addition to reporting the results, we discuss their implications. We focus particularly on how structures identified by leaders of highly transformative schools could contribute to long-lasting transformative implementation of ESD, and how structures identified by leaders of the other group could be used to circumvent barriers to such implementation.

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    Mogren2018
  • 32.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eskandari, Samieh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Joseph, Stephen
    University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), AUS.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A Comprehensive Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of the Use of Hydrochar Pellets in Combined Heat and Power Plants2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 9026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been seen as a potentially beneficial process for converting wet biomass into value-added products. It is, however, necessary to overcome the challenges associated with handling the powdered form of hydrochar—a solid product of the HTC process—by controlling the formation of dust and facilitating smoother transportation and distribution in a potentially wide marketplace. In this paper, the authors investigate the environmental consequences of different alternatives for using hydrochar pellets produced from mixed sludges from pulp and paper mills in Sweden, using the environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA). Two scenarios for possible end-uses of hydrochar in combined heat and power (CHP) plants as a source of energy (heat and electricity) were assessed. In these scenarios, hydrochar pellets were assumed to be combusted in CHP plants, thereby avoiding the use of combustible solid wastes (Scenario A) and coal (Scenario B), respectively, to recover energy in the form of electricity and heat. The environmental damages to Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, Climate Change, and Resources are evaluated based on 1 tonne of dry sludge as the functional unit. The results from this analysis illustrate that Scenario B, in which hydrochar replaces coal, offers the greatest reduction in all the environmental damage characterizations, except the Resources category. The displacement of energy-based coal due to hydrochar combustion contributed most significantly to the environmental damages wrought by the system—ranging from 52% in Resources to 93% in Ecosystem Quality. Overall, the results highlight that the application of hydrochar pellets for energy recovery to offset waste- and coal-based energy sources has great environmental benefits. The favorability of sludge hydrochar over solid wastes as fuel for CHP plants may be counter-intuitive at first, since HTC is an energy-intensive process, but when accounting for the necessity of dependence on imports of wastes for instance, the hydrochar pellet may well emerge as a good option for CHPs in Sweden.

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  • 33.
    Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem
    et al.
    University of Tehran, IRN.;Ohio State University, USA.
    Rafiee, Shahin
    University of Tehran, IRN.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Development and Evaluation of Combined Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm in Energy, Economic and Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Oilseed Production2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption, economics, and environmental impacts of canola production were assessed using a combined technique involving an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). Data were collected from canola farming enterprises in the Mazandaran province of Iran and were used to test the application of the combined modeling algorithms. Life cycle assessment (LCA) for one ha functional unit of canola production from cradle to farm gate was conducted in order to evaluate the impacts of energy, materials used, and their environmental emissions. MOGA was applied to maximize the output energy and benefit-cost ratio, and to minimize environmental emissions. The combined ANFIS-MOGA technique resulted in a 6.2% increase in energy output, a 144% rise in the benefit-cost ratio, and a 19.8% reduction in environmental emissions from the current canola production system in the studied region. A comparison of ANFIS-MOGA with the data envelopment analysis approach was also conducted and the results established that the former is a better system than the latter because of its ability to generate optimum conditions that allow for the assessment of a combination of parameters such as energy, economic, and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems.

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  • 34.
    Olsson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    From Technocracy to Democracy: Ways to Promote Democratic Engagement for Just Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Building2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1433-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and the policy responses to it have implications in terms of (in)justice. Research in fields such as political ecology and environmental justice emphasizes the importance of policy-making addressing and responding to climate injustices. It, moreover, stresses that democratic engagement is imperative, since no universal agreement on the meaning of “justice” exists. Demo- cratic engagement on climate (in)justice is, however, hampered by the predominance of technocratic policy frames. Considering this, knowledge of ways to promote democratic engagement is called for. This study develops such knowledge related to policy-making for climate change adaptation and resilience at the local level, in developed country contexts. Specifically, it draws on the “what’s the problem represented to be?” approach to conceptualize different styles of democratic engagement and examine the possibilities and limitations of each. From the data, comprised of previous research, representations of three styles of democratic engagement are identified and analyzed: (1) closure- oriented engagement centered on changing behaviors, (2) closure-oriented engagement centered on changing the systemic production of unjust practices, and (3) disruptive engagement centered on changing the systemic production of unjust practices. The contributions of this study are relevant to researchers, policymakers, activists and others interested in how to promote a democratization of climate policy-making.

  • 35.
    Olsson, David
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Uppsala University; RMIT University, AUS.
    Building a Sustainable Society: Construction, Public Procurement Policy and 'Best Practice' in the European Union2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 7142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability and sustainable development are political and essentially contested social phenomena. Despite this ambiguity, they continue to hold a central position as apolitical concepts in much of social science and policy making. In Europe, public procurement is increasingly used as a tool to reach sustainability, a fact that actualizes an inherent tension between politically charged objectives on the one hand, and technological processes and market logics on the other. Therefore, in this article, we investigate this tension by studying policies relating to sustainable public procurement of the built environment in the EU. We argue that governing any policy domain entails the construction and representation of particular policy problems. Hence, we focus on how the 'problems' of sustainable public procurement are represented in EU policy guidance and best practice documents. Our analysis shows that these central policy documents are dominated by a problem representation where unsustainability is constructed as technical design flaws and market failure. This has the primary effect that it renders sustainable development as, primarily, a technical issue, and beyond politics. Therefore, we conclude that current policy reproduces 'weak' forms of sustainable development, where the practice is depoliticized and premised upon continued growth and innovation.

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  • 36.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kawabata, Yuichiro
    Kyoto University, JPN.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, JPN.
    Integrating Planned Behavior and Stage-of-Change into a Cycling Campaign2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 10116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cycling campaign was assessed that used three different nudging conditions to progress people's stage of motivation to make travel behavioral changes. The results of three waves of survey data showed that this cycling campaign generally strengthened their stage of motivation to reduce car use and that this stage-change, in turn, reduced actual car use while increasing bike use. It was observed that an improvement of cognitive psychological mechanisms was positively related to people's motivation to change. Although the effect of the campaign was stronger just after it had ended (Wave 2), a reduction in car use, an increase in bike use, and an increase in the stage of motivation were still found three months after the campaign had ended. This is important as it shows that effects favoring sustainable travel last beyond the timeframe of the intervention. We conclude that travel interventions should aim to integrate processes that emphasize cognitive psychological mechanisms and people's motivation to change as these drive a sustainable behavioral change.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Maier, Raphaela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Why do they ride with others? Meta-analysis of factors influencing travelers to carpool2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 1-16, article id 2414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpooling can be viewed as a simple intervention to reduce congestion, environmental problems, and land use for parking spaces. The present study assembled 18 studies on carpooling from all over the world that were published during the last five years (2014–2018) for a meta-analysis. By calculating effect sizes of 20 different factors, the study aimed to understand user characteristics, motives, and barriers to carpooling, and to gain insights about carpool interventions. Our results indicate that carpooling is very weakly related to socio-demographic variables, and that psychological factors are becoming more important, including monetary and time benefits, reducing congestion, and environmental concerns. Policy-makers can increase carpooling by offering cheaper parking or special parking spaces for carpoolers and introducing high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Not surprisingly, fuel prices influence mode choice. The overall findings support previous results, but we found judgmental factors becoming more important for the choice to carpool. We conclude that carpooling services still fail to include many potential users and to serve users adequately. The challenge of meeting the needs of all users requires new approaches to designing carpool concepts, systems, and encounters.

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  • 38.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Sinha, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology .
    Frostell, B.
    Ecoloop AB.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    What Can Be Done to Change?: The Environmental and Behavioral Consequences of Interventions for Sustainable Travel2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 1345Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Palm, Kristina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karolinska Institutet;KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Rosengren, Calle
    Lund University.
    Towards More Proactive Sustainable Human Resource Management Practices?: A Study on Stress Due to the ICT-Mediated Integration of Work and Private Life2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 8303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses sustainability in Human Resource Management (HRM) in the blurred digital working life, focusing on the emotion of stress. Its empirical basis is an activity and emotion diary study conducted with 26 employees of three industrial companies in Sweden. Our results show that work and private life are integrated by digital activities and also by emotions. Due to the extensive use of digital devices, stress in the working sphere is not only connected with work, and stress in the private sphere is not only connected with private life. The study also shows that stress is often episodic and can end due to activities connected with both the trigger and non-trigger spheres. From a social sustainability perspective, this study suggests that HRM should gently extend employee consideration beyond the traditional temporal and spatial boundaries of work, i.e., also including private life when understanding work in the digital age.

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  • 40.
    Rafiee, Hamed
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Aminizadeh, Milad
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Hosseini, Elham Mehrparvar
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Aghasafari, Hanane
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A Cluster Analysis on the Energy Use Indicators and Carbon Footprint of Irrigated Wheat Cropping Systems2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 4014-4014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to analyze the energy use efficiency and carbon footprint of irrigated wheat systems in different Iranian provinces. The authors resort to the k-means clustering technique to fulfil the said objective. The empirical results reveal that the average total input energy (59.5 GJ ha−1) is higher than the average energy output (45.82 GJ ha−1) from wheat production, resulting in an average energy efficiency of 0.77, thus rendering the production of irrigated wheat in Iran energy-inefficient on average. Among the thirty wheat-producing Iranian provinces considered in this analysis, only six—East Azerbaijan, Golestan, Ardabil, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Alborz, and West Azerbaijan—register an energy use efficiency greater than unity. The average total of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated wheat is 2243.54 kg CO2-eq ha−1 (with electricity and diesel fuel contributing 52.4% and 29.4%, respectively). The authors categorize the clusters into five groups ranging from sustainable to unsustainable. Five of the six provinces referred to earlier fall into the ‘sustainable’ category, with Bushehr being the sixth. The wheat production units in the ‘sustainable’ category can serve as a benchmark for the clusters in the other categories, which can move up the ladder of sustainability. The authors also recommend measures that policymakers can undertake to ensure the sustainable development of wheat production in Iran, fulfilling the social imperative of food self-sufficiency while truncating the environmental footprint and ensuring economic feasibility.

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  • 41.
    Raivio, Magdalena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Skaremyr, Ellinor
    University of Borås.
    Kuusisto, Arniika
    Stockholm University; University of Helsinki.
    Caring for Worldviews in Early Childhood Education: Theoretical and Analytical Tool for Socially Sustainable Communities of Care2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 3815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societies of today are becoming increasingly pluralistic. This applies also to the diversity of values and worldviews in Swedish early childhood education and care (ECEC). Still, in the increasingly secular contexts, societal hegemony often fails to include children's home religions and worldviews in the actions and understandings aiming towards inclusiveness. We argue that it is of critical importance to also include the plurality of worldviews in the educational perception of "the whole child" in the care and education taking place in ECEC. The purpose of this article is to connect the discussions in the fields of intercultural and interreligious education, in particular those dealing with the diversity of religions and worldviews, to discussions on care and social sustainability in ECEC. The UN Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development promotes inclusive and equitable education, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child states children's right to freedom of religion and a concern for the spiritual, moral, and social development. Our previous findings have illustrated the importance of religions and worldviews in the intercultural work within early childhood education, both empirically and conceptually, and as part of the moral core of teaching. This article employs feminist and postcolonial ethics of care as a theoretical lens in elaborating on the three key notions: social sustainability, care, and worldviews. Several discursive challenges that ECEC teachers in Sweden face in their work, to enhance social sustainability by supporting the child's well-being and sense of belonging in the ECEC, have been outlined. To conclude, we bring forth a theoretical and analytical tool for the understanding, researching, and planning of socially sustainable communities of care.

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  • 42.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol Stockholm, Sch Architecture & Built Environm, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn SEED, Teknikringen 10B, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Frostell, Bjorn
    Ecoloop AB, S-11646 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sustainable Personal Transport Modes in a Life Cycle Perspective-Public or Private?2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 24, article id 7092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle-based studies endorse public transport to cause lower environmental pressures compared to a private car. However, a private car can cause lower environmental pressure when a public vehicle (bus or train) runs on a lower occupancy during an off-peak hour. This fact should be the basis for a more profound debate regarding public versus private transport. Many transport interventions are striving to reduce the number of car transports. To reach this goal, passengers need attractive alternatives to their reduced number of car travels (i.e., attractive public transport). This study aimed to develop a model allowing us to estimate potential environmental gains by changing travel behavior. A passenger travel model was developed based on life cycle inventories (LCI) of different travel modes to calculate environmental footprints. The model was applied in an intervention of public transport through temporary free public transport. The intervention was successful in significantly reducing the number of car transports (12%). However, total passenger kilometer travelled (PKT) increased substantially more, mainly by bus, but also train, bicycle and walking. The total energy, carbon and nitrogen oxide footprints were slightly increased after the intervention. If the commuters were assumed to travel during peak hours or the number of public transports were not affected by the increased number of commuters, the overall environmental footprints decreased. Our conclusions are that transport interventions are very complex. They may result in desired changes, but also in altered travel behavior, increasing overall impact. Thus, a very broad evaluation of all transport modes as well as potential positive social influences of the transport intervention will be necessary.

  • 43.
    Sund, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Stockholm University.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    More than two decades of research on selective traditions in environmental and sustainability education: seven functions of the concept2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 6524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates functions of the concept of selective traditions by means of a qualitative systematic review synthesis of earlier research. The study is based on a review method for integrating qualitative studies and looks for “themes” in or across them. In this case, it is about how the identified publications (twenty-four in total) use the concept of selective traditions. All but two studies stem from the Swedish context. The selective traditions relate to teachers’ approaches to the content, methods and purposes of environmental and sustainability education (ESE). Teachers mainly work within one specific selective tradition. Seven different functions were found in the publications of which five are claimed to be valuable for the development of ESE teaching, while the other two functions are useful in monitoring changes and development in ESE teaching. The results are discussed in terms of the consequences for research, practice and teacher education aiming at offering suggestions on how to develop future (transformative) ESE teaching.

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  • 44.
    Vikström, Linda
    et al.
    SLU.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    SLU.
    Leander, Johan
    SLU.
    Shry, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hellström, Gustav
    SLU.
    Validation of Francis–Kaplan Turbine Blade Strike Models for Adult and Juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar, L.) and Anadromous Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta, L.) Passing High Head Turbines2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative eects of hydroelectric power (HEP) on salmonid populations has longbeen recognized and studied. Downstream passage through turbines may potentially constitute asignificant source of mortality for both juvenile and adult fish in regulated rivers. Numerical modelshave been developed to calculate turbine passage mortality based on the probability of collision withthe turbine blades, but although widely used in management and conservation, their performanceis rarely validated in terms of the accuracy and bias of the mortality estimates. In this study,we evaluated commonly used blade strike models for Kaplan and Francis turbines by comparingmodel predictions with observed passage mortalities for juvenile 13–27 cm and adult 52–94 cmAtlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) and anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.) acquired by acoustictelemetry. Predictions made for juveniles aligned closer with observed mortality for both Kaplan andFrancis turbines (within 1–3% percentage points). However, the model severely underestimated themortality of adult fish passing through Francis turbines, with up to 50% percentage points dierencebetween predicted and observed mortalities. Furthermore, the model did not capture a clear negativecorrelation between mortality and discharge observed for salmon between 50–60 cm (grilse). Weconcluded that blade strike models are a useful tool for quantifying passage mortality for salmonidsmolts passing large, high-head turbines, but that the same models should be used with care whentrying to estimate the passage mortality of kelts in iteroparous populations. We also concluded thatthe major cause of passage mortality for juveniles is injury by collision with the turbine blade, butthat other factors seem to contribute substantially to the passage mortality of kelts. Our study reportslow mortality for smolts up to 27 cm passing through Kaplan and Francis turbines (0–12%), but highmortality for salmon over 50 cm passing though Francis turbines (56–81%).

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  • 45.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Rowe, Zane
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The importance of packaging functions for food waste of different products in households2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1-16, article id 2641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations sustainability goal SDG 12.3 is to reduce the amount of food that is wasted by half, due to environmental and social reasons. This paper aims to analyse the most important packaging functions that affect food waste in households for different products, as the reason for wastage can be expected to differ between different products. The reasons for food wastage of different categories and products have been compiled through literature studies, and possible improvements of packaging functions to reduce food waste have been identified. In addition, an expert workshop judged the most important packaging functions to reduce food waste for a number of products. They also discussed the obstacles and possibilities to realise the packaging improvements. This study confirms that how packaging functions influence food waste on the product level is a highly unexplored question. Most likely, there is high potential to reduce food waste through better adaptions of packaging functions to user needs and habits. Both the literature study and the expert workshop show that less food per pack and better information regarding food safety and storage have high potential to reduce food waste, but also that product specific considerations are necessary.

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  • 46.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

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