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  • 1.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Choi, H
    Schmidbauer, N
    Spengler, J
    Sundell, J
    Hasselgren, M
    Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children2010Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Health problems during childhood and school achievement: Exploring associations between hospitalization exposures, gender, timing, and compulsory school grades2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 1-14, artikel-id e0208116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To investigate while accounting for health at birth 1) associations between health problems during childhood, measured as hospitalizations, and school achievement in the final year of compulsory school, measured as overall grade points and eligibility for upper secondary education, 2) if and how gender moderates the association between health problems and school achievement, 3) if and how the timing of a health problem during childhood is associated with later school achievement. Methods Analyzes were performed on a population-based cohort (n = 115 196) born in 1990 in Sweden (51.3% boys, 48.7% girls) using data from several national registries. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between study variables. Results Overall grade points and eligibility for continuation to upper secondary school were lower for individuals exposed to hospitalizations. Only the association between hospitalizations and overall grade points was moderated by gender and only for ages 13-16 years. Exposure close to actual grading had worst outcomes. Conclusions Health problems, measured through hospitalizations, was significantly associated with lower school achievements among Swedish children. Girls exposed to health problems requiring hospitalizations had relatively poorer school achievements as compared to boys. Health problems requiring hospitalization during junior high school had the greatest negative association with final achievement at compulsory school.

  • 3.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Skov, Christian
    Silkeborg university, Denmark.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Fixed and Flexible: Coexistence of Obligate and Facultative Migratory Strategies in a Freshwater Fish2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. e90294-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Ammitxbøll, Jeppe
    Lundsuniversitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    Optimal swimming speed in head currents and effects on distance movement of winter-migrating fish2008Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. e2156-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Rodríguez-Gil, Jose Luis
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University .
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Olof
    Lund University.
    Temperature and resource availability may interactively affect over-wintering success of juvenile fish in a changing climate2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 10, artikel-id e24022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lakowitz, Thomas
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    Lund University.
    Lennartsdotter, Charlotte
    Lund University.
    Hollander, Johan
    Costs of inducible defence along a resource gradient2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id e30467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Skov, Christian
    DTU-AQUA, Denmark.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth2008Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3(4), s. e1957-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Carver, Rebecca Bruu
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Commun, Oslo, Norway..
    Castera, Jeremy
    Aix Marseille Univ, ENS Lyon, ADEF EA4671, Aix Marseille, France..
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Menezes Evangelista, Neima Alice
    Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Biol, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    El-Hani, Charbel N.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Biol, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    Young Adults' Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id e0169808Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.

  • 9.
    Chapman, Ben B
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Eriksen, Anders
    Aarhus university.
    Baktoft, Henrik
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Silkeborg, Denmark .
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland .
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Grønkjær, Peter
    Aarhus University.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Silkeborg, Denmark .
    A foraging cost of migration for a partially migratory cyprinid fish2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikel-id e61223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems.

  • 10.
    Curseu, Petru Lucian
    et al.
    Tilburg University; Cognitrom.
    Krehel, Oleh
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Evers, Joep H. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: A simulation study2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  • 11.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Backe, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping university.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping university.
    Is "football for all" safe for all?: Cross-Sectional Study of Disparities as Determinants of 1-Year Injury Prevalence in Youth Football Programs2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 8, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Football (soccer) is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health) were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2%) youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury.

    Conclusion

    Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health promotion, football associations should adjust community-based youth programs to accommodate children and adolescents with increased pre-participation injury risk.

  • 12.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    et al.
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Ruch, Diana
    Otte, Annette
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
    Invasibility of a Nutrient-Poor Pasture through Resident and Non-Resident Herbs Is Controlled by Litter, Gap Size and Propagule Pressure2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id e41887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since inference concerning the relative effects of propagule pressure, biotic interactions, site conditions and species traits on the invasibility of plant communities is limited, we carried out a field experiment to study the role of these factors for absolute and relative seedling emergence in three resident and three non-resident confamilial herb species on a nutrient-poor temperate pasture. We set up a factorial field experiment with two levels each of the factors litter cover (0 and 400 g m(-2)), gap size (0.01 and 0.1 m(2)) and propagule pressure (5 and 50 seeds) and documented soil temperature, soil water content and relative light availability. Recruitment was recorded in spring and autumn 2010 and in spring 2011 to cover initial seedling emergence, establishment after summer drought and final establishment after the first winter. Litter alleviated temperature and moisture conditions and had positive effects on proportional and absolute seedling emergence during all phases of recruitment. Large gaps presented competition-free space with high light availability but showed higher temperature amplitudes and lower soil moisture. Proportional and absolute seedling recruitment was significantly higher in large than in small gaps. In contrast, propagule pressure facilitated absolute seedling emergence but had no effects on proportional emergence or the chance for successful colonisation. Despite significantly higher initial seedling emergence of resident than non-resident species, seed mass and other species-specific traits may be better predictors for idiosyncratic variation in seedling establishment than status. Our data support the fluctuating resource hypothesis and demonstrate that the reserve effect of seeds may facilitate seedling emergence. The direct comparison of propagule pressure with other environmental factors showed that propagule pressure affects absolute seedling abundance, which may be crucial for species that depend on other individuals for sexual reproduction. However, propagule batch size did not significantly affect the chance for successful colonisation of disturbed plots.

  • 13.
    Eros, Tibor
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi. Balaton Limnological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Forest-Stream linkages: Effects of Terrestrial Invertebrate Input and Light on Diet and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in a Boreal Forest Stream2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2 x 2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-monthlong experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  • 14.
    Gattringer, Johannes P.
    et al.
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Nat Resource Conservat, Dept Landscape Ecol, Kiel, Germany..
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Ludewig, Kristin
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Otte, Annette
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Harvolk-Schoening, Sarah
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id e0176869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

  • 15.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    A quasi-experimental evaluation of compliant flooring in a residential care setting2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0201290Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Fall injuries affect the lives of older people to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental observational study investigates the potential fall injury reducing effect of a compliant flooring in a residential care setting.

    Methods

    The allocation of the compliant flooring was non-random. Data on fall-events and individual characteristics were collected in a residential care unit during a period of 68 months. The primary outcome was the fall injury rate per fall, and a logistic regression analysis was used to test for the effect of complaint flooring. Falls per 1000 bed days was the secondary outcome, used to measure the difference in fall risk on compliant flooring versus regular flooring.

    Results

    The event dataset is an unbalanced panel with repeated observations on 114 individuals, with 70% women. The mean age was 84.9 years of age, the average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.7, and there was a mean of 6.57 (SD: 15.28) falls per individual. The unadjusted effect estimate showed a non-significant relative risk injury reduction of 29% per fall (RR 0.71 [95% CI: 0.46–1.09]) compared to regular flooring. Re-estimating, excluding identified outliers, showed an injury risk reduction of 63% (RR 0.37 [95% CI: 0.25–0.54]). Falls per 1000 bed days showed that individuals living in apartments with compliant flooring had a fall rate of 5.3 per 1000 bed days compared to a fall rate of 8.4 per 1000 bed days among individuals living in regular apartments. This corresponds to an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.63 (95% exact Poisson CI: 0.50–0.80).

    Conclusion

    The results of this non-randomized study indicate that compliant flooring has the potential to reduce the risk of fall injury without increasing the fall risk among older people in a Swedish residential care setting.

  • 16.
    Haque, M. Atiqul
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Rahman, A. K. M. Fazlur
    Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Syed Shariful
    Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Mashreky, Saidur Rahman
    Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Children's exposure to physical abuse from a child perspective: A population-based study in rural Bangladesh2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id e0212428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although child physical abuse (CPA) is considered as a major global public health problem, it has not yet been recognized as such in Bangladesh. Very few studies have assessed the prevalence and victims' characteristics of multiple forms of CPA. Objective This population-based study assessed the prevalence of CPA committed by adults in a rural area of Bangladesh and examined its association with demographic and socio-contextual factors. Methods Data were obtained using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C) in a random sample of 1416 children (49% girls, 51% boys) aged 11 to 17 years by face-to-face interviews during March-April 2017. The response rate was 91.5%. To estimate predictors of CPA, physical abuse was categorized into frequent and less frequent groups. Results The prevalence of at least one form (>= 1), two forms (>= 2) and three or more forms (>= 3) of CPA were estimated approximately to 99%, 95% and 83% in their lifetime and 93%, 79%, and 57% in the past year respectively. Hitting (except on buttocks), standing/kneeling and slapping were the most common physical abuse whereas given drugs or alcohol, pinched, burned or scalded, beaten-up and locked up were less reported. Female children were faced severe forms of CPA more than that of males. Male children, younger age groups, witnessing adults using weapons at home, bullied by siblings and low level of maternal education were found to be significant risk factors for both >= 1 form and >= 2 forms of frequent CPA whereas adding also adult shouting in a frightening way was found as a significant risk factor for >= 2 forms of frequent CPA. Conclusion Self-reported prevalence of CPA is extremely common in the Bangladeshi rural society. The prevalence was associated with demographic and socio-contextual characteristics of the children such as being younger, witnessing domestic violence and maternal low education. The findings provide evidence to support parents and policy-makers to take effective measures to implement policy and programme on alternative up-bringing methods and creating awareness of negative effects of CM which in turn help Bangladesh to line up with UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the country signed in 1990.

  • 17.
    Hattermann, Dirk
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
    Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus
    Friedrich Schiller University , Jena, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    New insights into island vegetation composition and species diversity: Consistent and conditional responses across contrasting insular habitats at the plot-scale2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0200191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most island-ecology studies focus on the properties of entire island communities, thus neglecting species-environment relationships operating at the habitat-level. Habitat-specific variation in the strength and sign of these relationships will conceal patterns observed on the island scale and may preclude a mechanistic interpretation of patterns and processes. Habitat-specific species-environment relationships may also depend on the descriptor of ecological communities. This paper presents a comprehensive plot-based analysis of local vegetation composition and species diversity (species richness and species evenness) of (i) rocky shore, (ii) semi-natural grassland and (iii) coniferous forest habitats in three Baltic archipelagos in Sweden. To identify differences and consistencies between habitats and descriptors, we assessed the relative contributions of the variable-sets “region”, “topography”, “soil morphology”, “soil fertility”, “soil water”, “light availability”, “distance” and “island configuration” on local vegetation composition, species richness and species evenness. We quantified the impact of “management history” on the descriptors of local grassland communities by a newly introduced grazing history index (GHI). Unlike species diversity, changes in vegetation composition were related to most of the variable-sets. The relative contributions of the variable-sets were mostly habitat-specific and strongly contingent on the descriptor involved. Within each habitat, richness and evenness were only partly affected by the same variable-sets, and if so, their relative contribution varied between diversity proxies. Across all habitats, soil variable-sets showed highly consistent effects on vegetation composition and species diversity and contributed most to the variance explained. GHI was a powerful predictor, explaining high proportions of variation in all three descriptors of grassland species communities. The proportion of unexplained variance was habitat-specific, possibly reflecting a community maturity gradient. Our results reveal that species richness alone is an incomplete representation of local species diversity. Finally, we stress the need of including habitat-based approaches when analyzing complex species-environment relationships on islands.

  • 18.
    Lesutiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Klaipeda Univ, Marine Sci & Technol Ctr, Klaipeda, Lithuania.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Biol, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stankeviciene, Daiva
    Nat Res Ctr, Inst Ecol, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Greenberg, Larry A.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Light Increases Energy Transfer Efficiency in a Boreal Stream2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e113675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different light and nutrient levels to estimate energy transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic C-13. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to light levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating light and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. Light had significant positive effect on C-13 uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on C-13 uptake but only at sub-saturating light levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, C-13 uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific C-13 uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of light and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific C-13 uptake and C: nutrient ratios. The energy transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between C-13 uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by light conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on energy transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher light levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low light levels would facilitate energy loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in light intensity could result in community-wide effects on periphyton in boreal streams, with a subsequent increase in energy transfer and system productivity.

  • 19.
    Lexomboon, Duangjai
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Pär
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Adolfsson, Jan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Interventions and Technology, Karolinska Institute.
    Ekbom, Anders
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Naimi-Akbar, Aron
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Bahmanyar, Shahram
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Consumption and direct costs of dental care for patients with head and neck cancer: A 16-year cohort study2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e0182877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with head and neck (H&N) cancer are commonly treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy, which can increase the risk of oral infection, dental caries, and periodontal disease. The present study investigated dental care consumption and costs in patient with H&N cancer before and after the cancer diagnosis. Data from Swedish regional and national registers were used to follow up dental care utilization and dental procedure costs. The analysis included 2,754 patients who had been diagnosed with H&N cancer (exposed cohort) in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 2000–2012 and 13,036 matched persons without cancer (unexposed cohort). The exposed cohort was sub-grouped into irradiated and non-irradiated patients for analysis. The exposed cohort underwent a moderately higher number of dental procedures per year than the unexposed cohort in both the year of the cancer diagnosis and the year after cancer diagnosis; in addition, these numbers were higher in the irradiated than in the non-irradiated subgroup of the exposed cohort. Dental care consumption and costs in the exposed cohort declined over time but remained at a slightly higher level than in the unexposed cohort over the long term (more than two years). Examinations and preventive procedures accounted for most of the higher consumption in the short term (2 years) and at the longer term follow-up. Swedish national insurance subsidized costs for dental treatment, which were highest in the irradiated subgroup and lowest in the unexposed cohort. Direct costs to the patient, however, were similar among the groups. Swedish national health insurance protects patients with H&N cancer from high dental expenditures. Further studies on the cost-effectiveness of preventive dental care for patients are needed.

  • 20.
    Lin, Ping-I
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Fei, Lin
    Cincinnati Childrens Hosp .
    Barzman, Drew
    Cincinnati Childrens Hosp .
    Hossain, M.
    What have we learned from the time trend of mass shootings in the US?2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0204722Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known regarding the time trend of mass shootings and associated risk factors. In the current study, we intended to explore the time trend and relevant risk factors for mass shootings in the U.S. We attempted to identify factors associated with incidence rates of mass shootings at the population level. We evaluated if state-level gun ownership rate, serious mental illness rate, poverty percentage, and gun law permissiveness could predict the state-level mass shooting rate, using the Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson regression model. We also tested if the nationwide incidence rate of mass shootings increased over the past three decades using the non-homogenous Poisson regression model. We further examined if the frequency of online media coverage and online search interest levels correlated with the interval between two consecutive incidents. The results suggest an increasing trend of mass shooting incidences over time (p < 0.001). However, none of the state-level variables could predict the mass shooting rate. Interestingly, we have found inverse correlations between the interval between consecutive shootings and the frequency of on-line related reports as well as on-line search interests, respectively (p < 0.001). Therefore, our findings suggest that online media might correlate with the increasing incidence rate of mass shootings. Future research is warranted to continue monitoring if the incidence rates of mass shootings change with any population-level factors in order to inform us of possible prevention strategies.

  • 21.
    Lindegren, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Vigliano, Pablo
    Univ Nacl Comahue, Argentina.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in patagonia2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 10, artikel-id e44350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22. Ludewig, Kristin
    et al.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Zelle, Bianka
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper. nstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Managementnstitute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Management, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, Eva
    Otte, Annette
    Jensen, Kai
    Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0124140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future.

    Methods

    We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    Results

    The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change.

  • 23.
    Luning, H.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mangelus, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Food Hlth & Nutr, Ctr Hlth & Performance, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Carlstrom, E.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nilson, F.
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Borjesson, M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Food Hlth & Nutr, Ctr Hlth & Performance, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Incidence and characteristics of severe exercise-associated collapse at the world's largest half-marathon2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 6, artikel-id e0217465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whilst many health benefits are associated with regular exercise, medical complications may occur during higher-intensity activities, such as long distance running contests. The most common complication is collapse. However, the incidence and characteristics of these collapses are not very well studied. Method This is a retrospective study of severe collapse, defined as a patient in need of advanced medical care after a collapse, during the large Gothenburg's half marathon, Goteborgsvarvet. The study included 230,501 competitors during the study-period of 5 years (20132017) with data being collected from medical race tents and using ambulance data. Vital signs, treatment and blood gas samples were noted and analyzed. Results The incidence of severe collapse was 1.53 per 1000 starting runners. The average age for patients was 34 years old and no difference in incidence were seen between male and female runners. The typical collapsed runner presented with tachycardia, normal systolic blood pressure, elevated body temperature and metabolic acidosis. The most common medical encounter was exercise-associated collapse. Conclusion The incidence of severe collapse was similar to findings in other studies, even though this study was set in different part of the world. Typical characteristics of a collapsed runner were identified providing new information which could be beneficial in the medical planning of larger running competitions and future preventative interventions. Importantly, life threatening conditions seem uncommon; no case of hyponatremia and only two cases of hypoglycemia were seen.

  • 24.
    Nicolle, Alice
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Interactions between predation and resources shape zooplankton population dynamics2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id e16534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007–20162018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikel-id e0195626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the last decade, an increasing popularity of marathons has been seen. Although running has been shown to have considerable positive health effects, the risk of sudden death, most often due to sudden cardiac arrests, is also a risk runners expose themselves to. Whilst there are some studies on the mortality amongst long-distance runners, much of the evidence is dated. Given the increased popularity in running during the 21st century as well as the improvements in medical care at marathons, more knowledge is required on the mortality risk. Materials and method Publicly available racing and news databases were used to identify the number of entrants and finishers in half to full marathons in Sweden between 2007 and 2016 and the number of deaths that occurred in conjunction with the races. Results A total of 1,156,271 runners entered a long distance (21-42km) running race in Sweden between 2007 and 2016, and 834,412 runners finished the races (72.2%). A large majority of the finishers (677,050 (81%)) competed in distances under a full marathon. Two deaths occurred during the time period, meaning that the death rate was 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.79) per 100,000 finishers. Conclusions This study can show that death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies. When added to the existing literature, the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s. 

  • 26.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Damsager, John
    Lauritsen, Jens
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    The effect of breed-specific dog legislation on hospital treated dog bites in Odense, Denmark: A time series intervention study2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id e0208393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As dog bite injuries are a considerable problem in modern society, in order to reduce such injuries, breed-specific legislation has been introduced in a number of countries. Whilst many studies have shown a lack of effect with such legislation, the commonly used methodology is known to be flawed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the Danish breed-specific legislation on the number of dog bite injuries using more credible methods. A time series intervention method was used on a detailed dataset from Odense University Hospital, Denmark, regarding dog bite injuries presented to the emergency department. The results indicate that banning certain breeds has a highly limited effect on the overall levels of dog bite injuries, and that an enforcement of the usage of muzzle and leash in public places for these breeds also has a limited effect. Despite using more credible and sound methods, this study supports previous studies showing that breed-specific legislation seems to have no effect on dog bite injuries. In order to minimise dog bite injuries in the future, it would seem that other interventions or non-breed-specific legislation should be considered as the primary option.

  • 27.
    Ranaker, Lynn
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Persson, Jens
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Lund university.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund university.
    Piscivore-Prey Fish Interactions: Mechanisms behind Diurnal Patterns in Prey Selectivity in Brown and Clear Water2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. e102002-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters.

  • 28.
    Ranåker, Lynn
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Effects of degraded optical conditions on behavioural responses to alarm cues in a freshwater fish2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikel-id e38411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prey organisms often use multiple sensory cues to gain reliable information about imminent predation threat. In this study we test if a freshwater fish increases the reliance on supplementary cues when the reliability of the primary cue is reduced. Fish commonly use vision to evaluate predation threat, but may also use chemical cues from predators or injured conspecifics. Environmental changes, such as increasing turbidity or water colour, may compromise the use of vision through changes in the optical properties of water. In an experiment we tested if changes in optical conditions have any effects on how crucian carp respond to chemical predator cues. In turbidity treatments we added either clay or algae, and in a brown water colour treatment we added water with a high humic content. We found that carp reduced activity in response to predator cues, but only in the turbidity treatments (clay, algae), whereas the response in the brown water treatment was intermediate, and not significantly different from, clear and turbid water treatments. The increased reliance on chemical cues indicates that crucian carp can compensate for the reduced information content from vision in waters where optical conditions are degraded. The lower effect in brown water may be due to the reduction in light intensity, changes in the spectral composition (reduction of UV light) or to a change in chemical properties of the cue in humic waters.

  • 29.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Lappalainen, Päivi
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Psychological inflexibility explains distress in parents whose children have chronic conditions2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0201155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiential avoidance, cognitive defusion, and mindfulness have all been associated with psychological disorders and well-being. This study investigates whether they predict psychological distress, i.e., symptoms of burnout, depression, stress and anxiety, in parents of children with chronic conditions. We hypothesized that these factors would exhibit a large degree of common variance, and that when compared to mindfulness and defusion, experiential avoidance on its own would predict a larger proportion of unique variance. 75 parents of children with chronic conditions having burnout symptoms who participated in an intervention study completed measures of burnout, stress, anxiety, depression, experiential avoidance, cognitive defusion, and mindfulness at the beginning of the intervention study (baseline). We ran several regression analyses to assess the predictive ability of these different constructs. Experiential avoidance on its own accounted for 28-48% of the variance in different psychological symptoms. Cognitive defusion and mindfulness did not make a significant contribution to explaining burnout, stress and anxiety, but cognitive defusion contributed to explaining depression. The results confirmed our hypothesis, supporting research on the importance of psychological flexibility as a central factor in understanding the occurrence of psychological distress.

  • 30.
    Schulz, Benjamin
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Durka, Walter
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany..
    Danihelka, Jiri
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic; The Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic..
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Differential role of a persistent seed bank for genetic variation in early vs. late successional stages2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id e0209840Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent seed banks are predicted to have an important impact on population genetic processes by increasing effective population size and storing past genetic diversity. Accordingly, persistent seed banks may buffer genetic effects of disturbance, fragmentation and/or selection. However, empirical studies surveying the relationship between aboveground and seed bank genetics under changing environments are scarce. Here, we compared genetic variation of aboveground and seed bank cohorts in 15 populations of the partially cleistogamous Viola elatior in two contrasting early and late successional habitats characterized by strong differences in light-availability and declining population size. Using AFLP markers, we found significantly higher aboveground than seed bank genetic diversity in early successional meadow but not in late successional woodland habitats. Moreover, individually, three of eight woodland populations even showed higher seed bank than aboveground diversity. Genetic differentiation among populations was very strong ((ST) = 0.8), but overall no significant differentiation could be detected between above ground and seed bank cohorts. Small scale spatial genetic structure was generally pronounced but was much stronger in meadow (Sp-statistic: aboveground: 0.60, seed bank: 0.32) than in woodland habitats (aboveground: 0.11; seed bank: 0.03). Our findings indicate that relative seed bank diversity (i.e. compared to aboveground diversity) increases with ongoing succession and despite decreasing population size. As corroborated by markedly lower small-scale genetic structure in late successional habitats, we suggest that the observed changes in relative seed bank diversity are driven by an increase of outcrossing rates. Persistent seed banks in Viola elatior hence will counteract effects of drift and selection, and assure a higher chance for the species' long term persistence, particularly maintaining genetic variation in declining populations of late successional habitats and thus enhancing success rates of population recovery after disturbance events.

  • 31.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Stockholms universitet.
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wikstrom, Sverre
    Örebro univeristet.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Prevent Med, New York.
    Temporal trends and predictors of perfluoroalkyl substances serum levels in Swedish pregnant women in the SELMA study2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id e0209255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous consumer products. They are persistent, bioaccumulating, and suspected to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A growing body of research has reported the association between PFAS exposure and adverse health effects. Concerns have been raised with special focus in childhood development. Methods Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS in serum from 1,616 pregnant women in the Swedish SELMA study. The serum samples were collected in the first trimester (median week 10). Least square geometric means (LSGM) of PFAS were estimated for each year period for, adjusted for potential determinants including parity, fish intake in the family, and mother's age. Results Six PFAS (PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS) were detected above levels of detection (LOD) in more than 99% of the SELMA women, while PFHpA, and PFDoDA were detected above LOD in 73.4% and 46.7% respectively. Parity, maternal age, maternal smoking, and fish intake during pregnancy were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with serum PFAS levels in the pregnant women. Finally, serum concentration of six PFAS (PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFHpA, PFOA and PFOS) were significantly decreasing (range 14-31%) during the period of 30 months from 2007-2010. Conclusions Our analysis shows that six out of eight PFAS could be identified in serum of more than 99% of SELMA subjects with a significant slightly decreasing trend for five of these compounds. Furthermore, parity, higher fish intake and mothers age are determinants for serum levels of PFAS in pregnant women.

  • 32.
    Turunen, Merita
    et al.
    National Institute of Health & Welfare THL, Finland..
    Hokkanen, Laura
    University of Helsinki, Finland..
    Backman, Lars
    Stockholm University; Karolinska Institutet.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Umeå University.
    Hanninen, Tuomo
    Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland..
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kuopio University Hospital, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    National Institute of Health & Welfare THL, Finland; Stockholm University; University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Karolinska Institutet.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    National Institute of Health & Welfare THL, Finland; Karolinska Institutet.
    Computer-based cognitive training for older adults: Determinants of adherence2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 1-12, artikel-id e0219541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities of computer-based cognitive training (CCT) in postponing the onset of dementia are currently unclear, but promising. Our aim is to investigate older adults ' adherence to a long-term CCT program, and which participant characteristics are associated with adherence to the CCT. This study was part of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER). Participants were 60-77-year-old individuals with increased dementia risk, recruited from previous population-based studies. The participants included in this study (n = 631) had been randomized to receive a multi-domain lifestyle intervention, including CCT. The measure of adherence was the number of completed CCT sessions (max = 144) as continuous measure. Due to a substantial proportion of participants with 0 sessions, the zero inflated negative binomial regression analyses were used to enable assessment of both predictors of starting the training and predictors of completing a higher number of training sessions. Several cognitive, demographic, lifestyle, and health-related variables were examined as potential predictors of adherence to CCT. Altogether, 63% of the participants participated in the CCT at least once, 20% completed at least half of the training, and 12% completed all sessions. Previous experience with computers, being married or cohabiting, better memory performance, and positive expectations toward the study predicted greater odds for starting CCT. Previous computer use was the only factor associated with a greater number of training sessions completed. Our study shows that there is a large variation in adherence to a long-lasting CCT among older adults with an increased risk of dementia. The results indicate that encouraging computer use, and taking into account the level of cognitive functioning, may help boost adherence to CCT.

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