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  • 1.
    Aal, Kotaiba Abdul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Di Pietro, Laura
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Renzi, Maria Francesca
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Guglielmetti Mugion, Roberta
    Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.
    Innovation in service ecosystems: An empirical study of the integration of values, brands, service systems and experience rooms2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 619-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend the understanding of innovation in service ecosystems by focussing on the role of values resonance in relation to the integration of brands, service systems and experience rooms.

    Design/methodology/approach – An empirical, explorative case study of an innovative service system is carried out using a narrative approach and presented in the form of a saga.

    Findings – Insights gleaned from the empirical study are used for conceptual developments. Analysis of the empirical case study is presented as four lessons linked to values, brands, service systems and experience rooms.

    Originality/value – The paper extends a conceptual framework of innovative resource integration in service ecosystems. The paper also contributes four propositions to inform theory: values resonance is a basis for service innovation, the innovative integration of brands based on values resonance can foster innovation, the integration of resources across service system boundaries grounded in values resonance can enable innovation and the integration of experience rooms into a coherent servicescape based on values resonance can support novel forms of resource integration and value co-creation efforts in service ecosystems.

    Keywords Service-dominant logic, Brands, Service innovation, Resource integration, Service ecosystem, Values resonance

    Paper type Research paper

  • 2.
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway..
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway.;Norwegian Business Sch, Oslo, Norway..
    Parasuraman, A.
    Univ Miami, Sch Business, Coral Gables, FL 33124 USA..
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Colurcio, Maria
    Univ Magna Graecia Catanzaro Italy, Catanzaro, Italy..
    Linking service design to value creation and service research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding service design and how service design relates to central concepts within service marketing. Design/methodology/approach - For companies, service design is growing in importance and has become a crucial capability to survive in the service-dominant economy. Service design increases the capacity to improve not only service experiences but also organizational design. On this premise, the authors propose a conceptual framework. Findings - By relating service design to research efforts within service marketing, dual value creation can be enhanced. As such, the conceptual framework portrays service design as an enhancer of customer experience and organizational performance. Originality/value - To the authors knowledge, service design has not been discussed in the service marketing literature. Thus, this is the first attempt to see service design in light of well-established service marketing models such as SERVQUAL and an updated version of the Service-profit-chain.

  • 3.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, WE Carey Sch Business, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet
    Univ Queensland, Sch Business, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    Northeastern Univ, DAmoreMcKim Sch Business, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tse, David K.
    Univ Hong Kong, Chinese Management Ctr, Sch Business, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Small details that make big differences: A radical approach to consumption experience as a firm's differentiating strategy2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 253-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Service organizations and marketers have focussed too much of their energy on their core service's performance and too little emphasis on designing a customer journey that enhances the entire customer experience. There is nothing wrong with firms seeking continuous improvement in service quality and customer satisfaction. These efforts are needed for firms to be competitive in the marketplace. The problem occurs when performance levels and service offerings become too similar within an industry, so that price is the only competitive weapon that remains. The purpose of this paper is to argue that in order to break this deadlock, companies need to focus on the small details that make big differences to customers. Design/methodology/approach - The paper builds on interviews with executives in successful service organizations. It provides an analysis of differentiation strategies in diverse service organizations across consumption contexts, nations and cultures around the world. Findings - The paper develops three research propositions and argues for radical approaches to help service organizations truly understand customers and provide service experiences that engage and delight them. The paper argues that the new challenge for marketing is to help companies find and implement these small details to make a large impact on the overall customer experience. Originality/value - In order to truly understand the customer experience, the paper need a holistic view of all interactions customers have with a company. The paper need to understand the customer-firm interactions at all touch points, that is, during search, purchase, consumption and post-consumption. Customer experience involves the customers' cognitive, affective, emotional, social and sensory responses to the firm. The originality of this research lies in the focus on the small details that make a difference to customers during the service process rather than in the final outcome of the service performance.

  • 4.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gallan, Andrew
    DePaul University, USA.
    Orsingher, Chiara
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Zaki, Mohamed
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

  • 5.
    Brodie, Roderick J.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Business, Dept Mkt, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Enhancing theory development in service research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 2-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore enhancing theory development in service research and provide an overview of the five essays on theorizing initiated by the International Network for Service Research workshop, held at Karlstad, Sweden in September 2014. Design/methodology/approach - A collaborative theorizing process which was initiated at the Karlstad, Sweden workshop. Findings - Six (five from the event and the introduction) original and provocative essays that explore different aspects of theorizing in service research. Originality/value - Exploring how a collaborative approach to research can be used.

  • 6.
    Di Pietro, Laura
    et al.
    Univ Roma Tre, Dept Business Studies, Rome, Italy.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Reynoso, Javier
    Renzi, Maria Francesca
    Toni, Martina
    Mugion, Roberta Guglielmetti
    A scaling up framework for innovative service ecosystems: lessons from Eataly and KidZania2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 146-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore why innovative service ecosystems scale up, using a service-dominant logic lens. The focus is on identifying the key drivers of the scaling-up process as the basis for a new conceptual framework on the scaling up of service innovations. Design/methodology/approach - An inductive research design is used to zoom in on two innovative service ecosystems, Eataly and KidZania, to identify the key drivers that can explain why innovations scale up. For both companies, the triangulation of semi-structured interviews, archival sources and in-store observations is used as complementary data sets. Multiple investigators and multiple coders have been involved in the data collection, coding process and analysis. Findings - An extended conceptualization of service innovation is obtained, grounded in a framework of four drivers of scaling up: effectuation as the basis for creating the value proposition; sensing and adapting to local contexts; the reconfiguration and alignment of resources and forms for collaboration between actors; and values' resonance. Originality/value - This study represents one of the first empirical investigations of the key drivers of the scaling up process of service innovations. The paper contributes with a conceptualization of service innovation and why scaling-up processes emerge, emphasizing the existence of multiple constellations of four drivers.

  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Emotions and Stability in Telecom-customer Relationships2009In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Frow, Pennie
    Discipline of Marketing, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Department of Marketing, Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Keiningham, Timothy Lee
    Department of Marketing, Peter J. Tobin College of Business, St John’s University, New York, New York, USA and Rockbridge Associates Inc., Great Falls, Virginia, USA.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Mele, Cristina
    Department of Economics, Management and Institutions, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Tombs, Alastair
    Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Examining how context change foster service innovation2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 932-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of context in service innovation by developing a conceptual framework that illuminates the key elements and trends in context change.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a service ecosystem lens for understanding how elements and trends in context foster service innovation. A conceptual framework identifying the role of context change in fostering service innovation is developed and justified through illustrations across industry settings of health, retailing, banking and education.

    Findings – Context change is conceptualized by three trends – speed, granularity and liquification – that provide an analytical foundation for understanding how changes in the elements of context – space, resources and institutional arrangements – can foster service innovation. The analysis indicates emerging patterns across industries that allow exploring scenarios, grounded in emerging trends and developments in service innovation toward 2050.

    Practical implications – Managers are offered a framework to guide service innovation and help them prepare for the future. The paper also suggests areas for further research.

    Originality/value – The paper contributes with a new conceptualization of context change to identify and explain service innovation opportunities. Managers are offered a framework to guide service innovation and help them prepare for 2050. The paper also suggests areas for further service innovation research, zooming in on contextual changes to prepare for 2050.

  • 9.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS)2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 430-432Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Having a strategy for new service development: does it really matter?2013In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate the role of key strategic factors in new service development (NSD). In particular, the role of service development strategy, a formalised development process, integrated development teams and customer co-creation were investigated and the results were compared with managers' beliefs.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study used a sample of more than 500 service development projects to test a NSD conceptual model. Regression analysis was used to test the relative importance of the key strategic factors, and the results were compared with managers' beliefs.

    Findings – The results show that managers believe that customer co-creation is most important in order to succeed with NSD. However, contrary to management belief, a service development strategy is the “missing link” in improving NSD performance. In addition, the research highlighted an interaction effect between integrated development teams and customer co-creation, which means that project managers should focus on individual competencies on the development team and how they interact with customers throughout the NSD process.

    Originality/value – For a long time, NSD has failed to receive the attention it deserves, not just in practice but also in service research. This study shows that the number of new services put on the market and then withdrawn because of low sales remains as high as 43 per cent. This paper contributes knowledge on how to reduce the number of failures in NSD by pointing out the key strategic factors that influence NSD performance.

  • 11.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ng, G
    Zhi Min, C
    Firth, R
    Ding, Y
    Does Service-Dominant Design Result in a Better Service System?2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linkoping University.
    Engstrom, Jon
    Linkoping University.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping University.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linkoping University.
    Co-creation and learning in health-care service development2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 328-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a model for patient co-creation and learning based on diaries for use in health-care service development. In particular, the study aims to investigate the process of patient co-creation and different mechanisms through which health-care service providers can learn from the patient. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on an action research approach. First, a development phase for patient co-creation and learning leading to a proposed model was conducted. Second, a test phase of the diary-based method was performed on 53 patients in three cases: orthopaedic care, rehabilitation care and gastroenterology care. Findings - The study suggests a model for co-creation and learning in health-care service development through three learning methods. First, the model may be used as a means for generating and collecting patient ideas; second, a single patient's story can be illustrated and can serve as incentive for health-care service development and creation of patient-centred care; finally, a larger number of diaries can be analysed and combined with patient surveys to provide a deeper understanding of how the patient experiences health care services. Originality/value - This study extends the research on diary-based methods as an operationalisation of co-creation in two ways. First, the study offers new and more diverse ways of using the rich material provided by customer diaries in the development of services. Second, the study suggests a co-creation approach of involving patients in health-care service development through patient diaries.

  • 13.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). ITEM-HSG, University of St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Impact of Service Orientation in Corporate Culture on Business Performance in Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland).
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland).
    Saul, Caroline Jennings
    Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Competing in business-to-business sectors through pay-per-use services2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 914-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Despite the opportunities provided by pay-per-use (PPU) services, product companies in business-to-business sectors often fail to compete systematically by using them. The purpose of this paper is to explain how companies can avoid failures when it comes to PPU services. The paper describes the "seizing" capabilities needed to achieve the strategic objectives of PPU services. Design/methodology/approach - The research process is divided into a pilot and an in-depth study. Altogether, 17 companies participated in the study. Findings - The findings reveal that the seizing capabilities depend on the strategic objectives of PPU services. To expand the market share with PPU services, companies need to broaden the customer portfolio for PPU services, to align individual services within the entire service portfolio and to balance profits made by PPU services and other business lines. For strategic objectives such as rapid sales growth early in the market development and new market creation other seizing capabilities are required. Research limitations/implications - The findings are not generalizable, due to the use of a qualitative study. The study is restricted to product companies in the business-to-business sector. Practical implications - Managers often believe that extending and modularizing the service portfolio is beneficial. When achieving sales growth during the market development phase, these capabilities are in fact sometimes counterproductive. Practitioners have to look into the costs and benefits of setting-up their own financing company and working with banks. Social implications - PPU services contribute to a more sustainable consumption and make product design more resource-efficient. Originality/value - The study is original by virtue of systematically studying PPU services, providing a microfoundation for seizing capabilities and developing testable propositions for future research.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Brax, Saara
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Business Innovat Technol BIT Res Ctr, Alto, Finland..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service infusion in manufacturing industries2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 557-563Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Brax, Saara
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Setting a research agenda for service business in manufacturing industries2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Högström, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Radnor, Zoe
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Business & Econ, Loughborough, Leics, England..
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Heinonen, Kristina
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Helsinki, Finland..
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Turku Sch Econ, Turku, Finland..
    Mele, Cristina
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Econ Management & Inst, Naples, Italy..
    Developing service research - paving the way to transdisciplinary research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss how service, as an interdisciplinary area of research, can increase its potential for transdisciplinary contributions from the perspective of what signifies intra-, multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary research. Design/methodology/approach - The essay first discusses common perspectives on the service concept before presenting a review on what signifies intra-, multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary research. The emerging theoretical framework is followed by a discussion on the challenges and opportunities for service research in making interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary theoretical contributions. Findings - The research provides a typological framework for understanding intra-, multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary service research and, implications related to how service research contributions can become increasingly inter- and transdisciplinary. Originality/value - The paper contributes to widening the scope of service research by focussing on how the domain can overcome hurdles and increase its potential for making theoretical contributions that are applicable across and beyond established research disciplines.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Customer co-creation in service innovation: a matter of communication?2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – Customer co-creation is becoming increasingly popular among companies, and intensive communication with customers is generally seen as a determinant of the success of a new service or product. The purpose of this study is to analyze customer co-creation based on four dimensions of communication – frequency, direction, modality, and content – in order to understand the value of customer co-creation in service innovation. One of the key aims of the study is to investigate whether all dimensions of customer co-creation have an effect on product and market success, and if the effect depends on the degree of innovativeness of a development project.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The authors conducted a study including 334 managers with experience in new service and product development to examine how development projects applied customer co-creation in terms of communication in order to address future customer needs. Data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). The first analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 207 development projects regarding incremental innovations. A subsequent analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 77 development projects on radical innovations.

    Findings

    – A total of three of the four dimensions of customer co-creation (frequency, direction, and content) have a positive and equally significant effect on product success when developing incremental innovations. For radical innovations, frequency has a positive effect and content has a negative significant effect on product success. These findings suggest that co-creation and innovation can be combined, but that the choice of methods for co-creation differs depending on whether incremental or radical innovations are developed.

    Originality/value

    – Despite a general consensus that co-creation with customers is beneficial, there is a lack of agreement regarding how and why. The present article addresses this shortcoming and shows that co-creation is largely about communicating with customers in order to understand their future needs. On the other hand, a company working on radical innovations may wish to limit customer input that is too concrete or solution based.

  • 19.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linkopings universitet, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linkopings universitet, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Frankelius, Per
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linkopings universitet, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Linkopings universitet, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Identifying the resource integration processes of green service2019In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of green service. In particular, the focus is on identifying homopathic and heteropathic resource integration processes that preserve or increase the resourceness of the natural ecosystem. Design/methodology/approach: Through an extensive multiple case study involving ten service providers from diverse sectors based on a substantial number of interviews, detailed accounts of green service are provided. Findings: Six resource integration processes were identified: reducing, recirculating, recycling, redistributing, reframing and renewing. While four of these processes are based on homopathic resource integration, both reframing and renewing are based on heteropathic resource integration. While homopathic processes historically constitute a green service by mitigating the impact of consumption on the environment, heteropathic resource integration increases the resourceness of the natural ecosystem through emergent processes and the (re)creation of natural resources. Research limitations/implications: The present study breaks away from the paradigm that “green service” is about reducing the negative environmental impact of existing services, toward providing a green service that expands biological diversity and other natural resources. Originality/value: Transformative service research on environmental sustainability is still in its infancy. The present study contributes through conceptualizing green service, redefining existing resource integration processes (reducing, recirculating, recycling) and identifying new resource integration processes (redistributing, reframing, renewing).

  • 20. Heinonen, Kristina
    et al.
    Strandvik, Tore
    Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Andersson, Per
    A Customer-dominant Logic of Service2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, t, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 531-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper seeks to introduce to a new perspective on the roles of customers and companies in creating value by outlining a customer-based approach to service. The customer's logic is examined in-depth as being the foundation of a customer-dominant (CD) marketing and business logic.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors argue that both the goods- and service-dominant logic are provider-dominant. Contrasting the provider-dominant logic with CD logic, the paper examines the creation of service value from the perspectives of value-in-use, the customer's own context, and the customer's experience of service.

    Findings – Moving from a provider-dominant logic to a CD logic uncovered five major challenges to service marketers: company involvement, company control in co-creation, visibility of value creation, scope of customer experience, and character of customer experience.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper is exploratory. It presents and discusses a new perspective and suggests implications for research and practice.

    Practical implications – Awareness of the mechanisms of customer logic will provide businesses with new perspectives on the role of the company in their customers' lives. It is proposed that understanding the customer's logic should represent the starting-point for the company's marketing and business logic.

    Originality/value – The paper increases the understanding of how the customer's logic underpins the CD business logic. By exploring consequences of applying a CD logic, further directions for theoretical and empirical research are suggested.

  • 21.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Turku, Finland..
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Inst Ind Engn, Dept New Serv Dev, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Linkoping.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Schfer, Adrienne
    Lucerne Univ Appl Sci & Arts, Dept Serv Management, Luzern, Switzerland..
    Reynoso, Javier
    Tecnol Monterrey, Dept Serv Management Res, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico..
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Econ & Business Management Sci, Milan, Italy..
    Weitlaner, Doris
    Campus 02 Univ Appl Sci, Dept Informat Technol & Business Informat, Graz, Austria..
    Does one size fit all?: New service development across different types of services2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 329-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results. Findings - Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types. Practical implications - The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed. Originality/value - This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the "one size fits all" assumption evident in current NSD research.

  • 22.
    Klaus, Philipp
    et al.
    Dr Phil Klaus & Assoc Consulting, London, England.;ESCE Int Business Sch, Paris, France..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The road back to relevance: How to put marketing (and marketing scholars) back on the Top Managements' agendas2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 166-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Based upon primary research, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the three main sources of frustration about the marketing scholars' community current status quo. It delivers feasible solutions and describes, using the example of the Special Issue, how to overcome these challenges and provide the research environment all desire. Design/methodology/approach - Editorial paper summarizing the Special Issue's contributions and observations from the marketing scholar community Findings - The three main sources of frustration for marketing scholars about the current system are, first, review and publishing processes, second, the dominant epistemological and methodological approach in academe, encouraging an increasing specialization and reliance on generating more and more quantitatively driven knowledge and finally the lack of acceptance (and outright disdain) for research with a managerial, applied emphasis. Practical implications - But it surely is not mission impossible to build the research environment that is wanted. To build the research environment the community desires and to be "back where we belong," to be relevant means the need to do more than just engaging in lip service. Rather than complying with the system causing frustration, the paper asks all to take an active part in the change process. The paper strongly encourages all, as editors, reviewers, colleagues, mentors and supervisors to do so and take some chances. Engage in and support brave research. Social implications - The authors hope that the paper will stimulate research widely accessible to both managers, and a broader audience. This will eventually lead to a better reputation and public opinion toward marketing scholars and research. Originality/value - Rather than simply stating the main frustrations of the marketing scholar community, and calling for changes, the authors demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome, and deliver platforms to communicate and lead both the conversation and the actions to achieve the research community most desire.

  • 23.
    Klaus, Phillip
    et al.
    UK, France.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Norway.
    Keiningham, T.L
    USA.
    Gruber, Thorsten
    UK.
    Getting in with the "In" crowd: how to put marketing back on the CEO's agenda2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Despite efforts by researchers and managers to better link marketing activities with business financial outcomes, there is general agreement that by and large chief marketing officers (CMOs) (and marketing in general) have lost strategic decision-making influence within organizations. The purpose of this paper is to understand the causes of this decline and offer recommended solutions to counteract this trend. Design/methodology/approach - In-depth interviews lasting between 40 and 55 minutes were conducted with 25 chief executive officers (CEOs) of service companies located in Western Europe, North America, and Australia. In total, 13 difference countries were represented. Using Emerging Consensus Technique, we identified four main themes, which cause the goals of CEOs and those of CMOs/marketing to diverge. Findings - The primary cause of the decline of strategic influence of CMOs and marketing overall with CEOs is a function of four key issues: first, the role of the CMO (e.g. task overload, focus on tactical issues, "outdated" skill set); second, lack of financial accountability (e.g. the inability to connect marketing efforts to financial returns); third, digital and social media (e.g. a perceived obsession with new technology); and forth, lack of strategic vision and impact (e.g. lost sight of "core" job, use of irrelevant metrics). Practical implications - The findings indicate that CMOs must address the four key issues uncovered for marketing to attain/regain a role in strategic decision making. A proposed roadmap for putting marketing back on the CEOs agenda is presented to guide CMOs.

  • 24.
    Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 556-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand the process and, as a consequence, the phases of customer orientation; to investigate the relationships between the different phases of customer orientation and customer satisfaction; and to examine activities in the different phases of customer orientation that result in higher customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach– This study, combining quantitative and qualitative research, is based on a cross-sectional survey of 320 service firms and a multiple case study of 20 organisational units at a large service firm in the European telecom industry. Findings– The results show that customer orientation consists of a process that includes three phases: strategy, measurement and analysis and implementation. Contrary to previous research, implementation has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction. In turn, customer satisfaction influences financial results. In-depth interviews with managers provided insights into the specific activities that are key for turning customer-satisfaction measurements into action. Originality/value – This research contributes to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain what constitutes customer orientation and, in turn, influences customer satisfaction and financial results. Given the large amount of research on customer satisfaction, studies on how service firms collect and use customer-satisfaction data in practice are scarce.

  • 25.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Smile for a while: The effect of employee-displayed smiling on customer affect and satisfaction2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 284-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers' affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure. Design/methodology/approach - The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction. Findings - A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter. Practical implications - Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic. Originality/value - This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers' affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.

  • 26.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scott, Don
    Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.
    Team diversity and its management in a co-design team2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 27.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Hedmark Univ Coll, Elverum, Norway.
    Negative emotions and their effect on customer complaint behaviour2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 111-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate pre-complaint situations and has a threefold purpose: to identify a set of negative emotions experienced in unfavourable service experiences, to examine the patterns of these negative emotions and to link these negative emotions to complaint behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach – To fulfil the threefold purpose previously outlined, the study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. A critical incident technique is applied. The empirical data are derived from 25 in-depth interviews and the results of a questionnaire survey of 3,104 respondents.

    Findings – A total of 20 observed negative emotions are reduced to a second-order construct with five latent categories of negative emotions: shame, sadness, fear, anger and frustration. These categories coincide with three categories of negative emotions in the agency dimension: other-attributed, self-attributed and situational-attributed. The study finds that the negative emotion of frustration is the best predictor for complaint behaviour towards the service provider.

    Research limitations/implications – The results are limited by the fact that the data are entirely self-reported. Moreover, the generalisabilty of the results is limited by the fact that the findings relate to one service industry in one country.

    Originality/value – The study provides a comprehensive conceptual understanding of both pre-complaint negative emotions and how these emotions affect customer complaint behaviour.

  • 28.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Brown, Stephen W.
    Center for Services Leadership, W. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Gremler, Dwayne D.
    College of Business, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Paradigms in service research2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 560-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Recent discussions of the service-dominant logic (S-D logic) and the creation of a multidisciplinary service science highlight the need for a paradigmatic discussion that provides directions for ongoing service research. This article aims to examine different epistemological foundations and proposes a framework to describe and better understand the development and future of service research.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using the proposed framework, an assessment of 60 selected award-winning and most cited articles is categorized using the paradigmatic framework.

    Findings – Four paradigms are found to be prominent in service research: positivistic, hermeneutic, dialogic, and monologic. The positivistic option has been the dominant paradigm employed by service scholars, suggesting service scholars need to apply the three alternative paradigms more as a means to enrich and extend the service research discipline.

    Research limitations/implications – There is a need to discuss the fundamental beliefs and worldviews (ontological and epistemological positions) guiding service research. Paradigms are critical determinants and drivers of good research.

    Originality/value – A new framework for analyzing paradigmatic foundations in service research and directions for the future design of service research studies is proposed. The suggested framework could inspire scholars to reflect on their ontological and epistemological foundations and provide paradigmatic guidance within service research. This provides a basis for continuous expansion of the service research field.

  • 29.
    Valtakoski, Aku
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Reynoso, Javier
    Service Management Research Department, EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico.
    Maranto, Daniel
    Service Management Research Department, EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Maravillo Cabrera, Egren
    Service Management Research Department, EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico.
    Cross-country differences in new service development: The moderating effects of national culture2019In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 186-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test how national culture may help to explain cross-country differences in new service development (NSD) by comparing the impact of NSD success factors between Mexico and Sweden. Design/methodology/approach: Eight hypotheses based on prior literature on NSD and national culture were tested using covariance-based structural equation modeling and survey data from 210 Mexican and 173 Swedish firms. Findings: Launch proficiency and customer interaction had a positive impact on NSD performance with no difference between the two cultures. NSD process formalization did not have clear positive impact on NSD performance but had a statistically significantly stronger impact in the structured culture (Mexico). Team empowerment affected NSD performance positively, but the difference between cultures was non-significant. Research limitations/implications: The impact of national culture depends on the type of NSD success factor. Some factors are unaffected by the cultural context, while factors congruent with the national culture enhance performance. Factors incongruent with national culture may even hurt NSD performance. Practical implications: When choosing priorities in NSD improvement, managers need to consider the national culture environment. Originality/value: Paper directly tests how national culture moderates NSD performance using primary data. Findings suggest that the effects of NSD success factors are contingent on congruence with national culture.

  • 30.
    Verleye, Katrin
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    University of Turku.
    Hodgkinson, Ian R
    Loughborough University.
    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas
    Loughborough University.
    Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby
    Maastricht University.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    What causes imbalance in complex service netwoks?: Evidence from a public health service2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 34-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeService networks are inherently complex as they comprise of many interrelated actors, often driven by divergent interests. This can result in imbalance, which refers to a situation where the interests of at least one actor in a network are not secured. Drawing on the "balanced centricity" perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explore the causes of imbalance in complex service networks.Design/methodology/approachAdopting a qualitative case-based approach, this paper examines a public health service network that experienced imbalance that was detrimental to the lives of its users: the Mid-Staffordshire National Health Service (NHS) Trust, UK. Drawing on service-dominant logic and stakeholder theory, case evidence provides insight into the origin and drivers of imbalance in complex public service networks.FindingsThe origin of imbalance stems from competing institutional logics of various actors (patients/public, employees, managers, regulatory bodies, etc.), but the degree to which these competing institutional logics lead to imbalance is moderated by accountability, communication, engagement, and responsiveness within the service network.Research limitations/implicationsBy uncovering causes of imbalance in complex public service networks, this paper pinpoints important research avenues for developing the balanced centricity perspective.Practical implicationsThe inherent existence of multiple parallel institutional arrangements makes networks imbalanced, but value creation can be achieved when the appropriate mechanisms are fostered to manage balance between divergent logics.Originality/valueBy examining imbalance as the underlying cause of network dysfunction, this research contributes to understanding of the dynamics in, and performance of, complex public service networks.

  • 31.
    Vink, Josina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University School of Business, Örebro.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Reshaping mental models – enabling innovation through service design2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 75-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how service design practices reshape mental models to enable innovation. Mental models are actors’ assumptions and beliefs that guide their behavior and interpretation of their environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper offers a conceptual framework for innovation in service ecosystems through service design that connects the macro view of innovation as changing institutional arrangements with the micro view of innovation as reshaping actors’ mental models. Furthermore, through an 18-month ethnographic study of service design practices in the context of healthcare, how service design practices reshape mental models to enable innovation is investigated. Findings: This research highlights that service design reshapes mental models through the practices of sensing surprise, perceiving multiples and embodying alternatives. This paper delineates the enabling conditions for these practices to occur, such as coaching, diverse participation and supportive physical materials. Research limitations/implications: This study brings forward the underappreciated role of actors’ mental models in innovation. It highlights that innovation in service ecosystems is not simply about actors making changes to their external context but also actors shifting their own assumptions and beliefs. Practical implications: This paper offers insights for service managers and service designers interested in supporting innovation on how to catalyze shifts in actors’ mental models by creating the conditions for specific service design practices. Originality/value: This paper is the first to shed light on the central role of actors’ mental models in innovation and identify the service design practices that reshape mental models.

  • 32.
    Voss, Chris
    et al.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Business Sch, Dept Operat Management, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Nottingham Business Sch, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Sousa, Rui
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Sch Econ & Management, Oporto, Portugal..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wuenderlich, Nancy V.
    Univ Paderborn, Dept Business Adm & Econ, Warburger Str 100, D-33098 Paderborn, Germany..
    Reflections on context in service research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of context and its implications for theory and research in service. Design/methodology/approach - This is a conceptual paper based on exploring existing research and theory related to context in service research. Findings - The characteristics of service make context both important and challenging, there is great contextual diversity in service research as reflected, for example in ecosystems made up of multiple contextual variables. There is a need to identify the context-specific nature of middle range theory and the contextual logic of general theory. The authors explore the challenges of context for service theory and how we might learn from theory in a particular context and test or adapt it in other contexts. Originality/value - The findings of this paper are of value to researchers seeking to develop and justify theory in service research (general, middle range or theory in use).

  • 33.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service Strategies in a Supply Chain2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 427-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Idea Generation: Customer Co-creation versus Traditional Market Research Techniques2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 140-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    From Service for Free to Service for Fee: Business model innovation in manufacturing firms2013In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 520-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the present research is to identify how business model innovation can be used to make the transition from service for free to service for fee. In particular, the focus is on identifying, describing and analysing alternative transition strategies, degree and type of innovation, and how building blocks in the business model change.

    Design/methodology/approach – A multiple case study of six manufacturing firms was performed. Data were collected through interviews with CEOs, service managers and sales managers. In addition, two workshops were performed with the participating firms.

    Findings – The present research identified eight strategies for transitioning from service for free to service for fee. These strategies represent change in the business model, incremental business model innovation and radical business model innovation. It is suggested to change the content and structure to perform incremental business model innovation and change the governance to perform radical business model innovation.

    Originality/value – In most models for service infusion, the change of business model is seen as a necessary step and focus is placed on that a change of business model is needed. The present study elaborates on what approaches manufacturing firms use to make the change from one business model to another.

  • 36.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Marshall, Roger
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Show you care: initiating co-creation in service recovery2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying mechanism of customer co-creation in service recovery (co-recovery), and investigates the impact of initiation on customer post-recovery evaluations and behavioural intentions.

    Design/methodology/approach – Researchers used a 3 (no co-recovery vs employee-initiated co-recovery vs customer-initiated co-recovery)×2 (male vs female)×2 (western vs eastern customers) between-subject experiential study in a hotel setting.

    Findings – When a service employee initiates a co-recovery, customers perceive higher justice, greater satisfaction and a higher tendency to repurchase in the future. But if the customer initiates such a co-recovery, little improvement on these outcomes is found compared to a recovery entirely managed by the company. The effect was moderated by culture: western customers were more sensitive to initiation in the co-recovery process than eastern customers.

    Research limitations/implications – Written scenarios using a hotel setting and a technical error were used, and may reduce the applicability of the findings to real life or other service categories or types of error. Subjects used may not be representative of other population groups. Further studies using real life situations, human error and a more diverse population group are recommended.

    Practical implications – A positive co-recovery can be achieved by service employees taking initiatives when a problem occurs.

    Originality/value – This study extends previous research on co-recovery by investigating the effect of initiation by service employees on customers’ perception of co-creation. Service companies can improve customers’ post-recovery evaluations by inviting them to co-create a feasible solution, and potentially reduce the company's compensation costs.

  • 37.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Customer experience from a self-service system perspective2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 677-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Towards a service-dominant professional identity: An organisational socialisation perspective2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 23-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to understanding of how a service-dominant (S-D) professional identity can be established among the employees of an organisation that wishes to inculcate the tenets of S-D logic.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports a case study of a large Swedish public sector organisation in which the transition to e-government provided an opportunity to inculcate a new service-based professional identity among employees. The main data collection method is interviewing.

    Findings – The study identifies four characteristics of a S-D professional identity: interaction; customer orientation; co-creation; and empowerment. The study finds that such an identity can be established through five socialisation processes: collective socialisation; random socialisation; serial socialisation; investiture socialisation; and divestiture socialisation.

    Research limitations/implications – As with all case study research, the paper draws analytical generalisations but is unable to provide any statistical generalisations; further quantitative research is needed in this area. Moreover, the paper takes a intra-firm perspective; future studies could approach the topic from a consumer perspective.

    Practical implications – Managers who wish to inculcate S-D logic in their organisations should focus on developing the interactive and co-creation skills of their employees, as well as empowering them and providing them with an enhanced understanding of customer orientation.

    Originality/value – The study is novel in several respects: it provides a systematic empirical analysis of how S-D logic can be established in an organisation; the notion of a S-D professional identity is introduced; and the theory of organisational socialisation is applied to S-D logic research for the first time.

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