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  • 1.
    Cova, Bernard
    et al.
    Kedge Business School, France.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Pace, Stefano
    Kedge Business School, France.
    Interpersonal practice in project marketing: how institutional logics condition and change them2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 723-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Project marketing is the specific activity of companies selling projects-to-order. Interpersonal practice is known to be important in this type of marketing. While this interpersonal practice has been little studied, some previous research suggests that changes in the institutional macro environment have affected it. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study today’s interpersonal practice in project business and how the institutional environment conditions it. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with marketing managers at project-based firms in different business sectors in France and Sweden. Data collection and analysis was informed by grounded theory. Findings: The paper identifies three types of interpersonal practice in project marketing, referred to as the transactional, the work-based and the socializing. Changes in these are explained in relation to the three institutional logics identified in the data: the market institutional logic of business ethics, the corporate institutional logic of rationalization and the family institutional logic of gender equality. Research limitations/implications: Future studies can continue and broaden this work as it regards how the institutional conditioning of interpersonal practice varies with context. Practical implications: By clearly categorizing the three types of interpersonal practice and their relative role today, companies can orient the activities of salespeople, business developers and other project marketers. Social implications: The paper highlights how business ethics and gender equality have changed interpersonal practices in project marketing. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the current debate on project marketing by identifying three types of interpersonal practice and by illustrating how institutional logics condition and change these. The paper shows that extra-business activities are needed less than previous research has argued with regard to maintaining customer relationships in-between projects.

  • 2.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Helsinki, Finland.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Strandvik, Tore
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Helsinki, Finland..
    Voima, Paivi
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Helsinki, Finland..
    Negative critical waves in business relationships: an extension of the critical incident perspective2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to extend understanding of business-to-business relationship dynamics by introducing and discussing the phenomenon of a "negative critical wave" (NCW), defined as a disturbance in a relationship that emerges and develops within or beyond individual working relationships. Design/methodology/approach - The dynamics of working relationships in two manufacturing firms in Finland and Sweden were studied by analysing the narratives of unstructured personal interviews with 16 middle managers and 14 operational executives, who recalled experiences of relevant situations over three years, with emphasis on unexpected disturbances, challenges and problems. Findings - Respondents discussed 77 NCWs, the development and effect of which proved to depend upon the original "locus", "magnitude" and "amplitude", and embedded "energy". Waves could be distinguished as: "silent compact", "silent extensive", "intense compact" or "intense extensive". Research limitations/implications - The wave metaphor for relationships dynamics, consistent with but distinct from established notions of "critical time" and "critical incidents" and the associated classification system are a useful starting point for further research into the phenomenon. Though the qualitative methodology achieved richness, the small sample and restricted scope place limits on the objectivity and generalisability of the findings. Practical implications - The NCW framework offers strategists and managers a holistic understanding of the dynamic process of criticality, synthesising the complexities of relationship dynamics and pointing to ways in which to absorb the energy of negative waves. Originality/value - More is now known about the domino effects of critical incidents in internal and external business-to-business relationships.

  • 3.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Fundin, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment and Mälardalen University.
    Understanding new service development and service innovation through innovation modes2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of innovation modes in understanding challenges of integrated NSD and NPD, and the use of structured NSD processes in manufacturing firms.

    The research is based on a two-stage multiple case study. The first stage is an interview study of 17 key informants representing manufacturing firms in the machine industry. The second stage is an in-depth study of three service innovations at three manufacturing firms based on 16 interviews with key informants.

    The results of the study show that NSD processes are often more structured if the service is developed separately from the product. The fact that different innovation modes benefit from varying degrees of structure in the development process means that integrated service development can be challenging. Furthermore, service innovations often follow a trajectory of innovation modes before succeeding in the market. Some innovation modes occur within the NSD process, while others occur outside the process. One success factor for NSD is the fit between the innovation modes and the NSD process, rather than the NSD process per se.

    This research uses innovation modes to explain why NSD in manufacturing firms is often performed on an ad hoc basis, and how service innovations go through a trajectory of innovation modes. In this way, the study contributes to theory development of service innovation, and specifically service innovations in manufacturing firms.

  • 4.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Creating a service platform: how to co-create value in a remote service context2018In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 768-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to further develop the construct of service platform and to clarify the definition of service platform in an industrial context. To do so, an understanding of the foundations for service platforms, based on a service perspective, is created. Design/methodology/approach The study has adopted a qualitative case study approach and builds on in-depth interviews with remote service teams in two multinational firms: one in the food processing and packaging industry and the other in the pulp and paper industry. Findings The foundations for successful service platforms consist of modularising resources, integrations and service processes to create value propositions. The value propositions could result in variations of a service or in variations of different services. When defining the concept service platform, the perspective of service needs to be made evident; therefore, the authors define service platform as: value proposition(s) consisting of a modular structure that invites to and facilitates value co-creation between resources, through integration opportunities in a continuous service process. Research limitations/implications The results are based on the perspective of two suppliers in similar industries; only remote services were studied. Firms from different types of industries and other types of services could add to the research on service modularity according to a service perspective. Moreover, information about customers and other actors' involvement on the platform was gathered from the firms studied, no customers or other actors were interviewed. Practical implications This study shows the importance of a firm involving itself in the value creation of the customer, that is, focusing on value co-creation. This implies a close cooperation between the manufacturer and its customer - not only at a given point in time but also over a longer period of cooperation. Through the different types of modules building up the service platform, value co-creation can take place in various ways. Originality/value This study offers original empirical contributions on platforms from a service perspective. The study contributes to servitisation, service modularity and service (dominant) logic research by developing an understanding of the foundations for service platforms based on a service perspective. It also contributes to platform research more specifically by developing a definition of service platform in an industrial context.

  • 5.
    Rundh, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Development of customer value in a supply chain:: managerial thinking about strategic marketing2011In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 260-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Strandvik, Tore
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics , Finland.
    Holmlund, Maria
    Hanken School of Economics , Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Customer needing: A challenge for the seller offering2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 1-2, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose-The present increasingly tough economic climate has uncovered the need to go beyond the prevailing seller-oriented models and company practices in order to capture the factors that essentially drive buyer companies. What is needed is a genuinely customer-side concept that corresponds to offering. The purpose of this study is to develop a new concept labeled "customer needing" which emerged from the material collected in an industrial service setting. Design/methodology/approach-The paper reports a case study of a typical high-technology industrial service with a strong outsourcing trend. The empirical data consist of interviews with eight representatives from the seller company and 16 interviews from different customer companies. Findings-A needing is based on the customers' mental models of their business and business strategies that affect their priorities, decisions, and actions. It is itself a mental model of how the customer conceives the fulfillment of a specific task. In this paper the needing is operationalized as a profile of three dimensions containing six functions that represent desired value in use for the customer: the doing dimension comprises a relieving and an enabling function; the experiencing dimension has an energizing and a sheltering function; and the scheduling dimension contains a time-framing and a timing function. Empirical data are presented to illustrate the new concept. Research limitations/implications-This is a case study but the ensuing concept provides a framework for further research on value in use and mental models in an industrial service setting. The studied offering was a complex business service representing an outsourced function and the buyers were functional experts and higher-level executives, all of them experts in the service in question. Practical implications-The concept of customer needing extends knowledge of value in use and consequently represents an important tool in developing successful seller offerings. The shift of focus from offering to needing can explain why some sales attempts fail and can thus reveal new business opportunities. Originality/value-In addition to highlighting the mental models driving companies' priorities and behavior, the study offers insights into value in use in an industrial service setting. The concept customer needing helps to analyze and describe value in use and provides a new buyer-side concept corresponding to the offering concept.

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