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  • 1.
    Björlin-Lidén, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Expectations on Service Guarantees2003In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 338-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focuses on customer expectations on service guarantees. Theoretically, the basis consists of previous guidelines for service guarantee design. The empirical context is public transport, where customers that have invoked a service guarantee participate in focus groups. The results expand on prior research, which has argued that negative industry reputation is a hotbed for service guarantees and that the most preferred guarantee is unconditional; the paper’s results imply that customers prefer detailed regulations for when the guarantee is applicable, and that their general disbelief in a company with negative reputation makes the unconditional guarantee seem like a rip off. The results also indicate that the customers of a public service want the guarantee to be fair, that is, fairness in the possibility for all customers to invoke the guarantee, that all customers are familiar with the guarantee and that it cannot be misused by cheating customers. One of the contributions of the article is therefore to add “fairness” as a dimension to the previous guidelines suggested by Hart.

  • 2.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Causes of Customer Dissatisfaction1998In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Making service‐quality improvement work1996In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 49-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how to manage and improve quality in service requires an appreciation of the unique characteristics of the service industry. Unlike manufacturing, the service experience involves the customer as co‐producer. Discusses how customers assess service quality and the factors they perceive as contributing to quality. Puts forward 13 propositions on service quality as guides to new service development.

  • 4.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Quality of Service: Making it really work1996In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service Quality: Beyond Cognitive Assessment2005In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 127-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is to contribute to widening the scope of service quality by focusing

    on dimensions beyond cognitive assessment. The focus is on the role of customers’ emotions in service

    experiences.

    Design/methodology/approach – The article first discusses the service concept and implications

    for service quality. It then focuses on the role of customer experiences, and then discusses the role of

    emotions in service quality.

    Findings – The paper presents six propositions related to service experiences when consuming

    services and the role of emotions in customer-perceived service quality.

    Originality/value – The paper contributes to widening the scope of service quality by focusing on

    dimensions beyond cognitive assessment.

  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Quality: Beyond Congnitive Asessment.2005In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 127-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The aim of this article is to contribute to widening the scope of service quality by focusing on dimensions beyond cognitive assessment. The focus is on the role of customers’ emotions in service experiences.Design/methodology/approach– The article first discusses the service concept and implications for service quality. It then focuses on the role of customer experiences, and then discusses the role of emotions in service quality.Findings– The paper presents six propositions related to service experiences when consuming services and the role of emotions in customer‐perceived service quality.Originality/value– The paper contributes to widening the scope of service quality by focusing on dimensions beyond cognitive assessment.

  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service Quality Improvement1998In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic for this article is quality improvement in service operations. Quality improvement is used as a collective expression for quality assurance, quality management and quality control. Service operations refer to private as well as to public service operations and to services in manufacturing companies. Although services play a predominant role as regards GDP and employment in the OECD countries, we still know very little about quality management in service operations. Concepts and models in organization theories, marketing and other fields are, to a great extent, based on studies of and experience from manufacturing companies. Quality is no exception, even though it has received some attention during the past 15 years, especially from researchers in Scandinavia.

  • 8.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gebauer, H
    The Role of Competence in Initiating the Transition from Products to Service2009In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 493-510Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Hay, M.
    Value-based Service Branding and Beyond ' The IKEA way2005In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 230-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnston, Robert
    UK.
    Design Dimensions of Experience Rooms for Service Test Drives:: Case Studies in Several Service Contexts2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 312-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The objective of this exploratory study is to analyse "test drives" of service offerings in a variety of service contexts by applying existing design dimensions of experience rooms in order to develop some principles to assist service designers who are interested in developing such "test drives" for their potential customers. Design/methodology/approach - An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken using three case studies with varying levels of simulation/artificiality. Data were collected from documents and interviews with service providers and customers and analysed using a framework of six dimensions Findings - The study adds a sixth dimension to the existing five dimensions or experience rooms found in the literature It also proposes seven principles to guide designers who seek to create new service "test drives" The study also introduces the new notion of "value in pre-use" (a development of "value in use") to describe the potential value of "real" services yet to be purchased Finally the study documents some of the advantages and disadvantages of using "test drives" Research limitations/implications - The exploratory and interpretive nature of the research, and the limited number of cases and respondents, limits the generalisability of the findings Practical implications - The study provides several principles that can be used in the design of service "test drives". Originality/value - This is the first paper to analyse the design dimensions of service "test drives" and to propose the notion of "value in pre-use".

  • 11.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustavsson, BO
    Quality in the Work Environment: a prerepuisite for succes in New Service Development2003In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Paiola, M
    Gebauer, H
    Service business development in small and medium capital goods manufacturing companies2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Strandvik, T.
    Is a Critical Incident Critical for a Customer Relationship?2000In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Svaeri, S
    Svensson, G
    Slåtten, T
    A DIP-Construct of Perceived Justice in Negative Service Encounters and Complaint Handling in the Norwegian Tourism Industry2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 26-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Hedmark Univ Coll, Elverum, Norway.
    Höykinpuro, R
    Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation2011In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 331-349Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Values-based service quality for sustainable business2007In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 385-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to present a model for values-based sustainable servicebusiness grounded in the concept of values-based service quality.

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a literature review and interpretations of fivenarratives from a values-driven company, IKEA, the paper proposes a model of values-based servicequality for sustainable service business.

    Findings – The study distinguishes four dimensions of values-based service quality and fivedimensions of sustainability. These are all incorporated in the proposed model.

    Originality/value – This is a fundamental study of the role of values-based service quality increating sustainable service business based on value-in-use for customers and the desirable values ofcorporate culture with which products and services are associated.

  • 17.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Value co-creation as a determinant of success in public transport services: A study of the Swiss Federal Railway operator (SBB)2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 511-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose   of this paper

    This   paper explores how Prahalad’s five activities of co-creation (customer   engagement, self-service, customer involvement, problem-solving, and   co-design) to public transit service enhance the success of a   public-transport service.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This   research was based on a single case study of the Swiss federal railway   operator (SBB).

    Findings

    Our   findings enrich the concept of value co-creation. It is apparent that value   is co-created by one or more of the activities (customer engagement,   self-service, customer experience, problem-solving and co-design). The focus   on only one of the value co-creation activities might be insufficient to   achieve a competitive advantage; rather, organisations should take a   comprehensive view of value co-creation if they are to exploit its full   strategic potential.

    Research   limitations/implications

    Research   limitations are mainly due to the nature of the qualitative research   approach.

    Practical   implications

    That   public-transport operators should open up their processes and systems to   include the active participation of customers. Customer relationship   management should base primarily on the knowledge that customers possess,   rather than focusing on knowledge about customers.

    Social   implications

    Public   transit supports environmental sustainability. However, governments should   not only seek to increase transport capacity. Instead, they should encourage   value co-creation by engaging customers in marketing activities, offering   self-servicing opportunities, creating customer experiences, solving customer   problems, and co-designing services in collaboration with customers.

    Originality/value

    The study   avoids the current tendency of many studies to explore rather isolated   aspects of value co-creation. We provide a comprehensive framework to help   organisations manage the value co-creation process.

  • 18.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Development of Personalised Services in Small Businesses:: an iterative learning process2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 388-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of how small business develops personalised business-to-business services Design/methodology/approach - In-depth interviews are conducted with representatives of 11 small Swedish companies in the service sector Qualitative data from the interviews are coded and sorted according to themes Findings - Service development in the firms studied is an unstructured, incremental, and relatively informal process that proceeds as part of the firms' day-to-day interactions with their customers It is essentially an iterative learning process by which individuals develop new knowledge and competencies to enhance the capacity of their firms to solve the specific problems of customers Originality/value - In contrast to the highly structured and sequenced models that have characterised most of the existing research on service development, this study provides an alternative view of new service development as a relatively informal learning process

  • 19.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Joint service development – the creations of the prerequisite for the service development2012In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to describe how parted or divided service development is carried out, where interactions and cooperation need to take place with other actors in order to create the foundations for the service, in the form of a coherent specification of the extended service concept.

  • 20. Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Innovations in Manufacturing Firms2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Anders .
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Clubs in a Relationship Perspective: A Telecom Case2004In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 14, no 2-3, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kindstrom, Daniel
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Internalisation or externalisation?: Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services2011In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organises its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm. Design/methodology/approach - The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven manufacturing firms with different organisational arrangements for service provision. Findings - Contrary to certain explicit assumptions, few firms organise for service provision solely through an in-house organisation. Analysis of firms in a wide variety of industries has shown that the organisational arrangements (internal, external or hybrid configuration) are contingent on factors such as market strategy, customer relationships, product-service linkages, internal competences and market channel characteristics. Research limitations/implications - The paper is an initial attempt to understand the strategic choices that firms make in terms of inter-organisational arrangements for service provision. The research should be extended by way of a cross-sectional survey in order to test and further validate the importance of the determinants of the organisational arrangements for service provision. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the service marketing and management literature by examining factors that determine whether firms organise for service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid configuration. Prior research has not explicitly addressed this issue.

  • 23.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Winning at the first and second moments of truth: An exploratory study2005In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 102-115.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To contribute to the theoretical work on products that contain both tangible (goods) and intangible (service) dimensions, by arguing that the consumption of physical goods and services should be understood as a process with two major steps – the first and second moments of truth.Design/methodology/approach – An investigation of the service perspective and packaging is made based on a literature review. Empirical examples are then presented from an interview study of people working with packaging-related issues at Procter & Gamble, Schwarzkopf & Henkel, Procordia Food, and Coop. The relationship between theory/concepts and research in the paper can be described in terms of extension and emergent.Findings – Consumers evaluate quality when they purchase an offering and when they consume it. Using the terminology of the present paper, this means that the perception of quality is created at both the first and second moments of truth. The first moment of truth is about obtaining customers’ attention and communicating the benefits of an offer. The second moment of truth is about providing the tools the customer needs to experience these benefits when using the product. The combination of these two moments of truth makes up the total customer experience.Originality/value – This paper holds the potential to contribute to extending understanding of the service perspective and service encounters.

  • 24.
    Roos, Inger
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The influence of active and passive customer behaviour on switching in customer relationships2011In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 448-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between active/passive customer behavior and loyalty (responses to switching triggers) in customer relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study (seven years) is undertaken of the roles of various triggers and active/passive customers in analyzing the processes that lead to customers changing their service provider in the context of the Swedish telecommunications retail industry.

    Findings – Triggers affect customers' evaluations of service in different ways and cause varying kinds of behavior, depending on whether the customers are active or passive in their customer relationships.

    Originality/value – The study offers new insights into the difference between active and passive customers, which facilitates the design of loyalty-enhancing communications between providers and their customers.

  • 25.
    Sandström, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value in use through service experience2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is to propose a framework for a new perspective on the total service experience, which dimensions influence it, and how a service experience is linked to value in use.

    Design/methodology/approach – The article is conceptual and suggests a new theoretical frame of reference describing value in use through service experience in technology-based services.

    Findings – According to this article, a service experience is the total functional and emotional value of a consumed service. The service experience is unique to every individual customer and the service consumption situation. Value in use is the cognitive evaluation of the service experience.

    Research limitations/implications – The framework is discussed in the context of technology-based services and will provide a basis for future research. Empirical studies are called for concerning service experiences in different kinds of service contexts.

    Originality/value – This article contributes a new framework, illustrating the service experience, which dimensions influence the service experience, and how it is linked to value. The framework is placed in a context of technology-based services. Unique to these kinds of services is a lack of personal interaction between the service producer and the customer.

  • 26.
    Selos, Erno
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Teemu, Laine
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Suomala, Petri
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Pitkänen, Lauri
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Applying SPAT for understanding B-to-B supplier switching processes2013In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 321-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to focus on the switching path analysis technique (SPAT) application to enlarge the understanding of customer switching from the business to consumer (B-to-C) context to the processes of business-to-business (B-to-B) supplier switches. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a theory extension of SPAT, with nine (9) supplier switching cases in different B-to-B settings. The cases shed light also on the actual triggers and determinants of the B-to-B switches. Findings: The study proves the applicability of SPAT in B-to-B settings. The B-to-B context adds complexity, forming a relationship flow where many driving factors act for switching. Thus, the findings suggest that a comprehensive analysis of the triggers and determinants is required to understand the switching processes. In particular, the characteristics of the active/passive behaviour should be analysed separately in the customer and in the old and new suppliers. Research limitations/implications: The empirical findings are exploratory in nature. Further research should refine the characteristics of active and passive behaviour at the levels of the relationship, the companies and the individuals to comprehend the notion of the influential trigger in SPAT. Further research should also address the wider topic of the patterns of certain triggers and determinants that actually lead to unstable supplier relationships. Practical implications: The B-to-B supplier switches appear to be complex processes. The supplier should be able to be constantly aware of the major changes in the customer’s business. Based on this awareness, the supplier may actively affect the development of the relationship to avoid unwanted switches. Originality/value: The paper combines the relatively mature research stream of B-to-C supplier switches and access to B-to-B supplier-switching cases. The theory contribution of the paper is the extension of the theory to the B-to-B context, with relevant research implications.

  • 27.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Antecedents and effects of emotional satisfaction on employee-percieved service quality2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 370-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Slåtten, Terje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The effect of managerial practice on employee-percieved service quality: The role of emotional satisfaction2009In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 431-455Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Slåtten, Terje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Mehmetoglu, Mehmet
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Sværi, Sander
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Atmospheric experiences that emotionally touch customers: A case study from a winter park2009In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 721-746Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Walter, Ute
    et al.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science, Örebro University,.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Öström, Åsa
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science, Örebro University,.
    Drivers of Customers' Service Experiences: A Study in the Restaurant Industry2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 236-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to identify, portray and analyse the frequent drivers of customer service experiences as described by customers in their own words – the voice of the customer.Design/methodology/approach– A critical incident technique study was conducted, based on 122 interviews, including 195 favourable and unfavourable narratives, about customer experiences. The data were analysed in an inductive manner and the results are presented by means of extracts from the narratives.Findings– The findings describe the dimensions of drivers of customers' favourable and unfavourable experiences and the frequent drivers, the social interaction, the core service and the physical context.Research limitations/implications– Customer experiences are processes and include dynamic interactions and the customer as a co‐producer. The study context is limited to the restaurant setting and Swedish customers.Practical implications– For managers the results suggest that great effort needs to be put into understanding the process of customer experiences and the various interactions involved, especially social interactions and the crucial roles of contact employees and customers involved in these interactions.Originality/value– The paper provides a detailed description and analysis of the frequent and less frequent drivers of favourable, and unfavourable customer experiences – the constellation of drivers. The findings are illustrated by extracts from customer narratives and show how experiences occur and that experiences are processes occurring in a social and physical environment when people do things together. Furthermore, the paper introduces customer experience to service dominant logic by describing the dynamics of resource interactions in customer experience formation.

  • 31.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Classification of quality attributes2007In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the different approaches to the classification of quality attributes deliver consistent results.

    Design/methodology/approach – The investigation includes four approaches and enables comparisons to be made from a methodological perspective and from an output perspective. The different approaches are described, analyzed, and discussed in the context of an empirical study that investigates how 430 respondents perceive the performance of an e-service. The theory of attractive quality rests on a solid theoretical foundation and a methodological approach to classify quality attributes. Recently, various authors have suggested alternative approaches to the traditional five-level Kano questionnaire – including a three-level Kano questionnaire, direct classification, and a dual-importance grid.

    Findings – The classification of quality attributes are found to be dependent on the approach that is utilized. The development of new ways to classify quality attributes should follow rigid procedures to provide reliable and consistent results.

    Originality/value – This is the first attempt to compare alternative approaches to classify quality attributes. For managers, our results provide guidance on what approach to choose based on the strengths and weaknesses with the different approaches.

  • 32.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Effects of e-government on service design as perceived by employees2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 457-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the effects of e-government on service design as perceived by employees.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study uses semi-structured interviews with middle managers and front-line employees, complemented by documentary analysis, to investigate how the introduction of e-government has affected service design in two Swedish public-sector organisations.

    Findings – The analysis reveals five dimensions of change in the design of services as a result of the introduction of e-government: service encounter and service process; customers as co-creators and sole producers of services; efficiency; increased complexity; and integration. The study discusses the significance of these findings with particular examples from transcriptions of the interviews.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is rather limited and exploratory in nature; however, it does provide useful information on the categories of change in the redesign of services for e-government and it does point the way to important avenues of future research in this field.

    Practical implications – Four practical implications flow from the present research: managers should involve both employees and customers in projects and processes during the introduction of e-government services; the services must be redesigned to ensure that the benefits of the information and communication technologies systems are fully realised; the introduction of e-government might require more time being made available to assist certain customers who are in need of extra time and support from employees; and the time that is saved as a result of the introduction of e-government must be profitably utilized by careful advance planning.

    Originality/value – The study makes an original contribution by identifying five categories of change in the design of services in the context of the introduction of e-government.

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