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  • 1.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    How Important is the Time Factor? Saving Lives Using Fire and Rescue Services2017In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 695-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shorter the response time of emergency services the more lives aresaved. But, how important in fact is the time factor for saving lives? The objective ofthis study is to analyse the relation between response time and fatalities, to be able tomeasure how many lives could be saved with a shorter response time. The study usesdata from reports from the fire and rescue services in Sweden for 2005–2013 for residentialfires. The time variable used is continuous and the statistical methods are non-linearregression techniques. It is found that the risk of fatality is a non-linear function ofresponse time. For a given change of response time, the increase in risk of fatality islarge for a short response time, then decreases, and eventually seems to approach zero.If it was possible to decrease the median response time by 1 min 0.00035 lives could besaved for every turn-out on average. For all turn-outs to residential homes that meansthat about two lives, or 3%, could be saved per year. The response time is most importantfor blocks of flats, nursing homes and semi-detached/terraced houses. The responsetime is more important for fires due to smoking, children playing or started intentionally(arson). The results can be used to evaluate the performance of local fire and rescueservices. The method is easy to use for other emergency services, such as ambulances.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Särdqvist, Stefan
    Fire-related mortality in Sweden: Temporal trends 1952 to 20132015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1697-1707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines temporal trends in deaths due to fire-related accidents in Sweden from 1952 to 2013 based on statistics in the Cause of Death register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Fatalities coded with underlying cause of death associated with fire-related accidents are included and absolute numbers and age-adjusted mortality rates are calculated and statistically analysed for trends using Poisson regression. The results show a significant reduction in both absolute numbers and in the age-adjusted mortality rate with a decline in absolute number of deaths of 34% over the period. However, the elderly population (80+ years) showed a significant increase in absolute numbers. Regarding the age-adjusted mortality rate, a significant reduction of 63% was observed and children aged 0 to 4 years showed the largest decrease (91%). A reduction was seen both in terms of fatalities due to burns and carbon monoxide poisoning, although the reduction was more pronounced with regards to burns (69% compared to 46%). Although an overall decrease was observed in both absolute numbers and in the age-adjusted mortality rate, with an aging population, the absolute numbers of fire-related deaths for the elderly population will most likely increase in the future. Therefore, whilst previously a child-injury issue, fire-related deaths in Sweden is now predominantly an issue of safety for the elderly. In combination with more deaths now being attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning, new preventative strategies may be required

  • 3.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Div Risk & Environm Studies, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Div Risk & Environm Studies, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Household Fire Protection Practices in Relation to Socio-demographic Characteristics: Evidence from a Swedish National SurveyIn: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sociodemographic inequalities in the ownership of residential fire safety equipment, fire prevention practices and fire protection knowledge was studied using an inductive and data-driven approach based on the responses to a national Swedish survey containing individual-level data on several dimensions of home fire safety practices (n = 7507). Cluster analysis was used to summarise home fire safety data and sociodemographic characteristics of the sample were then regressed on the data ordinal regression analysis. The results showed significant correlations between the level of fire protection and a range of factors (sex, age, family composition, income, housing type and country of birth), suggesting a positive effect of socioeconomic success. Further, the results imply that having experienced a residential fire has a positive impact on future fire protection practices, and that higher levels of fire protection interest increases the probability of having a functional smoke detector.

  • 4.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in Sweden – results from a cross-sectional study 2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Richardson, Omar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Jalba, Andrei
    Eindhoven University of Technology,The Netherlands.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Effects of Environment Knowledge in Evacuation Scenarios Involving Fire and Smoke: A Multiscale Modelling and Simulation Approach2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 415-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the evacuation dynamics of a crowd evacuating from a complex geometry in the presence of a fire as well as of a slowly spreading smoke curtain.The crowd is composed of two kinds of individuals: those who know the layout of the building, and those who do not and rely exclusively on potentially informed neighbors to identify a path towards the exit. We aim to capture the effect the knowledge of the environment has on the interaction between evacuees and their residence time in the presence of fire and evolving smoke. Our approach is genuinely multiscale—we employ a two-scale model that is able to distinguish between compressible and incompressible pedestrian flow regimes and allows for micro and macro pedestrian dynamics. Simulations illustrate the expected qualitative behavior of the model. We finish with observations on how mixing evacuees with different levels of knowledge impacts important evacuation aspects.

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