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  • 1.
    AlMotasem, Ahmed Tamer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Holleboom, Thijs
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Adhesion between ferrite iron-€“iron/cementite countersurfaces: A molecular dynamics study2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 103, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesive properties of Fe(110)/Fe(110) and Fe3C(001)/Fe(110) countersurfaces have been investigated by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that Fe3C/Fe exhibits a relatively lower adhesion compared to the Fe/Fe. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the adhesive properties between 300–700 K has been examined. The results demonstrate that, with increasing the temperature, the values of the adhesion force and the work of adhesion continuously decrease in the case of Fe3C/Fe; they initially slightly increase up to 500 K then decrease in the case of Fe/Fe. Furthermore, the effect of lattice coherency between Fe/Fe has been examined and found to slightly reduce the adhesion. These results explain how carbides improve galling resistance of tool steel observed during dry sliding. 

  • 2.
    AlMotasem, Ahmed Tamer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Posselt, Matthias
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Nanoindentation and nanoscratching of a ferrite/austenite iron bi-crystal: An atomistic study2018In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 127, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations are applied to investigate the wear/friction behavior of a ferrite/austenite iron bi-crystal, as a model system for duplex stainless steels. The plasticity of the ferrite phase is dominated by dislocations while both dislocations and stacking faults are the primary cause of plastic deformation of the austenite phase. Interestingly, the responses of tribological parameters vary depending on the scratch direction. For instance, the scratch hardness is increased by about 46% whereas the friction coefficient is reduced by about 22% when scratch starts from austenite to ferrite. At the interface, a local softening/hardening occurs because of dislocation-interface interaction. The present results demonstrate that martensitic phase transformation is responsible for experimentally observed high amount of ferrite of the pile-up.

  • 3.
    Gaard, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Influence of tool microstructure on galling resistance2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 57, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sheet metal forming, different types of tool steels are used depending on sheet quality. In the present work, influence of amount, and type, of primary carbides and carbo-nitrides was investigated regarding tool galling resistance against austenitic stainless steel. A significant impact of amount of carbides on galling resistance was observed and tool performance was improved as volume fraction increased. However, no influence of carbide type was distinguished. Alloying by nitrogen further improved the galling resistance and best tool performance was observed for a tool steel comprising only carbo-nitride M(C,N) particles. Besides transfer of sheet material, several other tool damage mechanisms were observed such as cracking, micro-chipping and abrasive scratching. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Gåård, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Influence of work material proof stress and tool steel microstructure on galling initiation and critical contact pressure2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EN 1.4301 (austenitic), EN 1.4509 (ferritic), EN 1.4162 (duplex) and EN 1.4310 C1000 (metastable austenitic) stainless steels were tested in lubricated sliding against an ingot cast EN X153WCrMoV12 and powder metallurgy nitrogen alloyed Uddeholm Vancron 40 tool steels to reveal critical to galling contact pressure, Pcr. The calculated Pcr were higher for steels with higher strength. At P>Pcr, due to plastic flow of sheet material, the tool is damaged substantially and wear-induced matrix damage causes rapid galling initiation. At P<Pcr, galling was not observed. The powder metallurgy tool steel was more resistant to galling against all tested stainless steels. Better performance was associated with fine and homogeneously distributed hard phases preventing intensive wear of the tool steel matrix.

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