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  • 1.
    Navaranjan, Garthika
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Australian Catholic Univ, Mary MacKillop Inst Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Azad, Meghan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Becker, Allan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Dai, Ruixue
    Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Harris, Shelley A.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Canc Care Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lefebvre, Diana L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lu, Zihang
    Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mandhane, Piush J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    McLean, Kathleen
    BC Ctr Dis Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Moraes, Theo J.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Scott, James A.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort2020In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life. Objective To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood. Methods Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA. Results The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 degrees C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age. Conclusions Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

  • 2.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gennings, Chris
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Svensson, Åke
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindh, Christian H
    Lunds universitet.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of “new generation compounds” coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH). Objectives: In order to evaluate temporal trends in phthalate exposure, first trimester urinary biomarkers of phthalates were measured in the Swedish SELMA study over a period of 2.5 years (2007–2010). Methods: We collected first morning void urine samples around week 10 of pregnancy from 1651 pregnant women. Spot samples were analyzed for 13 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement and least square geometric mean (LSGM) levels of the metabolites were compared between the sampling years when adjusted for potential confounders. Results: All 14 metabolites were detectable in more than 99% of the SELMA subjects. The levels were generally comparable to other studies, but the SELMA subjects showed slightly higher exposure to butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites levels decreased while DiNP, DiDP/di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), and DiNCH metabolites levels increased during the sampling period. Conclusions: Urinary metabolite levels of the older phthalates and more recently introduced phthalate replacement compound changed during the short sampling period in this Swedish pregnancy cohort. Our results indicate that replacement of phthalates can make an impact on human exposure to these chemicals. During this particularly vulnerable stage of life, phthalate exposures are of particular concern as the impacts, though not immediately noticeable, may increase the risk for health effects later in life.

  • 3.
    Takaro, Tim K.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Scott, James A.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Allen, Ryan W.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Anand, Sonia S.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Becker, Allan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Befus, A. Dean
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Duncan, Joanne
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lefebyre, Diana L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lou, Wendy
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mandhane, Plush J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    McLean, Kathleen E.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Miller, Gregory
    Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL USA..
    Sbihi, Hind
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Varmland, Sweden..
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada..
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Joondalup, WA, Australia.;Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0L2, Canada..
    Zeng, Leilei
    Univ Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Environm Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 580-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

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