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  • 1.
    Briscoe, Bob
    et al.
    BT, Ipswich IP5 3RE, Suffolk, England.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Petlund, Andreas
    Simula Res Lab AS, N-1364 Fornebu, Norway..
    Hayes, David
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Ros, David
    Simula Res Lab AS, N-1364 Fornebu, Norway..
    Tsang, Ing-Jyh
    Alcatel Lucent, Bell Labs, B-2018 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Gjessing, Stein
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, Scotland..
    Griwodz, Carsten
    Simula Res Lab AS, N-1364 Fornebu, Norway..
    Welzl, Michael
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Reducing Internet Latency: A Survey of Techniques and Their Merits2016In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 2149-2196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latency is increasingly becoming a performance bottleneck for Internet Protocol (IP) networks, but historically, networks have been designed with aims of maximizing throughput and utilization. This paper offers a broad survey of techniques aimed at tackling latency in the literature up to August 2014, as well as their merits. A goal of this work is to be able to quantify and compare the merits of the different Internet latency reducing techniques, contrasting their gains in delay reduction versus the pain required to implement and deploy them. We found that classifying techniques according to the sources of delay they alleviate provided the best insight into the following issues: 1) The structural arrangement of a network, such as placement of servers and suboptimal routes, can contribute significantly to latency; 2) each interaction between communicating endpoints adds a Round Trip Time (RTT) to latency, particularly significant for short flows; 3) in addition to base propagation delay, several sources of delay accumulate along transmission paths, today intermittently dominated by queuing delays; 4) it takes time to sense and use available capacity, with overuse inflicting latency on other flows sharing the capacity; and 5) within end systems, delay sources include operating system buffering, head-of-line blocking, and hardware interaction. No single source of delay dominates in all cases, and many of these sources are spasmodic and highly variable. Solutions addressing these sources often both reduce the overall latency and make it more predictable.

  • 2.
    Fischer, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Passau.
    Botero, Juan Felipe
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Beck, Michael Till
    University of Passau.
    De Meer, Hermann
    University of Passau.
    Hesselbach, Xavier
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Virtual Network Embedding: A Survey2013In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1888-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network virtualization is recognized as an enabling technology for the future Internet. It aims to overcome the resistance of the current Internet to architectural change. Application of this technology relies on algorithms that can instantiate virtualized networks on a substrate infrastructure, optimizing the layout for service-relevant metrics. This class of algorithms is commonly known as “Virtual Network Embedding (VNE)” algorithms. This paper presents a survey of current research in the VNE area. Based upon a novel classification scheme for VNE algorithms a taxonomy of current approaches to the VNE problem is provided and opportunities for further research are discussed.

  • 3.
    Nguyen, Van-Giang
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). The University of Sydney, Australia.
    SDN/NFV-Based Mobile Packet Core Network Architectures: A Survey2017In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1567-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of two new technologies, namely Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have radically changed the development of network functions and the evolution of network architectures. These two technologies bring to mobile operators the promises of reducing costs, enhancing network flexibility and scalability, and shortening the time-to-market of new applications and services. With the advent of SDN and NFV and their offered benefits, the mobile operators are gradually changing the way how they architect their mobile networks to cope with ever-increasing growth of data traffic, massive number of new devices and network accesses, and to pave the way towards the upcoming fifth generation (5G) networking. This paper aims at providing a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art research work, which leverages SDN and NFV into the most recent mobile packet core network architecture, Evolved Packet Core (EPC). The research work is categorized into smaller groups according to a proposed four-dimensional taxonomy reflecting the (1) architectural ap- proach, (2) technology adoption, (3) functional implementation, and (4) deployment strategy. Thereafter, the research work is exhaustively compared based on the proposed taxonomy and some added attributes and criteria. Finally, the paper identifies and discusses some major challenges and open issues such as scalability and reliability, optimal resource scheduling and allocation, management and orchestration, network sharing and slicing that raise from the taxonomy and comparison tables that need to be further investigated and explored. 

  • 4.
    Papastergiou, Giorgos
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, U.K.
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Distributed Systems and Communication (DISCO).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Münster University of Applied Sciences, Steinfurt, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA.
    Mangiante, Simone
    EMC Corporation, Ovens, Ireland.
    De-Ossifying the Internet Transport Layer: A Survey and Future Perspectives2017In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 619-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that the Internet transport layer has become ossified, where further evolution has become hard or even impossible. This is a direct consequence of the ubiquitous deployment of middleboxes that hamper the deployment of new transports, aggravated further by the limited flexibility of the application programming interface (API) typically presented to applications. To tackle this problem, a wide range of solutions have been proposed in the literature, each aiming to address a particular aspect. Yet, no single proposal has emerged that is able to enable evolution of the transport layer. In this paper, after an overview of the main issues and reasons for transport-layer ossification, we survey proposed solutions and discuss their potential and limitations. The survey is divided into five parts, each covering a set of point solutions for a different facet of the problem space: (1) designing middlebox-proof transports; (2) signaling for facilitating middlebox traversal; (3) enhancing the API between the applications and the transport layer; (4) discovering and exploiting end-to-end capabilities; and (5) enabling user-space protocol stacks. Based on this analysis, we then identify further development needs toward an overall solution. We argue that the development of a comprehensive transport layer framework, able to facilitate the integration and cooperation of specialized solutions in an application-independent and flexible way, is a necessary step toward making the Internet transport architecture truly evolvable. To this end, we identify the requirements for such a framework and provide insights for its development

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