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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Stated reasons for reducing work-commute by car2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Umeå University.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University.
    Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver’s performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent. In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment. However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

  • 3.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being (SWB): Development and tests of a measurement tool2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Affective dimensions of the waiting experience2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Travel and residual emotional well-being2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

  • 6.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Effects of Critical Incidents on Car Users' Predicted Satisfaction with Public Transport2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the hypothesis that car users’ affective forecasts of satisfaction with public transport are biased by a focusing illusion. In Study 1, 54 car users with a stated intent to change travel mode read descriptions of a positive, a negative or a neutral critical incident. They were asked to predict their satisfaction with public transport if the incident occurred. In Study 2, 38 car users with no stated intent to change travel mode read descriptions of a positive or a negative critical incident. They were asked to predict their satisfaction with the service if the incident occurred. The results from Studies 1 and 2 showed that focus on a negative critical incident significantly generated lower predicted satisfaction. Thus, the study show that predicted satisfaction is altered when car users focus on negative critical incidents.

  • 7.
    Skarin, Frida
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Importance of motives, self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction with travel for behavior change during travel intervention programs2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 62, p. 451-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present field study investigates the reduction of car use through a voluntary travelbehavior intervention program that provides participants with temporary free publictransportation. Three factors – self-efficacy, social support and satisfaction – have previ-ously been shown to be important for behavior change during physical activity interven-tion programs. In travel behavior interventions, however, these factors have often beenstudied individually and less is known about their combined effects on travel behaviorchange. Furthermore, while motives for participating in travel behavior interventions havebeen frequently studied within travel behavior interventions research, there is a lack ofstudies investigating the influence of motives on travel behavior change. To better under-stand the importance of different motives as well as the importance of self-efficacy, socialsupport, and satisfaction with travel on behavior change, a series of surveys were admin-istered to 181 participants before, during, and after their participation in a voluntary travelbehavior intervention. The results show that greater self-efficacy and social support duringthe intervention led to greater travel behavior change. These results indicate that in orderto gain better results from travel behavior interventions, individuals should be helped toincrease their travel-related self-efficacy, and significant others should be involved to pro-vide social support. We discuss possible ways of accomplishing this.

  • 8.
    Taniguchi, Ayako
    et al.
    Risk Engineering/University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Grääs, Carin
    Attityd i Karlstad AB.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfaction with travel, goal achievement, and voluntarily behavioral change2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 26, no Part A, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential effectiveness of soft policy measures aimed at reduced car use depends on how car users experience these. A common measure being implemented is a free monthly travel card valid for a limited period on public transport (PT). In this study, a total of 321 car commuters living in Värmland, Sweden were recruited into such a program. The goal was to use PT between home and work at least three times a week over a period of four weeks. Immediately after completion of the program, the participants answered a follow-up questionnaire. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) was used to measure their travel experiences. They were also asked to rate their goal achievement. A process model was used during the analyses. Regression analysis showed that the distance from home to the nearest bus stop had a significantly negative effect on the STS. The STS had a significantly positive effect on goal achievement. Both goal achievement and the STS had a significantly positive effect both on PT use and on future goals. This study shows that travel experiences and goal achievement are important for voluntary behavioral change.

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