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  • 1.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Hellström, Lisa
    Department of School Development and Leadership, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate
    Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Cyber bullying among children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young adults with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) are at increased risk of bullying compared to typically developing peers. It is still unclear to what extent they are involved in cyber bullying. This systematic review aimed at studying the prevalence of cyber bullying as perpetrators, victims, or both (“bully-victims”) among students with ND in a school setting and in need of special education. The Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMED, and Cochrane databases were searched including a manual search of reference lists, until February 24, 2018. Eight studies conducted in Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Australia were included reporting a prevalence of cyber-victimization among students with ND of 0%–41%, a prevalence of cyber-perpetration of 0%–16.7%, and a prevalence of bully-victims of 6.7%. Three out of five studies using control groups showed that students with ND might be more involved in cyber bullying overall compared to typically developing students. Students in segregated school settings report slightly higher prevalence rates of cyber bullying compared to students with ND in inclusive school settings, especially among girls. When comparing prevalence rates among studies using the same definition, we found similar prevalence rates. There was a tendency towards students with ND being more involved in cyber bullying compared to typically developing students, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies that should include control groups with typically developing students as well as validated and standardized measurements of cyber bullying and ND diagnoses. © 2019 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 2.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n=129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n=68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n=61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention.

  • 3.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior: A quasi-experimental open pilot study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    National Defence Research Establishment, Division of Human Sciences.
    Börjesson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    An application of the optic sphere theory in discrimination of slant with minimal information1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Adolescents’ perception of gender differences in bullying2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender norms are normative societal expectations regarding the behaviors of girls and boys that can guide bullying behavior. As early adolescence is a time when peer relations become increasingly important, it is critical to understand the peer relationships of adolescents and what is considered gender non-confirming behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze Swedish girls’ and boys’ perception of gender differences in bullying. Twenty-one Swedish adolescents (8 girls and 13 boys) took part in four focus group discussions separated by boys and girls. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. “Expectations and needs to fit the norm” emerged as the main category as all categories emerging from the analysis related to boys’ and girls’ understandings of how expectations, strategies, expressions relating to bullying and the need to belong vary depending on gender. Further, girls and boys expressed admiration for each other's ways of coping with bullying indicating that also coping strategies are associated with expectations based on gender. For schools and adults to be better equipped to meet the needs of girls and boys and understand how these needs are expressed, adolescents voices regarding gender related bullying can be seen as helpful tools to develop strategies to work with gender norms and gender expectations. In light of the results of our study, schools may have work to do when it comes to the awareness of norms and attitudes and how they are expressed as these may be a foundation for bullying, among both staff and students.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Sophie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism.

  • 7.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    et al.
    Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 350-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

  • 8.
    Stark, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affect at the different phases of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of psychotherapy provided by candidates2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a subgroup of socially anxious adults who are both anxious and impulsive. To date, however, this subgroup has not been identified in adolescence. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify this subgroup in a sample of adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that this subgroup would be higher on problem behaviors, and that these processes would be moderated by gender. We used longitudinal data from 714 adolescents who were in the 7th and 8th grades at Time 1. They were followed annually for three years. Cluster analyses identified an anxious-inhibited subgroup as well as an anxious-impulsive subgroup in early adolescence (Time 1). The socially anxious-impulsive adolescent boys were generally higher on both intoxication frequency and delinquency compared with all other adolescents in all clusters at each time point. Findings suggest that social anxiety subgroups may differ on problem behavior, and that early detection of an anxious-impulsive subgroup may be important to prevent maladjustment, especially for adolescent boys.

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