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  • 1.
    Pernebo, K.
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Fridell, M.
    Lund universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Outcomes of psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence2018In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 79, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Witnessing violence toward a caregiver during childhood is associated with negative impact on children's health and development, and there is a need for effective interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence in clinical as well as in community settings. The current effectiveness study investigated symptom reduction after participation in two established group interventions (one community-based psychoeducative intervention; one psychotherapeutic treatment intervention) for children exposed to intimate partner violence and for their non-offending parent. The study included 50 children—24 girls and 26 boys—aged 4–13 years and their mothers. Child and maternal mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment. The results indicate that although children showed benefits from both interventions, symptom reduction was larger in the psychotherapeutic intervention, and children with initially high levels of trauma symptoms benefited the most. Despite these improvements, a majority of the children's mothers still reported child trauma symptoms at clinical levels post-treatment. Both interventions substantially reduced maternal post-traumatic stress. The results indicate a need for routine follow-up of children's symptoms after interventions.

  • 2.
    Pernebo, K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Fridell, M.
    Lunds universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Reduced psychiatric symptoms at 6 and 12 months’ follow-up of psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence2019In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 93, p. 228-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-term follow-up studies of interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence are few, and the sustainability of their outcomes often remains unexplored and uncertain. Current research including follow-up assessment suggests that treatment gains may be maintained or continue post termination. In addition some children may show increased levels of symptoms. Objective: The present effectiveness study investigated the long-term outcomes of two established group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence and their non-offending parent. Participants and Setting: The study included 50 children, 24 girls and 26 boys, aged 4 to 13 years attending a psychotherapeutic child and adolescent mental health service intervention and a psychoeducative community-based intervention. Methods: Background information, child and parental mental health problems, trauma symptoms, and exposure to violence were assessed pre- and post treatment and at 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. Results: Sustained treatment gains and late improvements in children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and in symptoms of traumatic stress were recorded from post treatment to the follow-up assessments (p =.004–.044; d = 0.29–0.67). No significant increase in symptoms was reported. Additionally, very little continued or renewed child exposure to violence was reported. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the children did benefit from the two interventions studied and that the outcomes of reduced child symptoms and protection from exposure to violence were sustainable. Children with severe trauma symptoms benefited the most, though maternal psychological problems may for some have hindered recovery. Clinical implications are discussed.

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