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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet.
    The relation between students’ communicative moves during laboratory work in physics and outcomes of their actions2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 158-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, we explore students’ communication during practical work in physics at an upper secondary school in Sweden from a sociocultural perspective. We investigate the relation between the interaction and content of students’ communication and outcomes of their actions, with the purpose of finding new knowledge for informing teachers in their choice of instruction. We make discourse analysis of how students interact but also of what students are discussing in terms of underlying content at a linguistic and cognitive level. Twenty students divided into five groups were video recorded while performing four practical tasks at different stations during laboratory work about motion. An analytical framework was developed and applied for one group to three parts of the transcripts in which three different talk-types occurred. Discursive, content, action and purposive moves in the process were identified for each talk-type at both linguistic and cognitive levels. These moves represent information concerning what the teacher actually assigns students to do, and how students make meaning of the activities. Through these different communicative moves, students experience how laboratory work can enhance their competence to collaborate in a scientific environment with complex practical and theoretical questions to solve quickly. Implications of the findings are discussed. 

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Educ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Upper Secondary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Chemical Bonding Models2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 298-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding science. However, many studies have determined that the use of models in science education can contribute to students' difficulties understanding the topic, and that students generally find chemical bonding a challenging topic. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' knowledge of teaching chemical bonding. The study focuses on three essential components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): (1) the students' understanding, (2) representations, and (3) instructional strategies. We analyzed lesson plans about chemical bonding generated by 10 chemistry teachers with whom we also conducted semi-structured interviews about their teaching. Our results revealed that the teachers were generally unaware of how the representations of models they used affected student comprehension. The teachers had trouble specifying students' difficulties in understanding. Moreover, most of the instructional strategies described were generic and insufficient for promoting student understanding. Additionally, the teachers' rationale for choosing a specific representation or activity was seldom directed at addressing students' understanding. Our results indicate that both PCK components require improvement, and suggest that the two components should be connected. Implications for the professional development of pre-service and in-service teachers are discussed.

  • 3.
    Chang, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Chiu, M. H.
    National Taiwan Normal University.
    Lakatos' scientific research programmes as a framework for analysing informal argumentation about socioscientific issues2008In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 1753-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis showed that the science majors' informal arguments were significantly better than the non-science majors' arguments. In terms of the resources for supporting reasons, we find that personal experience and scientific belief are the two categories that are generated most often in both groups of the participants. Besides, science majors made significantly greater use of analogies, while non-science majors made significantly greater use of authority. In addition, both science majors and non-science majors had a harder time changing their arguments after participating in a group discussion. In the study of argumentation in science, scholars have often used Toulmin's framework of data, warrant, backing, qualifiers, claims, and rebuttal. Our work demonstrates that Lakatos' work is also a viable perspective, especially when warrant and backing are difficult to discern, and when students' arguments are resistant to change. Our use of Lakatos' framework highlights how the 'hard core' of students' arguments about socio-scientific issues does, indeed, seem to be protected by a 'protective belt' and, thus, is difficult to alter. From these insights, we make specific implications for further research and teaching.

  • 4.
    Kilstadius, Margaretha
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Defining contagion literacy: a Delphi study2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 2261-2282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of climate change, which enables infectious diseases to move their frontiers and the increasing global mobility, which make people more exposed to contagion, we as citizens need to relate to this new scenario. A greater number of infectious diseases may also potentially lead to an increased need to use antibiotics and anti-parasitic substances. In view of this, the aim of this study was to identify the health literacy needed in the contemporary world and specify what should be taught in compulsory school. We present the findings of a Delphi study, performed in Sweden, regarding the opinions on contagion among experts in the field. We used Nutbeam's framework of health literacy and related it to Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in order to analyse and categorise the experts' responses, which were categorised into six main content themes: contagions, transmission routes, sexually transmitted diseases, hygiene, vaccinations and use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. These themes were then divided into the three levels of Nutbeam's framework: functional health literacy, which is about knowledge and understanding, interactive health literacy, which is about developing personal qualities and skills that promote health, and critical health literacy, which is about social and cognitive skills related to analysis and critical reflection. The implications for communication and education are then discussed and what should be taught in compulsory school is identified.

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