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  • 1.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    et al.
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Hoelzel, Norbert
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Danihelka, Jiri
    Czech Republic.
    Biological flora of central Europe: Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina2006In: Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics, ISSN 1433-8319, E-ISSN 1618-0437, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 45-66Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viola elatior, V pumila and V stagnina (syn. V persicifolia) are very rare in central and western Europe and red-listed in many central European countries. To improve their conservation and to base management efforts on sound scientific knowledge, we here review the available information on their biology. A comparative approach is adopted to identify similarities and differences between the species. Special emphasis will be on taxonomy, community ecology and population biology. All three species belong to the section Viola, subsection Rostratae. Since they are morphologically rather similar and have often been misidentified, we supply the most important characters for separating the three taxa. The species share a continental distribution with a centre of occurrence in the temperate zone of eastern Europe and western Siberia, and reach their western range margin in central and western Europe. They have become rare and endangered through melioration and fragmentation of their habitats. All three species are iteroparous hemicryptophytes with a complex life cycle, a mixed mating system with chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers, and a persistent seed bank. Viola pumila and V. stagnina occur in floodplain meadows and wet grasslands, whereas V. elatior is a typical species of alluvial woodland fringes and other ecotonal habitats bordering floodplain meadows. Viola elatior and V pumila are confined to calcareous or at least base-rich substrates, whereas V stagnina may also occur on strongly acidic soils. The violets are able to occupy a broad range of site conditions in terms of soil nutrient status and productivity. However, on fertile sites the species depend on regular disturbances that weaken competitors and enhance the germination of dormant seeds. Current information about mycorrhizal colonisation, biochemical and physiological data, and herbivores and pathogens is scarce or lacking, probably due to the rarity of the three species in central Europe. (c) 2006 Rubel Foundation, ETH Zurich. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Jung, Linda S.
    et al.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Winter, Silvia
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Kriechbaum, Monika
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Karrer, Gerhard
    Welk, Erik
    Martin-Luther-University, Halle, Germany.
    Elsaesser, Martin
    Education and Knowledge Centre Aulendorf-Livestock Farming, Germany.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Colchicum autumnale L.2011In: Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics, ISSN 1433-8319, E-ISSN 1618-0437, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 227-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colchicum autumnale is a perennial hysteranthous geophyte, which is native to Europe. It is characteristic of periodically wet to moderately moist grasslands but also occurs in alluvial forests. This article gives an overview of the taxonomy, distribution, life cycle, and population biology of C. autumnale and puts special emphasis on its morphology, germination and its response to competition and management.

  • 3.
    Voss, Nicole
    et al.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Welk, Erik
    Martin Luther Univerity, Halle, Germany.
    Durka, Walter
    UFZ, Halle, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Biological flora of Central Europe: Ceratocapnos claviculata (L.) Liden2012In: Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics, ISSN 1433-8319, E-ISSN 1618-0437, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 61-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eu-oceanic therophytic woodland herb Ceratocapnos claviculata has been expanding north- and eastwards into north temperate and subcontinental regions during the past decades. The rapid range expansion of the species may be an example of a species which is strongly profiting from global change. Against this background, in the present paper we review the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, habitat requirements, life cycle and biology of the species. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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