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  • 1.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin André
    et al.
    epartment of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Pivodic, Aldina
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Multilevel analysis of dental caries in Swedish children and adolescents in relation to socioeconomic status2019In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate the variability in dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents, at two different area levels: dental clinics and SAMS (small areas for market statistics), with respect to multiple individual socioeconomic factors (SES). Records of manifest caries using the DMFT indices (decayed, missing, filled teeth, dependent variables) were collected from electronic dental records for 300,988 individuals aged 3-19 years (97.3% coverage) from the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. SES data were obtained from official registers and covered ethnicity, wealth, parental education, and employment. The SES variables were used as an independent aggregated variable - an in dex - categorized in deciles. Age and gender were independently included in the multilevel models. Two-level logistic regression analyses explored the probability of a dental caries experience and the variability (intracluster correlation) within dental clinic areas and SAMS, respectively. The most deprived (10th decile, SAMS level) 3- to 6-year-old children had an OR of 5.00 (95% CI 4.61-5.43) for dental caries experience (deft), compared with children in the 1st to 5th deciles. For older children and adolescents (≥7 years), the corresponding OR (DFT) was 2.25 (95% CI 2.15-2.35). Small geographical areas explained more of the variance in caries experience compared with the more aggregated level dental clinics. SES was more strongly related to the risk of dental caries experience than age and gender. In conclusion, the associations between SES and dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents were strong in the study and strongest in young children at a low level.

  • 2.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Göteborg.
    Petzold, Max
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Multiple Socioeconomic Factors and Dental Caries in Swedish Children and Adolescents.2018In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 52, no 1-2, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to explore associations between multiple socioeconomic factors and dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents (3-19 years old). Electronic dental records from 300,988, in a Swedish region (97.3% coverage) were collected using the DMFT indices (decayed, missing, filled teeth: dependent variables). Socioeconomic status (SES) data (ethnicity, wealth, parental education, and employment) for individuals, parents, and families were obtained from official registers. Principal component analysis was used to explore SES data. Scores based on the first factor were used as an independent aggregated socioeconomic variable in logistic regression analyses. Dental caries experience was low in the participants: 16% in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index: decayed, extracted, filled teeth) and 47% in 7- to 19-year-olds (DFT index). Both separate and aggregated socioeconomic variables were consistently associated with the dental caries experience irrespective of the caries index used: the crude odds ratio (OR) for having at least 1 caries lesion in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index) in the lowest SES quintile was 3.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.09-3.43) and in ≥7-year-olds (DFT index) OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.84) compared with children in the 4 higher SES quintiles. Overall, associations were stronger in the primary dentition than in the permanent dentition. Large SES models contributed more to explaining the caries experience than slim models including fewer SES indicators. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors were consistently associated with dental caries experience in the children and adolescents both as single factors and as multiple factors combined in an index. Socioeconomic inequalities had stronger associations to caries experience in young children than in older children and adolescents.

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