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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Even
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Motivation till läsförståelse: Hur utvecklar man som lärare motivation hos elever till läsförståelse i svenskämnet?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how teachers can develop motivation within upper secondary students for reading comprehension in the school subject of Swedish. Some aspects are examined in relation to the purpose of this essay such as both of the target groups’ attitudes and views towards reading comprehension, reading and motivation as well as similarities and differences between them. This essay also shows what kind of reading habits upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have in and outside of upper secondary school. Gender is an underlying factor that is examined in relation to the previously mentioned target groups. Two surveys were handed out to upper secondary students and Swedish teachers. They had to reply qualitative and quantitative questions with a focus on motivation in relation to reading comprehension based on different perspectives. The result showed that there are different ways, such as literary variation and an engaging approach, teachers can use to develop motivation within upper secondary students for reading comprehension in the school subject of Swedish. Both of the target groups believe that an active participation amongst each other in the classroom is important in order to express motivation towards reading comprehension and reading. The majority of them has a positive attitude towards both of the areas with the opinion that it is important to read and understand different texts because as a reader you receive new thoughts and perspectives as well as an increased vocabulary. Furthermore, upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have different views on how they experience and if they are motivated towards areas in the school subject of Swedish that involves reading comprehension and reading. One example is that both of the areas are important in order for students to develop positively for their future working life or future studies. The majority of both target groups are also able to see the positive sides of reading comprehension and reading despite varied reading habits in and outside upper secondary school, such as the fact that students prefer young adult literature while teachers enjoy non-fiction.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Even
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Ungdomsspråk: Elevers och lärares attityder till samt användning av ungdomsspråk i och utanför skolans verksamhet med fokus på muntlig språkproduktion i svenskämnet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to, based on different examples of youth language, examine upper secondary students’ and Swedish teachers’ attitudes to and usage of youth language in and outside upper secondary school with a focus on oral language production in the school subject of Swedish. This essay will also focus on if and how upper secondary students’ accomplishments in the school subject of Swedish are affected by their usage of youth language as well as what kind of view that upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have about this and about the opposite group’s usage of youth language. Two underlying factors, as in gender and age, will also be examined in relation to the previously mentioned target groups. Two surveys were handed out to upper secondary students and Swedish teachers. They got to answer qualitative and quantitative questions about attitudes to and usage of youth language. The result showed that upper secondary students use youth language more than Swedish teachers, both in and outside upper secondary school, for example through slang, curse words and discourse markers. Both of the target groups have different attitudes to youth language where Swedish teachers consider that it is limited while upper secondary students believe that it creates solidarity. Swedish teachers and upper secondary students also have different opinions about the fact that students’ usage of youth language might affect their accomplishments in the school subject of Swedish. However, the majority of both target groups believe that it has a negative influence. There are also similarities and differences between both target groups’ views on the counterpart’s usage of youth language. For example, the Swedish teachers believe that youth language can be innovative while upper secondary students express that it is embarrassing if their teachers try to use youth language in the classroom.

  • 3.
    Ahlstrand, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Eld och lågor, eller?: En kvantitativ studie om tolkningen av idiom2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The amin with this paper is to investigate how a few of today’s idioms are interpreted, if there are any difference between generations in the interpretation and if the younger generation in higher extent than the older tends to interpret them in other ways. This have been investigated trough a quantitative web-based survey there the respondents were asked to state their interpretation of twelve idioms, also answer a few questions regarding their use of idioms. The collected material has been transformed into precent units. The respondent’s answers were categorized by age, one group with respondents born 1990 or earlier and one group with respondents born 1990 or later. 

    The research shows that idioms, of both groups, interprets by original meaning in high extent since more than a good half answer according standard interpretation. With the exception of a few idioms there least 50 % of the younger group stated another interpretation than the original.

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  • 4.
    Ahlstrand, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Övning ger färdighet! - Ger övning färdig- het? - Övning färdighet ger.: En studie av läroböckers grammatikkapitel2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to study layout and presentation of grammar teaching in textbooks geared to- wards secondary education. A content analysis has been applied to achieve the purpose of this survey and as a basis for this, six textbooks written for the upper secondary school's course Swedish 2 have been used. The analysis has been made based on four different themes, the space of the grammar chapter in the book, how grammar is justified, which grammatical areas are treated and how the grammar exercises are designed. 

    The results of this study show that grammar is largely given as much space as other chapters of the same type, but that the grammar chapter is often placed far back in the book. Regarding justifications, the link to curriculum/knowledge requirements, language accuracy and writing skills are the most common. The areas covered vary slightly, but common to all books is that they teach phrases, parts of sentences and syntax. The textbooks' structure of exercises differs both in number and which grammatical areas they aim to practice, where sentence parts are the area, all books contain exercises on. In other words, the textbooks provide different conditions for the student because to some extent they teach different grammatical areas. 

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  • 5. Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Trayectorias hacia la libertad individual: El uso de la ironía en la novela El héroe discreto de Mario Vargas Llosa2019In: Bergen Language and Lingustics Studies, ISSN 1892-2449, E-ISSN 1892-2449, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the spiritual development of the main characters in the novel The Discreet Hero (2013) by Mario Vargas Llosa, and the aim is to show how irony provides the reader with reflections upon the meaning of individual freedom. The hypothesis suggests that the characters, representing different social and cultural groups of today’s Peruvian society, try to free themselves from surrounding threats and thereby obtain what Isaiah Berlin (1971) terms negative or positive freedom.

    The analysis focuses on narrative irony, which operates on three levels of the text: firstly, what it linguistically hides by telling something different, secondly, the discrepancy that emerges between narration and what lies underneath and thirdly, the dialectic ideas that impregnate the text and transmit the ambiguity of the work (Tittler 1984). Ethical irony, according to which the characters of narrative are incoherent figures that pursue coherence (Handwerk 1985), is also included.

    The study shows that irony problematizes in what ways the characters perceive individual freedom. All of them experience negative freedom, which emerges when authorities fail in their support and protection of the citizens despite political and economic freedom. In order to obtain positive freedom, individual ethical and social responsibility, knowledge of self and cultural refinement are essential. Through irony, it becomes clear that positive freedom depends on a democratic society and individual values.

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  • 6.
    AL Salti, Rawan
    Karlstad University.
    Politeness strategies in the film North and South2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Politeness theory, developed by Brown and Levinson, has been applied to literature in linguistic research for in-depth analysis of discourse, whether written or spoken. Based on my understanding of politeness and the different politeness strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyzes the different strategies mostly used by the main characters of the televised version of the novel North and South (1855), written by Elizabeth Gaskell, by focusing on some parts of the conversations in the televised version (2004), in terms of gender, social class and situation. The result shows that the film characters mostly resort to on-record and positive politeness strategies, while negative politeness and off-record strategies are less used in the conversations, which supports the story ambition to bridge gender and social gaps. The analysis demonstrates that much of our understanding of character motives in a novel/film relies on the way politeness strategies credibly reflect our experience and how strategies in interaction commonly work as theoretically described.

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  • 7.
    Albury, Nathan
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Eisenchlas, Susana A.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Griffith University, Australia.
    Cultural heritage is a child's right, so let's celebrate International Mother Language Day2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Allansson, Jimmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    When grundskoleklass becomes mainstream classroom: An investigation of the translation of Swedish compound nouns into English using Google Translate2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how Swedish compound nouns are translated by the machine translation program Google Translate. In order to conclude what main types of mistranslation occur, different texts were first translated by the program; all compound nouns were then listed and analysed, and the mistranslated compound nouns were categorised in accordance with the manner of mistranslation. The study was also working from a hypothesis that the frequency of a compound would affect the chances of getting a correct translation. To test this hypothesis, queries were run in a Swedish corpus to get an estimation of how frequently used the compounds are. The results show that mistranslations could be categorised into four different types, and that the most common types of mistranslation were omitting part of the compound, and translating reoccurring compounds inconsistently. The hypothesis that compounds with high frequency in the corpus would be correctly translated, while compounds with low frequency would be incorrectly translated, could not be conclusively confirmed or refuted. Although there was some indication of a link between frequency and translation accuracy, the connection was not clear enough to claim that there is a correlation.

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    When grundskoleklass becomes mainstream classroom
  • 9.
    Almang, Jan
    Arvika, Sweden.
    An Argument for Shape Internalism2017In: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 819-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a defense of an internalist view of the perception of shapes. A basic assumption of the paper is that perceptual experiences have certain parts which account both for the phenomenal character associated with perceiving shapes-phenomenal shapes-and for the intentional content presenting shapes-intentional shapes. Internalism about perceptions of shapes is defined as the claim that phenomenal shapes determine the intentional shapes. Externalism is defined as the claim that perceptual experiences represent whatever shape the phenomenal shape reliably tracks. The argument against externalism proceeds in three steps. First, it is argued that phenomenal shapes are modality specific, such that a phenomenal shape that features in a visual perceptual experience cannot feature in a haptic perceptual experience, and vice versa. Second, it is argued that intentional shapes are amodal. Third, it is argued that externalism is incompatible with the fact that phenomenal shapes are modality specific and intentional shapes amodal.

  • 10.
    Almang, Jan
    Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Perceptual Transparency and Perceptual Constancy2014In: Husserl Studies, ISSN 0167-9848, E-ISSN 1572-8501, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central topic in discussions about qualia concerns their purported transparency. According to transparency theorists, an experience is transparent in the sense that the subject having the experience is aware of nothing but the intended object of the experience. In this paper this notion is criticized for failing to account for the dynamical aspects of perception. A key assumption in the paper is that perceptual content has a certain temporal depth, in the sense that each act of perception can present an object as extended in time and that objects can be perceived as persisting through time. An object that is seen as persisting through time is often seen as constant and unchanging, even though the presentation of it is changing. In this paper it is argued that in order to account for these cases of perceptual constancy, we must distinguish between the awareness of having perceived that an object has a property at a certain point in time, and perceptually intending that it has that property at that point in time. Consequently, we must in at least some instances be aware of something more than the object of the experience. But precisely this distinction is rejected by the transparency theory.

  • 11.
    Almang, Jan
    Gothenburg, University.
    TENSE AS A FEATURE OF PERCEPTUAL CONTENT2014In: Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0022-362X, E-ISSN 1939-8549, Vol. 111, no 7, p. 361-378Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Almang, Jan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    The Causal Self-Referential Theory of Perception Revisited2013In: Dialectica, ISSN 0012-2017, E-ISSN 1746-8361, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a paper about The Causal Self-Referential Theory of Perception. According to The Causal Self-Referential Theory as developed by above all John Searle and David Woodruff Smith, perceptual content is satisfied by an object only if the object in question has caused the perceptual experience. I argue initially that Searle's account cannot explain the distinction between hallucination and illusion since it requires that the state of affairs that is presented in the perceptual experience must exist in order for the perception to be veridical. Smith's account is interestingly different in that the descriptive content, i.e. the content that presents the perceptual object as having certain properties, does not determine the object of the experience. His account consequently does not require that the state of affairs that is presented in perception exists in order for the perception to have an object. Smith argues instead that perceptual reference is determined by a specific kind of demonstrative content. In this paper it is argued that Smith's account of demonstrative content is too indeterminate and in certain circumstances prescribes the wrong object. It is subsequently argued that the theory of demonstrative content can be modified so as to avoid these consequences. This modification involves deriving the conditions of satisfaction of seeing an object from the conditions of satisfaction of seeing the shape of the object, where the shape of the object is conceived of as a particularized property, what is also called a trope'.

  • 13.
    Almang, Jan
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Time, Mode and Perceptual Content2012In: Acta Analytica, ISSN 0353-5150, E-ISSN 1874-6349, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francois Recanati has recently argued that each perceptual state has two distinct kinds of content, complete and explicit content. According to Recanati, the former is a function of the latter and the psychological mode of perception. Furthermore, he has argued that explicit content is temporally neutral and that time-consciousness is a feature of psychological mode. In this paper it is argued, pace Recanati, that explicit content is not temporally neutral. Recanati's position is initially presented. Three desiderata for a theory of time-consciousness are subsequently introduced. It is then argued that a theory locating time-consciousness as a feature of psychological mode will fail to satisfy these desiderata. In the last section the intentionality of memories is discussed. Using the notion of shiftable indexical, it is argued that memories have the same explicit content as perceptions, but that they nevertheless can have different conditions of satisfaction since they are entertained in different modes.

  • 14.
    Almang, Jan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Two Kinds of Time-Consciousness and Three Kinds of Content2013In: Axiomathes, ISSN 1122-1151, E-ISSN 1572-8390, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the distinction between perceiving an object as extended in time, and experiencing a sequence of perceptions. I argue that this distinction cannot be adequately described by any present theory of time-consciousness and that in order to solve the puzzle, we need to consider perceptual content as having three distinct constituents: Explicit content, which has a particular phenomenal character, modal content, or the kind of content that is contributed by the psychological mode, and implicit content, which lacks phenomenal character. These notions are then further clarified and related to each other.

  • 15.
    Almerfors, Håkan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Preposition and article usage in learner English: An investigation of negative transfer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which someone’s first language (L1) influences his or her second language (L2) to create errors, that is negative transfer, is a topic that has received much attention in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Previous research has suggested that negative transfer is responsible for many errors. The primary aim of this study is to investigate article and preposition errors in the production of Swedish learners of English and to discuss these errors in relation to negative transfer. The secondary aim is to compare transfer errors by L1 Swedish and L1 Portuguese learners of English.

     

    The first and main part of the study is a corpus investigation of the written production of 80 students in upper secondary school (high school). The second part is a multiple-choice test constructed to provoke transfer errors. It was distributed to students in upper secondary school in Sweden and in Brazil. The results from the corpus analysis are largely in line with those of previous research, for example with regards to how definite article errors are more common than indefinite article errors, and how contexts with definite articles and generic noun phrases seem prone to create transfer errors. The corpus study also shows that substitution was the most common preposition error and that many transfer preposition errors supposedly were caused by direct translations. Through the multiple-choice test, the degree to which the first language had an impact on individual errors could be revealed. All in all, the study reveals several aspects of negative transfer that perhaps a single-language investigation could not, because it is in the comparison of English-learners with different L1s that the most interesting results occur.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    De, dem och dom: Vilka är dom som vill slopa de och dem?: En granskning av dom-debatten i svensk media och pronomenens användarstatistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine arguments that have occurred in the debate concerning de, dem and dom during the past three years in Sweden’s six biggest newspapers (Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Göteborgs-Posten, Aftonbladet, Svenska Dagbladet och Sydsvenskan, this according to Tidningsutgivarna [TU]). The arguments are collected from articles via the article search tool Retriever. Different search strings were tested in Retriever’s search field in order to find articles regarding the dom-debate. Eventually the search strings and phrases ”de och dem”, ”de/dem” and ”dom-debatten” resulted in most hits. Based on specific selection criteria, 26 articles remained. During the same period of time, the study also set out the examine which of the pronouns that are most used in written language: the informal version dom or the formal version de and dem, using Språkbanken’s concordance tool Korp. In this way, the study demonstrates a connection between the arguments that occur in today’s debate and the actual user statistics. Furthermore, the results are also compared with Språkrådet’s recommendation regarding these pronouns. As such, the results in this study present the debate’s temperature and the pronouns user statistics, which eventually lead to conclusions about the current de-dem-dom-climate. Content analysis of the arguments and user statistics revealed that de and dem are used more frequently than dom in written language. It also concludes there are more arguments supporting a continuing use of de and dem in media during the last three years, compared to arguments supporting a dom-reform during the corresponding period of time.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Understanding the 'mess' in text messages: An analysis of humorous text message exchanges shared in social media platforms2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept 'mess-understanding' has circulated in online media and is so prevalent that it is now included in the Urban Dictionary. The folk concept of mess-understandings is a pun for misunderstandings arising in an online media context. Posting one's own or others' miscommunication and/or typographical errors has grown to be a popular way of sharing humor via cross-platform sharing on the Internet. The aim of this paper is to analyze short message service (SMS) dialogues shared in social media, with a special emphasis on those with the highest degree of 'shareability' and/or popularity. The study specifically focuses on understanding linguistic and communicative reasons behind these dialogues being treated as humorous by users. As such, the study aims to shed light upon current cultural conceptions of communication and humor. Data was collected from the photo sharing website Pinterest from users who had posted or reposted 'screen shots' from their own or others' SMS conversations. In order to collect as much valuable data as possible, a manual search strategy was developed with three different word strings which resulted in a corpus of 160 dialogues. Content analysis of the data revealed certain recurrent humor themes, such as allusions to sexual conduct or bodily functions, generation gaps, technology difficulties, and lexical ambiguity. 

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Ingmarie
    Karlstad University.
    Två läsinlärningsmetoder: En jämförelse mellan den syntetiska och analytiska metoden2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Andersson, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kommunikativa redskap i förskolan: En studie om förskollärares användning av kommunikativa redskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how and which communicative tools five different pre-school teachers use to communicate with children in the ages of one to two years old, and in that way contribute to the area of knowledge about how to use communicative tools in pre-school. To answer the purpose and the questions of issue I used non-participating observations as my method, which means that I kept myself in the background to influence the situation as little as possible. The result shows that pre-school teachers use different artifacts, ACC and the pre-school environment to communicate with children. ACC was for example used in connection to food situations.

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    Examensarbete
  • 20.
    Andersson, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Feedback and digitalization: A qualitative study of the feedback methods of Swedish teachers of English at upper secondary school2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine what methods Swedish teachers of English use to give feedback on students’ written production and what factors influence them to choose these methods. An additional aim was to find out what teachers’ experiences are of digitalization in relation to feedback on students’ written production. Five semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with five certified English teachers who were currently active in upper secondary school. The results showed that the teachers used different methods when giving feedback on students’ written productions. Nonetheless, all of them mostly use formative feedback in the form of written comments. Four out of five respondents let their students submit texts through digital tools, Itslearning or DigiExam, but then printed them and handed them back with handwritten feedback of different sorts. One respondent gave all feedback electronically. When the teachers chose their methods, the most influential factors were available time, lacking student engagement and the fact that the school management team chose which digital tools that should be used. The fact that no teachers were involved in the decision about which digital tools should be used severely limits teacher autonomy and may be the reason why at least two of my respondents did not want to use these tools, which in their experience do not meet their feedback needs.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barn med språkstörningar: En studie om arbetet på språkförskolor2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    My purpose with this essay is to get knowledge about pedagogues´ work at pre- schools specialized on language. This was something that I wanted to examine, when I during earlier work and teaching practice met children with speech defects. I have interviewed three pre-schools teachers in different pre-schools specialized on language in a town in the middle of Sweden. As an examination method I used a qualitative interview method and I asked questions out of four themes. My themes where Background, Everyday work, Methods to stimulate children with speech defects in their development of language, and Further education. From the literature which has been used in this essay and from those interviews I made I have come with the conclusion, that a clear structure and signs as an alternative and complement communication can help children with speech defects in their development of language.

    Keywords: language, speech defects, pre-schools specialized on language, signs as an alternative and complement communication.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    The Introduction of English at the Junior Level of the Swedish Comprehensive Compulsory 9-year School: A study of perceived knowledge in relation to motivation conducted among 3rd grade students2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Titel:

    The Introduction of English at the Junior level of the Swedish 9-Year Comprehensive Compulsory School: A study of perceived knowledge in relation to motivation conducted among 3rdgrade students.

    Författare:

    Andersson, Rolf Engelska C, 2011

    Antal sidor:

    26

    Abstract:

    This paper focuses on perceived knowledge of students at the junior level of the comprehensive compulsory 9-year school, as this has an impact on their motivation to study the language. The national curriculum of 2011 assumes that English is introduced at an early stage, during the junior level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how students who start English in the first grade, according to the recommendations of the curriculum, relate to the subject. The paper contains a bibliography section, where I present language research concerning foreign language introduction, language acquisition and motivation, followed by a presentation of a historical view on second language learning in Sweden, and then an investigation conducted by a questionnaire. The purpose of the investigation is to measure the students’ perceived knowledge of English, as this affects their motivation. The investigation is limited to two third grade classes in a junior level school in a rural, scarcely populated municipality in the south-west of Sweden. All in all 40 students took part in the study. The aim of the paper is to answer the following question: How do the pupils regard their own achievements in English?

    The students have a general ability to evaluate their personal achievements and knowledge subjectively. They seem quite confident about their listening and speaking skills. The most difficult language segment, writing, where the language skills and requirements are most clearly defined, is the language area where the students feel that their ability is weaker. All students, with one exception, agree that language studies are important for them. What the study also shows is the variety of languages that students wish to study, i.e. Chinese and Japanese together with Spanish, Greek and sign languages show how the 9-year-old students are aware of the world around them. The reason why this investigation has been conducted is to investigate the students’ perceived knowledge as this has an impact on their motivation to study the language.

    Nyckelord

    : Early English introduction, English at the junior level, perceived knowledge, motivation.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Teacher and student questions in the EFL classroom: A study of gender and interaction in three Swedish classes2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Teacher and student questions in the EFL classroom
  • 24.
    Andresen, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Flouting the maxims in comedy: An analysis of flouting in the comedy series Community2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how flouting of the Gricean maxims is used to create comedy in the television series Community.  The aim of the paper is to find out what maxims are flouted the most to create comedy and what maxims the different characters flout in order to create comedy. The paper examines the use of flouts in different situations and explores in what situations the different characters flout the maxims for comedy.  The paper is based on transcription of eight episodes of the series. The results show that the maxim of quantity was flouted most often, and some characters used more flouts than others. These results suggest that the use of flouts has to do with their different personalities, which is why some characters did not use as many flouts in order to create comedy, since it would not be in line with their personality.   

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  • 25.
    Anteryd, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    A Pragmatic Analysis of the Humour in The Big Bang Theory: A qualitative study focusing on non-observances of Grice’s conversational maxims2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate, using Grice’s theories, two episodes from the sitcom named The Big Bang Theory in terms of finding out how the flouting and other non-observances of Gricean maxims of quantity, quality, relation and manner are deployed to generate humour in the series. Another aim is to find out whether a certain Gricean maxim was non-observed more than any other. The Analysis section includes transcriptions of the selected parts of the two episodes which I have analysed. I found that the Gricean maxims serve as waypoints to humour in combination with extra-linguistic features such as body language, facial expressions, tone of voice etc.

  • 26.
    Artan, Niklas Kanat
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Computer use in the English classroom: A comparative analysis of English teachers' thoughts and practices regarding computer use in the English classroom2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society changed when it entered the 21st century when technological gadgets like the computer and tablets made our society technologically dependent. The aim of this study is to examine Swedish Secondary and Upper Secondary English teachers’ attitudes towards computer use in the English classroom. The study was carried out by using a qualitative method: semi-structured interviews. A total of 17 teachers offered their thoughts on the subject. The results show that there are both differences and similarities between the Secondary school teachers and Upper Secondary School teachers. The Upper Secondary teachers have a much more positive attitude compared to the Secondary school teachers who have a more neutral attitude. The Upper Secondary School teachers are more positive because of the 1:1 initiative while the Secondary School teachers more neutral as a result of the limited computer supply, which was problematic whenever they have classes that are larger than the amount of computers available at hand.

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  • 27.
    Bernau, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Semantic patterns in the description of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump: A semantic analysis of adjectives in the editorials of two U.S. newspapers2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Politicians work hard on how they are perceived by their voters, but what they cannot control is how media portray them. In order to get some insight into how Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump were described during the general election 2016, this study will analyse adjectives from a semantic perspective, which entails semantic classification, sentiment scores and an Appraisal analysis of adjectives found in editorials from The New York Times and The Washington Times. The purpose of this is to reveal if there are any semantic patterns as to how the adjectives were used to describe the candidates and if there is a relationship between these hypothetical patterns and the political affiliations of the newspapers. The findings of this study suggest that there are semantic patterns as to how the presidential candidates are described. Moreover, the results from the analysis of The New York Times seem to display a relationship between the adjectives and the political orientation of the newspaper whereas the results from The Washington Times are less clear, although there are some indications of such a connection.

  • 28.
    Berton, Marco
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sánchez, Laura
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of passive vocabulary knowledge and task type on lexical sophistication in L2 Spanish writing2023In: Current Perspectives in Spanish Lexical Development / [ed] Irene Checa-García and Laura Marqués-Pascual, Mouton de Gruyter, 2023, p. 161-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bihl, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    A contribution to the theory on dialectal transitions2004In: Language variation in Europe: Papers from the second international conference on language variation in Europe, ICLaVE 2 / [ed] Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Uppsala: Department of Scandinavian languages, Uppsala university , 2004, Vol. 2, p. 125-135Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Birgitta, Barck
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    När språket inte räcker till: Framgångsmetoder i svenskämnet för andraspråkselever på lågstadiet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the survey was to identify which methods primary teachers are using and see

    as success factors in the language development. To study which factors came from a sociocultural

    approach to learning, in order to develop and create discussions and improvements so

    that second language learners reach their targets. The study is based on three teachers'

    teaching of second language students in the primary grades, using qualitative interviews and

    observations of their work.

    The results revealed that the organization and support resources are significant and can vary

    between schools in the same municipality. Furthermore it showed that two of the teachers

    interviewed, felt that it was difficult to teach second language students. They felt that they had

    insufficient knowledge, a heavy workload, a lack of time and they expressed both

    powerlessness and frustration. The conclusion of the study is that teachers, teaching second

    language students in the primary grades, did not believe in the use of just one method in their

    teaching, but used combined various methods. Several of these methods are based on a sociocultural

    approach, which reflected their vision and attitude to the learning process.

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  • 31.
    Björkegren, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Inter- and intralingual errors in Chinese students' compositions: A case study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this quantitative study, time controlled written English compositions by 39 Chinese university majors of English were analyzed by means of Error Analysis (EA) in order to find out what grammatical errors were made. It investigates errors made by more than one fifth of the participants, in order to see whether they can be ascribed to either interlingual or intralingual influence. An error taxonomy based on previous research was created specifically for the errors encountered in the EA. The following grammatical errors were analyzed in the error analysis: article errors, noun number errors, prepositions errors, and verb errors. The results of the error analysis showed that while Chinese learners of English make mistakes due to both interlingual and intralingual influence, the vast majority are due to interlingual influence. These findings strengthen previous notions that when the target language belongs to another language family than the L1, errors are due more often to interlingual influence (also referred to as negative transfer) than to intralingual influence.

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  • 32.
    Björkegren, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Vad spelar språkriktigheten för roll?: En studie om hur fyra svensklärare uppfattar och arbetar med språkriktighet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how four teachers of Swedish perceive the knowledge requirement that says that a student should mainly be able to follow the rules concerning standard written language, how often they teach standard language and to what extent students’ written language affect assessment. The results show that the teachers of Swedish agree that the most important aspect of a text is how it is perceived in its entirety, as well as its flow and how well a reader can understand the text. Some nonstandard expressions are allowed by the teachers, while others are not. The study also shows that the teaching of standard language depends on which school the teachers belong to. In a public school the standard language is taught in isolated situations, while the teachers in a private school do it continuously. However, all informants agree that they do it continuously to some extent when it comes to feedback on student essays. Student perception was also examined and the result shows that there is an inconsistency in how students perceive that standard language is taught.

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    Vad spelar språkriktigheten för roll?
  • 33.
    Björkman, Angelica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Uttalssvårigheter i svenska som andraspråk hos personer med thailändsks som primärspråk2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this study is to compare difficulties of Swedish pronunciation of five  second-language learners with Thai as mother tongue. Thereafter make a comparison with previous research in pronunciation difficulties in people with the same primary language to see if the deviations are similar. I used both recorded material/recordings which I analyzed as well as experiences from pronunciation training that I observed at SFI. The pronunciation difficulties were documented and entered in tables. The recordings consist of 25 Swedish words and a text performed by five informants.

     

    In my study, you can distinguish a pattern in my five informants pronunciation difficulties complying with Bannert informants who also have Thai as primary language. The irregularities as they had in common is difficulties with lip rounding, liquid consonants, pronunciation of /u/, loss of consonant, word stress, word accent, clause accent and assimilation. I found that the mother tongue in all likelihood have some influence of the pronunciation of a second language

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  • 34.
    Blick, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Question-response sequences in the House of Commons: A conversation analytic study of adversarial questioning in the British parliament2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the method of conversation analysis, this study examines the level of adverseness in questions between members of parliament from different parties. The data consists of question – response sequences derived from a ministerial statement from the prime minister in the House of Commons. This study finds that, in question – response sequences between oppositional members of parliament and the prime minister, adversarial presuppositions in questions can be used as a strategy to project negative traits upon the respondent. Adversarial dimensions of hostility, assertiveness and directness can also be found in adversarial questions. In these instances, the respondent may adjust their answer to match the level of adverseness from the questioner through the use of certain lexis, creating counter sequences. Adversarial questions are the most common type of question from members of the oppositional party, and there are different adversarial strategies being used. Questions from members of the government party do not make use of adversarial strategies, and should not be described as adversarial.

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  • 35.
    Blidstam, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Folk säger köngen. Vi säger kungen: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ innehållsanalys av dialektmomentet i läromedel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay to analyze the dialect section in textbooks using content analysis. What is studied is the selection that the text book authors have made and if one can detect a sociolinguistic or language historical perspective and how much the dialect section make up of the total matter of the textbook. The selection that the authors have made is also compared to what scientific manuals say. Moreover, the work exercises in the textbooks have also been examined. The focus when studying the exercises have been on how they are composed and why. Four textbooks and four scientific manuals have been selected inorder to answer the research questions. Then a quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the textbooks has been carried out. A coding scheme conducted by Niklas Ammert has been used as a guide for the qualitative study and a model by Stefan Selander has been used for the quantitative section.

    The result showed that the most common type of presentation in the textbook in the sections that include dialects is the confirming and explanatory type. Although, in the exercises it is the reflective and the analyzing type that is the most distinguished one. In the exercises the students are often asked to reflect and analyze dialects based on their dialect. The result showed that the dialect section seems to get an expanding range in the textbooks. The result also showed that there are language historical perspectives in the textbooks. However the result regarding the sociolinguistic perspective is not the same; it only occurs in one of the textbooks. 

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    Folk säger köngen. Vi säger kungen
  • 36.
    Boije, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Digitalisering i svenskundervisning i gymnasieskolan: En studie om lärares användande av digitala redskap i svenskundervisningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how teacher in Sweden work with digitization in their teaching and what tools and methods are used. In addition, the opportunities and challenges the teachers perceive to use digital tools in the teaching are reported. The study parts from a sociocultural theory. To fulfill its purpose the study is based on how teachers in the Swedish subject work to achieve a digital education and how attitudes affect to integrate digital tools. For the data collecting process semistructured qualitative interviews have been used as method. Four Swedish teachers were interviewed in the ages between 30 and 60 who are active in the upper secondary school. The results show that digital awareness among the teachers varies. The younger generation is usually more aware than the older generation. The older teacher declares herself as being quite digitally unconscious and finds that it depends on generational difference, knowledge and interest. As a result her teaching is not based on digital awareness. The younger teachers, in particular those with more professional experience, have a high degree of digital awareness. This shows in continually acquiring digital knowledge on their own, trying new methods and constantly trying to develop the digital education. The youngest teacher with least professional experience has good digital awareness but not the interest, knowledge and time to integrate digitalization into her teaching. All the interviewed teachers have in common that they find the work towards a digital teaching challenging and that none of them had much, if any, education in digital studies in their university studies. 

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    Digitalisering i svenskundervisningen
  • 37.
    Bolander, Ingela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Code-switching in the classroom: A sign of deficiency or a part of the learning process?2008Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how code-switching operates and what impact it has on the interaction in the EFL classroom. The study was conducted at a Swedish secondary school by means of observations, interviews, and a questionnaire. The participants of the study were 79 students and two teachers. Both teachers and students were observed and, in addition to this, the students answered the questionnaire and the teachers were interviewed.

    The results showed that there were several factors that triggered the students' use of the native language and the ultimate reason for switching to the native language was often to facilitate the learning process. Typical situations in which the students switched to Swedish were when they communicated with their peers or when they encountered unfamiliar words. Moreover, the results suggest that the teacher plays an important role for the choice of code in the classroom through his/her own language use and attitude towards code-switching. Neither of the interviewed teachers nor the majority of the students thought that there were any positive aspects to code-switching.

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  • 38.
    Borkowski, Alexander
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Going beyond archiving: A collaborative tool for typological research2011In: Sustainable data from digital research: Humanities perspectives on digital scholarship / [ed] Nick Thieberger, Linda Barwick, Rosey Billington and Jill Vaughan, University of Melbourne, 2011, p. 25-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this paper aims to outline some of the design aspects for a collaborative tool for typological research. This tool is designed to allow for the collation, from multiple contributors, of linguistic examples and their analysis with regards to an open set of variation dimensions of both onomasiological and semasiological nature. The resulting knowledge base combines linguistically relevant categories of human conceptualisation (e.g. in-group, such as ethnic or family group, categories) together with their linguistic coding (e.g. in gender affixes, verbal agreement), all based on actual linguistic examples from diverse natural languages as its underlying data-driven foundation. The system is based on Semantic Web technology and hence can be queried in a flexible way that allows for combining any variation dimensions within a query (e.g. it allows to answer questions such as which languages exhibit joint attention marking by way of verbal suffixing). We will focus on design aspects relating to sustainable data. How can sustainable data for such a project be delimited? Surely, this encompasses commonly accepted aspects such as standards conformity, longevity, and accessibility, which we will address in the paper. Additionally and in particular, however, we will argue that user orientation and involvement is a critical factor. Following on from this, the tool is designed in a way that it (i) does not require linguistic users to be trained extensively in system usage, (ii) allows linguists to deploy their standard methods of data entry (e.g. interlinear glossing), and (iii) provides contributors with immediate integration of their own with previously entered data and access to the resulting analysis (i.e. querying) and research potential. The paper will roughly be structured as follows: We will describe the background and aims of the project, and contextualise it in relation to other similar projects. We will then concentrate on how sustainability is addressed, discussing a number of different facets of sustainability. This includes data storage formats, user interface and workflow modelling, knowledge base design, and system features (in particular system output). We will also outline some problems that have arisen so far and close with an outlook on future development.

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  • 39.
    Byrö, Johannes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    "Beautiful Forcefields!": Promotional Metadiscursive Language in eSports Commentaries2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For an eSports commentator, the ability to promote the rivalry between the competitors is just as important as fast and accurate commentary. Thus, it is of interest how an experienced commentator achieves this promotional language per some theoretical framework. Using the relatively new and unexplored linguistic field of promotional metadiscourse the quality of commentary can be evaluated quantifiably. Thus, this paper investigates the promotional language used by accomplished eSports commentators, in contrast to inexperienced novices, in the game StarCraft II. This is achieved with a lexical analysis of two StarCraft II commentaries using categories of promotional language previously identified in press releases. Experienced commentators were found to have a much more extensive and varied vocabulary than their inexperienced counterparts, adopting stronger evaluative adjectives and adverbs, as well as metaphorical language, in their commentaries. After comparing the commentaries with each other, the comments of two experienced commentators were compared. In this analysis, the same results were found in regards to commentator experience, as the less experienced commentator in this team featured less varied and weaker evaluative language than his more experienced co-commentator, yet more varied and evaluative than the novices. This paper shows that metadiscursive analysis methods can be fruitfully applied to non-academic discourses, as well as shining a light on the entertainment genre of eSports as a subject for further study. 

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  • 40.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Språkkrav i den digitala kommunikationen: En kvantitativ studie om uppfattningen om språkkrav i digital kommunikation2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the digital communication channels, the language is often described as more liberated and informal than the language used for other forms of writing. On the other hand, research has shown that the languages and the way it's used, are not detached from the commonly accepted norms that exist. This thesis aims to investigate what aspects and characteristics that are perceived as important when communicating through digital texts and chat conversations. The study further illustrates how respondents perceive their own language and how it may vary throughout various age groups. Previous research exhibits that there is an accommodation in the language based upon the receiver and situation. Furthermore, it also shows that what language is being used, is closely connected to a person’s identity. With this serving as a foundation, this paper examines how the elder respectively younger age group perceive their speech and language characteristics and what demands they possess on what language that is being used. 

    This study has been carried out through a quantitative method. More specifically, a questionnaire focused on respondents’ attitude of the language used in digital communication channels has been sent out. The sample was selected by a random sample strategy where the essay was shared on Facebook. To execute a comparative analysis, the respondents have been divided into two age groups; these two are “Respondents born 1991 or later” and “Respondents born 1990 or before”.

    This paper has successfully concluded that language norms and rules such as spelling, word order, punctuation marks and complete sentences, are perceived as important in texts and chat conversations. While both age groups consider the language norms and rules to be important, they do however differentiate to what degree. The elder age group perceive norms and rules as being more important than the younger age group. The characteristic that is the most important, in both age groups, is correct spelling. The study shows that there is a wider dispersion within the younger age group in comparison to the older age group, which is more cohesive and considers the rules and norms to be more important.

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  • 41.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Återkoppling som möjlighet och utmaning: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasielärares uppfattning om återkoppling som strategi för att utveckla elevens skriftspråkliga kunskaper2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how teachers work with feedback to improve the student’s written language, in relation to the syllabus. Moreover, this paper intends to distinguish what opportunitiesand challenges teachers face during their work with feedback regarding the student's writtenlanguage. The study emanates from the following research questions: How do teachers interpret the language criteria in the syllabus, how are the teachers working with feedback to improve students’ written language, and at last, what challenges and opportunities do the teachers experience during the work with feedback regarding the student's written language?

    The survey is based on a qualitative method, more specifically semi structed interviews with respondents teaching swedish in upper secondary school, in Sweden.

    The study shows that teachers tend to interpret the criteria in the syllabus uniformly, despite the complex formulations there are. It was also found that teachers’ feedback is adjusted to time, workload, but also the current writing assignment. The study also shows that the teachers interviewed, believes that the students’ development in written language is important and that both teachers and students are responsible for that such development is taking place

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  • 42.
    Carlsson, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Dialekt i stadsskola och landsortsskola i Värmland: - en komparativ studie om högstadieelevers attityder till dialekt2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the attitude to dialect differs between locations. Studies have also pointed out the complexity of the attitude toward one’s own dialect, given that many tend to both like and dislike their own dialect at the same time. A teacher may come across a variety of attitudes toward dialect depending on the school’s location. The purpose of this study is to survey the pupils’ attitudes toward dialect in a urban school compared to a rural school in Värmland. 109 pupils responded to a questionnaire which showed that a larger part of those in the rural school used dialect. It was also more important for them to preserve their dialect than those using dialect in the urban school.

    The research underlined that the local dialect was more valued at the rural school compared to the urban one. The pupils at the latter also found it a bit more important that their teachers did not use dialect when speaking. However, the results were in large part similar among those using dialect regardless of their school’s location and most of them indicated that they did not adjust their use of dialect to the examples of situations in the questionnaire. Approximately 50% of the respondents indicated though that they did not use dialect in some situations depending on the recipient.

    Key words: dialect, attitude, pupil, teacher, school, urban, rural, Värmland

  • 43.
    Carlsson, Ulrica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "I en bra bok står det bästa mellan raderna": En kvalitativ fallstudie om undervisning i läsförståelse för elever med annat modersmål än svenska2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Carlsson, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Hej, jag ska tala om…: En kvantitativ studie om förhållande till muntlig framställning i kursen Retorik.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur eleverna upplever att de utvecklas i muntlig framställning under kursen Retorik. Syftet är även att undersöka ur högt eleverna rankar kursen Retorik jämfört med andra ämnen i förhållande till nytta efter gymnasiestudier. För att besvara syftet har två enkätundersökningar genomförts, en gång i september och en gång i maj. Enkäterna har mätt elevernas självskattning, attityd och talängslan inför muntliga framställningar samt hur högt de rankar ämnet Retorik. 

    Resultatet visar att eleverna självskattar att de blir bättre på att genomföra muntliga framställningar. Attityden förändras generellt inte medan elevernas talängslan minskar. Undersökningen visar även att eleverna rankar ämnet retorik högt i förhållande till hur stor nytta eleven kommer att ha av kursen, jämfört med andra ämnen, i framtiden. Svaren visar att de allra flesta eleverna har en förväntan om att de kommer behöva använda sig av muntlig framställning i framtiden.

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  • 45.
    Cederstedt, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns språksvårigheter: Hur man som pedagog bemöter barn med språksvårigheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this study was to get an insight in how to best be able to help children with language difficulties, and learn to see those who are in need of extra help and attention.

    The study is the result of three separate interviews with a speech therapist, a preschool teacher, and a teacher for children with special needs. The other information that my study is built on comes from books.

    The answers that I got from the interviews questions, have I built my discussions from.

    Since I only have done three interviews, can´t I do any general conclusions, from my findings.

    The answers that I got shows that it`s not always the same answers from the speech therapist, preschool teacher and the teacher for children with special needs, are the same. But most of the answers had a similar conclusion. The most important finding in my study, which also the literature agrees with, is that. It´s always important to read out loud to the children.

    Keywords: language difficulties, exertion, learning to speech and communication.

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  • 46.
    Chalmers, James
    et al.
    Torrens University, AUS.
    Eisenchlas, Susana A.
    Griffith University, AUS.
    Munro, Andrew
    Griffith University, AUS.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sixty years of second language aptitude research: A systematic quantitative literature review2021In: Language and Linguistics Compass, ISSN 1749-818X, E-ISSN 1749-818X, Vol. 15, no 11, article id e12440Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second language (L2) aptitude has been broadly defined as the rate and ease of initially acquiring a second language. Historically, L2 aptitude has been understood as a stable trait that predetermined L2 achievement, regardless of individual learners’ efforts to acquire an L2. This traditional view of L2 aptitude as fixed and stable has led to it being a relatively neglected area of research within second language acquisition (SLA) studies. The little research that was in fact conducted was diagnostic in nature, and mostly used tests such as the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) to select potentially gifted L2 learners. Given that six decades have passed since the publication of the MLAT, now is a good time to revisit the literature and investigate whether L2 aptitude continues to be viewed as an individual difference of little interest to SLA research. While summative literature reviews of L2 aptitude research have been written, few systematic reviews exist. This article conducts a systematic quantitative literature review (SQLR) to provide a principled, comprehensive and reproducible synthesis of research into L2 aptitude published over the last 60 years (1959–2019). In this SQLR, close to one hundred journal articles and PhD dissertations were examined to discern generalisations and limitations in the field. This SQLR identifies a shift in the rationale for L2 aptitude testing, in which a diagnostic focus has been replaced by an explanatory perspective. Furthermore, our article points to a renewed interest in L2 aptitude research, which has come to be characterised by a more nuanced and sophisticated understanding of the concept and its components.

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  • 47.
    Cunningham, Una
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    King, Jeanette
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Seals, Corinne A.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Editorial2016In: Journal of Home Language Research, E-ISSN 2537-7043, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Dijkstra, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik.
    Motivation and English as a foreign language: Motivation among Swedish upper secondary school students2009Student paper other, 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to influence the motivation of second language learners one first has to understand what motivation is, what its preconditions are and how to detect it. The research for this essay was done with the help of one hundred and ten students from seven classes in two different upper secondary schools and most of these learners were first year students.

    The aim was to find and measure the students' motivation to learn English and how this motivation can be influenced in a positive manner. The method used to collect the necessary data was a questionnaire which asked questions about the relevancy of the English course and how frequently the students used English and how interested they were in the language.

    The results give a clear picture of the students' motivational levels as well as to which parts of the English course they respond and to which they do not.        

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  • 49.
    Dofs, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Onomatopoeia and iconicity: A comparative study of English and Swedish animal sound2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine whether language is iconic or arbitrary in the issue of onomatopoeia, i.e. whether animal sounds are represented in the same way in different languages. In addition, I will also look at onomatopoeical words which have been conventionalised, when the meaning broadened and they finally became part of ordinary language.

    It can be stated that arbitrary signs have slowly taken over as different languages have developed, but the reason why is a topic for discussion – is there a scientific cause, based on the theory of evolution, or an explanation found in religious myths? Whatever the reason is, it is not likely that iconicity will vanish totally. It is connected to human neurophysiology and an ancient part of language, a natural resemblance between an object and a sign which can exist in different forms. Onomatopoeia is one example of iconic signs, an object named after the sound it produces, and according to one theory conventionalised imitations is actually the origin of language. Nevertheless, there are two main categories – language being either iconic or arbitrary. Regarding onomatopoeia, my results suggest that language is only iconic to a limited extent. English and Swedish have some common representations of animal sounds, but the languages also differ in many ways. Conventionalising seems common in both languages and many of the words in my survey have been incorporated in dictionaries, representing more than only the sound of a certain animal.

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  • 50.
    Eisenchlas, Susana A.
    et al.
    Griffith University.
    Guillemin, Diana
    Griffith University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Griffith University.
    Schools transforming multilinguals into illiterates?2012Other (Refereed)
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