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  • 1.
    Aadalen, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Anpassning och differentiering av undervisning i ett klassrum för alla: Strategier för anpassning av undervisning i teori och praktik och dess effekter på elevers delaktighet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate if and how instruction is adjusted or differentiated based on the conception that learners are diverse and how teacher practices are connected to contemporary research in the field. It further examines whether specific adjustments are connected to a higher rate of student participation.

    The method of the essay is an observation survey with a phenomenological approach. It includes the practices of 30 different teachers during thirty lessons at an upper secondary school in Sweden, where the majority of the students are diagnosed within the neuropsychiatric spectra. The outcome was quantitatively analyzed in SPSS.

    The study indicates that the connection between specific adjustments and student participation is a complex issue affected by several aspects and preconditions. It appears that teachers use certain forms of adjustments at a higher rate while some are less salient in instruction. More frequently used adjustments are; praise, providing alternatives for perception, activating previous knowledge and highlighting critical features. Less frequent are differentiation of tasks, visible agendas, formative feedback, collaborative peer-learning and self-assessment.

    This essay will furthermore be a basis for collaborative learning among the staff since a deeper knowledge of how instruction can be adjusted and differentiated will impact the outcome of student learning.

     

  • 2.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Oslo universitet.
    Blom, Thomas
    Karlstad University.
    Benchlearning as professional development of school leaders in Norway and Sweden2017In: Professional Development in Education, ISSN 1941-5257, E-ISSN 1941-5265, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a new national collaborative Benchlearning program for principals in Norway and Sweden. Four process leaders have been running the program. The aim is to give the participants the knowledge to develop a leadership practice and school environment that are more innovative. The program includes theoretical inputs, sharing experiences, school visits, training, and trialing of new leadership practices. Drawing on data from surveys, participants’ reflections, and the leaders’ descriptions of new leadership practice, we examine and identify successful and critical aspects of the learning process. The findings show that principals’ motivation and willingness to start change processes can be created in a synergy between structured school visits, work in learning groups, and a theoretical foundation. Working in groups across schools in two countries seems to enhance principals’ sense of efficacy, which in turn is shown to have a positive effect on their willingness to trial new practices. Two implications of the study are suggested. First, in the design of principal programs, systematic and critical reflection about authentic practice should be the basis. Second, educators should be trained to be process leaders who can support principals’ learning during a critical and social construction of a new practice.

  • 3.
    Aasen, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Vi har sett och hört den, men var då?: En enkätundersökning om barns och vuxnas relation till instrumentet trumpet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose is to investigate whether children and parents know the instrument trumpet and the beliefs they have about this instrument.  

     

    My questions are:

     

    • What do 6 and 7-year-olds and their parents know of the instrument trumpet? 
    • What are their beliefs concerning the trumpet and what does the trumpet mean to them? 

     

    To find out about these questions, I have conducted a survey study in Arvika with children in first grade and their parents. 33 adults and 34 children from three schools took part in the survey.

     

    The results showed that knowledge of the trumpet are quite good among 6 and 7-year-olds and their parents. All the respondents in this survey know what the trumpet is, and over one-third of the 67 respondents know about someone who plays the trumpet. Among the children exist no big "celebrity" trumpet player. Instead they mention friends or acquaintances that play the instrument. There were some well-known musicians among adults but it was often aging jazz trumpeters. 6 and 7-year-olds are pretty open-minded about trumpet. They seem to consider both that young, old, men and women could be playing the trumpet. The parents, however, think that men dominate playing the trumpet. Otherwise are the parents also pretty open-minded. The music school appears to have a strong name in Arvika. Many respondents stated that it´s possible to contact the music school if you want to start playing the trumpet. The results also showed that the trumpet is not considered as boring. Most people put it midway between boring and fun to play.

     

    Based on the findings in this study, the trumpet seems to be a well-known and somewhat appreciated instrument among the respondents. At the same time it seems to be a bit out of range from a satisfying reputation.

     

  • 4.
    Abdullahi, Bayan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Inlärningsprocessen hos andraspråkselever i ämnet Svenska: En intervjustudie med svensklärare2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa och få kunskap om inlärningsprocessen av andraspråk när de äger rum genom ämnet svenska. Jag vill kartlägga vad det innebär att lära sig ett andra språk samt hur det kan gå till. Undersökningen utgår ifrån intervjuer med lärare i ämnet svenska och visar vilken syn samt vilka erfarenheter av område de har. Syftet är att ge en översikt med förbättring för elever med svenska som andraspråk.

  • 5.
    Aberg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Voting by income: Political culture of two swedish municipalities 1860-19302012In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 132, no 2, 288-294 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln belyser Erik Nydahls avhandling I fyrkens tid som tar avstamp i en omdiskuterad, om än relativt väl utforskad, fråga: hur formades svensk politisk kultur i övergången från jordbrukarsamhället till det moderna industrisamhället? Viktiga faktorer i det sammanhanget var att svensk industrialisering i många avseenden ägde rum utanför de framväxande storstadsregionerna, att jordbruksnäringen samtidigt spelade en fortsatt viktig roll under lång tid och att urbaniseringsprocessen internationellt sett var mera utdragen.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Amanda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Läsning av faktatexter i grundskolans tidigare år: En kvalitativ studie om grundskollärare och deras sätt att arbeta med förståelse av faktatexter med sina elever2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims at analyzing how to work with factual texts with early-age pupils. I analyzehow four elementary school teachers work with reading and understanding of factual texts. Inthis survey, I study the context in which teachers work with factual texts and when theychoose to introduce them to the pupils. I also looked at what reading strategies teachers usewhen reading factual text with their pupils. As my main method, I have used interviews and Ihave collected and analyzed material relevant and useful for my study. The four informantschosen for the survey are active teachers and have worked in the profession for at least tenyears to gain a breadth in their experience. They work at two different schools. My studyshows that factual texts are an important part of the teaching for my informants, but there is adifference between the schools. One school works continuously with a genre goal and has agreater awareness of reading factual texts than the other school has.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Joffrey Levi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Elizabeth Bennet's Intelligence: A Reading of Class and Gender Conventions And Transgressions in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, gender roles and gender expectations relate to class differences in a system of social convention which operates to delimit all of the characters - men and women, rich people and less privileged people - to a greater or lesser extent, in a way which reflects actual class and gender structures in England around 1800. The most important strain of social commentary on gender and class in the novel is constituted by the characterisation of Elizabeth Bennet. She is associated with intelligence in a way which is vital to her successful breach of gender and class conventions. This essay starts out from Susan Morgan’s ”Intelligence in Pride and Prejudice” and will extend her arguments in my reading of the novel to prove that Elizabeth’s intelligence allows her to transgress social conventions related to gender and class more successfully than other characters and arrive at a happy ending despite having defied social convention. A number of other characters also represent a breach of class and gender conventions. Lydia Bennet elopes with Mr. Wickham, which at the time was considered scandalous. Mr. Darcy tries to ignore his affection for Elizabeth but fails to do so. In comparison to the unconventionality of Elizabeth, who manages to overcome every obstacle by relying on her intelligence in a way which also benefits Darcy and secures a happy ending for him as well, their transgressions are not as successful.



  • 8.
    Adamsson, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    "Att vara bred är en tillgång": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av fyra sångpedagogers syn på genreval i sångundervisningen på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how individual singing lessons for high school students differ depending on to which extent the vocal coach is driven by their own interests concerning genre. The study is based on four semi-structured interviews where two vocal coaches have their home turf in classical music, and two vocal coaches have their home turf within the african american genres. The study is of comparative nature where the focus is on eventual similarities and differences between vocal coaches’ viewpoints within the two genres. The theoretical perspective of the study takes its stand in the socio cultural perspective and how cultural tools and surroundings affect teaching and learning.The result of the study shows that the vocal coaches have more conformed opinions than they have conflicting ones when it concerns informed choices in genre, how their own interests affect their teaching and the views on the curriculum in relation to the lesson and its content. The interviewees differ when it comes to how they plan lessons for beginners and how they themselves listen to music. In the discussion the themes that surface in the result are discussed from a socio cultural perspective. These themes are: informed and uninformed choices concerning genre, the curriculum as a tool in teaching and the teachers’ own personal interests concerning genre. The conclusion is that the different tools the vocal coaches use affect how they work in and surrounding their teaching of high school students. 

  • 9.
    Adamsson, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Kan jag låta sådär?: En observationsstudie med fokus på "edge" i sångmetoden "komplett sångteknik"2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to get a deeper insight of what it means to develop a new singing technique. To study this I have practiced edge ten minutes per day during a period of four weeks, five times a week. Three of these exercices have been videotaped. I have also used a logbook to document new experiences during the process. I have a socio-cultural perspective as a theoretical base in this study. In the result the different tools that were selected show how these were handled and how the process in learning has developed. The results show that the most central tools that were used were the body, the method book, the piano chair, the wall and a song. In the discussion I describe, from a socio-cultural perspective, what the conditions have been, and which tools I have used. 

  • 10.
    Adut, Sara
    Karlstad University.
    Pedagogiska metoder som förebygger läs- och skrivsvårigheter i årskurs 1-3: En undersökning av några lärares beskrivningar av hur de tillämpar sina kunskaper i undervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to research how a group of teachers at an elementary school described the methods that they used to teach reading and writing skills in grades 1-3, including practices used to prevent reading and writing difficulties. The study was conducted by interviewing teachers, and then analyzing the findings by applying the theoretical framework consisting of the three special educational perspectives. The summarized results showed that the teachers used similar methods of practice, but that their own university education had given them dissimilar sets of knowledge and perspectives on how they performed their teachings. Teaching methods that were used to prevent reading and writing difficulties were the usage of language games during the beginning stages of literacy development, and cooperation between parents and special education teachers. Another important factor was the early identification of pupils who faced challenges in reading and writing difficulties. Some of the results matched previous studies in the same area. An additional finding found is that teachers’ education has changed, as well as their status over the past twenty years, which has had an effect on their occupation. 

  • 11.
    Afrasiabi, Soran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    The River as a Symbol of Liberty: An analysis regarding the Significance of the Mississippi River in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive research on slavery during the antebellum, few authors have investigated the connection between the Mississippi river and its importance and status as a symbol of freedom throughout The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, written by Mark Twain. Therefore, this essay attempts to analyze just how much the river actually meant for Huck and Jim during their journey towards freedom. The methodology of this analysis is based on a qualitative content analysis where categories are created and put it in relation to the historical and political landscape the novel presents. By investigating how the river functioned as an optional escape route that would lead the slaves far away from the notoriously bad treatment on the cotton fields, as well as the dangerous riverside settings which involved several risks for both Huck and Jim, this essay concludes that the river does not only work as an escape route away from captivity and civilization, it also provided the characters with a comfortable and safe home which alone could symbolize liberty.

  • 12.
    Ahl, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Lika förutsättningar för lärande: En studie om trumundervisning på musik- och kulturskola ur ett genusperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to, from a gender perspectice, explore how the drum kit lessons in three music and culture schools are performed. To investigate this, three qualitative interviews and six participant video observations have been implemented. Previous studies show that music teachers expect a feminine and masculine style of their students, that it is difficult as a girl to position themselves in a way that challenges the local gender regime while it is difficult to be traditionally feminine - moderate and controlled – when playing instruments such as electric bass and drum kit. In the present studies results, drum teachers’ views on drum teaching are shown but also how they conduct their teaching, and how boy- and girl students are handled in teaching. It emerges that teachers largely adapt teaching to students’ personalities and individual circumstances and not to gender, but the drum teachers express certain prejudices which may indicate that they expect to see a feminine and masculine style of their students. There is a discussion about the problems of instruments and professions being gender-coded, which can affect students’ learning conditions, and teacher prejudices and that teachers have to adapt to the students and not vice versa.

  • 13.
    Ahl, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Heteronormativitet i svenskämnet för grundskolans senare år: En läromedelsanalys2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My thesisdiscusseshowthe teaching materialPortal svenska 7-9 meets goals in Lgr11 on countering traditional gender roles. In this I want to highlight how heteronormativity designed and regenerated in school in general and the teaching material Portal svenska 7-9 in particular.The compositeobjectiveof this paper isthat, based on myresearchto work out howwe areteachingshould proceedin order tomeet theobjectives ofLgr11relatingto counteracttraditional genderroles.

    My study shows that the premise of living up to the goals of Lgr11 not in a clear way, met in the discursive expression in Portal svenska 7-9. The teaching material is too heteronormative contingent and can not handle more than exceptionally challenging the prevailing heteronormativity. However, the teaching material of the quality that can serve as basis for an active educational work. Through a conscious and deliberate standard critical pedagogical work can Portal serve as a starting point to show the weaknesses of both heteronormativity and as a starting point to illustrate the possibilities of an alternative perspective.

     

  • 14. Ahlbom, Lars
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Helene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Culture and Gender studies.
    Eggehorn, Ylva
    Paillard, Jean
    Mystik och gudsbilder hos Sven Delblanc2002Book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ahlenius, Brita
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Hinduisk religiös utövning i vardagen: En studie av brahminska kvinnors puja i Benares2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen bygger på en fältstudie utförd bland 10 gifta, brahminska kvinnor i området Assi i Benares (Varanasi)i Indien. Avsikten med fältstudien var att ta reda på om och i sådana fall vad, hur och varför kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen utför några dagliga religiösa handlingar. Varje kvinna har intervjuats vid två tillfällen. Intervjuerna har skett med hjälp av tolk som översatt från engelska till hindi och hindi till engelska.

    Uppsatsen besvarar tre inledande frågeställningar:

    1. Utför kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen några dagliga religiösa handlingar?

    2. (I sådana fall) Vilka religiösa handlingar utför de dagligen? (Tillvägagångssätt? Finns det några likheter/olikheter?)

    3. Varför utför kvinnorna dessa handlingar? (Hur förklarar de ritualerna de utför?)

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att alla kvinnor i gruppen varje dag utför en puja ("gudstjänst") på morgonen och att en majoritet även utför en puja varje kväll. Fokus kom därmed att hamna på just pujan och dess utförande.

    Vissa små skillnader finns i de olika kvinnornas tillvägagångssätt när de utför sina pujor, men det finns också en tydlig stomme, eller kärna, som återfinns hos alla. När det gäller morgonens puja består denna stomme av sex steg, upacaras, och hos kvällens puja, som

    oftast är mindre, hittas en stomme av två steg. Stegen redovisas och diskuteras utförligt i uppsatsen.

    Kvinnorna förklarar sitt tillvägagångssätt med att de olika stegen utförs för att ta hand om gud och göra gud nöjd. För att förstå detta resonemang bör man ha kunskap om det hinduiska gudsbegreppet, synen på gud som personlig och närvarande. Synen på gud diskuteras ingående i uppsatsen. Kvinnornas tillvägagångssätt är också ett resultat av traditionsförmedling. Ingen i undersökningsgruppen har läst sig till hur hon ska göra utan har lärt sig av sina föräldrar och svärföräldrar och ibland har hon också lagt till egna inslag.

    För kvinnorna i undersökningsgruppen är det viktigt att varje dag utföra sina pujor. Den vanligaste förklaringen till detta är att pujorna skänker dem frid i sinnet, "mann ki shanti".

    Uppsatsen är beskrivande och den är fokuserad på den empiriska undersökningen. Resultatet av fältstudien diskuteras och fördjupas av litteratur med anknytning till innehållet.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Cellen är den minsta levande delen hos allt liv": Om hur centrala termer förklaras i tre läromedel i biologi för grundskolans senare del2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Ahlin, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Ämnena Bild och Musik ur ett historiskt perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research project is about how the subjects` art and music has been described under the 20th century in the Swedish school until today. The purpose with this research project is to do a text analysis that describes these subjects now and the last century, to illustrate the differences between today and the last century. Hence the size of this subject I have chosen some random samples out of the 20th century until today. I started to take these random samples from the first lyric I found about these subjects, and continued with these random samples in other lyrics from the middle of the 20th century until the year 2006. I just took these random samples from what I had found because I did not found some lyrics from earlier period of the 20th century. After a few weeks of material researching I started to write down my text analysis.

    The result of the research project when it comes to the earlier parts of the 20th century art and music subjects´ was that they where used to raise up the students and teach them how to behave in working life. It was the adults who choose what was best for the students and it was about preparation for the life as an adult. Through art the students should learn how to draw of a tool from different works of that epoch and the music was about how to learn a psalm or a song by heart that could be about how one should behave oneself.

    The results of my research project when it comes to today is that the differences between yesterdays school and today’s that today these subjects are more independent fore the students then before. On the basis of the conditions of the students they can use these subjects both as a way to express them self in other subjects then art and music, and it is also another way to take some learning about there own culture like others cultures. It is the imagination of the students that should characterize the subjects` art and music. The school wants through these subjects` that the students shall get a better self – confidence about them self and that the students shall take other cultures closer to them and there way of seeing at these subjects.

  • 18.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Besvär!: Om motståndet hos två tvångssammanslagna kommuner i samband med kommunblocksreformen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate why the two Swedish municipalities of Frykerud and Östmark were the only municipalities in Värmland that were forcibly merged by the state during the ”Municipality block reform” of 1971, and whether local identities played a role in the resistance against this reform. 

        The study is designed as a comparative case study and builds on both history and political science to analyze the topic from a broader perspective. Based on the research situation three theoretical theses have been formulated, the durability of which will be tested in the analysis part of the essay.

        The study notes that Frykeruds resistance against the ”Municipality block reform” started when the reform prevented a planned retirement home construction in the municipality. In the analytical part of the essay, the author discusses how the discontent can be interpreted as symptomatic of bourgeois centralization resistance, as well as being due to the fact that traditional, local self-government as a political subject was perceived as threatened. In Östmark, the "Municipality block reform" developed into a political struggle between the reformist Social Democrats and the "reform-skeptical" conservative parties. The battle started with disagreements over the completions of investments in the municipality.

        In the analysis section, the hypotheses previously formulated have been tested, and the author also formulates a new hypothesis regarding the local communities and local identities' political role in the resistance against the "Municipality block reform".

  • 19.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    "En koloni under Sunne!": Om storkommunreformens lokala opinioner och konflikter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Ahlstedt, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Perspektiv på läsning: En högstadielärare och sex av hans elever om skönlitteratur i svenskämnet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about literature instruction in the last three years of Sweden’s compulsory school from one teacher’s and six of his pupils’ perspective. The research is analysed from a socio-cultural perspective on learning and literature reception.

    The empiric material is based on interviews with the teacher and six of his students.

    The research shows that there is a difference between what the pupils read on their spare time and what they read during Swedish instruction. It also shows that the pupils wants literature full of action where descriptions of people and the setting don’t slow down the reading experience.

    The teacher is successful in finding literature the pupils appreciate but sees the value of literature on another level – in the processing of the reading experience. He gives his pupils the task to discuss their views on the text’s meaning based on their specific expe-rience. The instruction is thereby partly in co-ordnance with ideals put forward by literature instruction theorists Louise M. Rosenblatt and Judith A. Langer. The dialogic and socio-cultural perspective on learning which Lev S. Vygotskij proclaims is also an inspiration for the teacher.

  • 21.
    Ahlström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Åtgärdsprogram i nya skollagen: Några lärares och rektorers erfarenheter, förväntningar och tankar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out if principals and teachers have experience, expectations and thoughts about the differences that the new Education Act means in relation to the old one about action programme. Through qualitative interviews with two principals and four teachers, I have tried to answer my research questions that I have made based on the purpose. The questions are: How do the interviewees describe the routines about action programme?  Has, according to the interviewees, the routines been changed with the new Education Act? How do teachers and principals experience the differences between the old and new Education Act regarding the action programmes?

    The results of my survey shows that the process of action programme is different at different schools and that it has been adapted to the new Education Act in varying degrees. These results give differences in the experiences of the new directives. Differences between principals and teachers also become visible, which may be due to that the interviewed principals seem to know more about what’s included in the new Education Act than the interviewed teachers. Conclusions to be made from the survey is for example that it is important for schools to review their routines regarding action programme, even if they already have been developed to be similar to the new directives. This is important to ensure that the process is done correctly. It is also important to ensure that all staff understands the new directive and its purpose.

    Key words: Action programme, the new Education Act, principal, teacher, teacher for special needs education, special support.

  • 22.
    Ahlström, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Beteende eller sinnessjukdom?: Psykiatri och behandling vid Mariebergs sjukhus mellan 1930-19502015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is interested in Swedish psychiatry during the period between 1930-1950,localized to Mariebergs hospital in Sweden. The purpose of this paper has been to testSjöstroms evidence of the pattern that he used to create three analytical concepts, roughlytranslated to; morally educative discipline-treatment, the production process and the idealinstitution citizen. Sjöström motivates that his concepts gives insight into one aspect of thepsychiatric expansion between 1860-1960 as well as creates an understanding of psychiatryas an institution. The source material for this paper has been patients' medical notes writtenby the chief physician of the institution. Via a method which mainly different from Sjöstromin its selection, categorization and more thorough presentation, this paper has seen the samepatterns which Sjöström has created his three concepts from. The ideal institution citizen,defined by its well behaved and calm behaviour emerges also in this papers quantitativecompilation of qualitative data as the clear majority. The morally educative disciplinetreatment,treatments and punishments that focuses on creating an acceptable behaviourrather than the treatment of insanity itself, can be seen in the adjective behaviouraldescriptions of the type well-behaved / badly-behaved which are dominant. The focus in thejournals is behaviour rather than mental decease symptoms such as hallucinations andtreatment is based on unaccepted behaviour rather than symptoms. Also, the sequential orderthat exists between badly-behaved behaviour and treatments, and well-behaved behaviourand rewards shows the focus on behaviour which the concept is based on. The previous tworesults together is the two parts of Sjöströms production process, that trough the morallyeducative discipline-treatment the institution creates an acceptable, quiet and well behavedideal institution citizen were the mental decease becomes secondary.

  • 23. Ahlström, Niklas
    Beteendets hegemoni: En analys om behandlingar, diagnoser och synen på sinnessjukdom vid Backa vårdanstalts sinnessjukavdelning i Nyeds kommun mellan 1936-19342014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Why should physicians read?: Understanding clinical judgement and its relation to literary experience2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is literary experience of any practical relevance to the clinician? This is the overall question addressed by this investigation, which starts by tracing the historical roots of scientific medicine. These are found to be intimately linked to a form of rationality associated with the scientific revolution of the 17th century and with “modernity”. Medical practice, however, is dependent also on another form of rationality associated with what Stephen Toulmin calls “the epistemology of the biographical”. The very core of clinical medicine is shown to be the clinical encounter, an interpretive meeting where the illness experience is at the centre of attention. The physician can reach the goals of medicine only by developing clinical judgement. Clinical judgement is subjected to close analysis and is assumed to be intimately connected to the form of knowledge Aristotle called phronesis.

    In order to explore how literature – drama, novels, poetry – may be related to clinical judgement, a view of literature is presented that emphasizes literature as an invitation to the reader, to be met responsibly and responsively. Literature carries a potential for a widened experience, for a more nuanced perception of reality – and this potential is suggested to be ethically relevant to the practice of medicine. The “narrative rationality” of a literary text constitutes a complement to the rationality pervading scientific medicine.

    The final step in my analysis is a closer exploration of the potential of the literary text to contribute to the growth of clinical judgement, in relation to the challenges of everyday clinical work. Some of the conditions that may facilitate such growth are outlined, but it is also shown that full empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of reading on the clinician reader is beyond reach.

  • 25.
    Ahlén, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Föreningen för Karlstads Arbetsstugor2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Ahmad, Ramjar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Den hållbara urbanplaneringens paradoxer: The paradoxes of unsustainable urban planning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  This paper has investigated two urban planning ideals that emerges in the planning process. The study's starting point has been sustainable development to study the two existing urban planning ideals today. This means that the compact city and the green city has been the main focus of this study, but sustainability has large space with many of the aspects that is expected to lead to sustainable development. A case study was used to investigate how Karlstad is working on the issue and how the paradox appears in the municipal planning. Karlstad is currently developing a new green structure plan. The study's empirical evidence is based on two interviews with Karlstad municipality officials. The municipal documents Karlstad municipality's comprehensive plan (2012) and Olmårs densification study (2007) has been used. The municipal documents and the interview material was analyzed through meaning content. The study's analysis is based on the study's empirical and theoretical background which shows that there is a paradox in Karlstad municipality's urban planning. It also shows a trend in which cities aim to achieve the sustainable city. As the concept of sustainability is a diffuse concept, the compact city and the green city has become a complex strategy to achieve the sustainable city. This means that the green and compact city can be viewed from several different angles. Karlstad municipality's vision of the compact city is to have a compact city especially in the central parts of the city. These areas are green areas today. A planning dilemma between the aspirations of the planning arises, in which these must be weighed against each other. This means that if the green structure is prioritized then another aspect must be weighed out. In other words; there is a paradox in Karlstad municipal´s urban planning, and this means that if the green structure priority needs another aspect weighed out. This means that there is a paradox in municipal urban planning, and this is shown in this paper.

  • 27.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La construcción del mundo posible en El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Se estudia cómo se construyen los mundos posibles en la novela El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina. El punto de partida se toma de la semiótica. El propósito es indagar de qué manera se crea la verosimilitud del mundo posible, y qué papel desempeñan los recursos técnicos, psicológicos y textuales de la narración. La hipótesis es que en dicha novela se presentan referencias político-históricas y socio-culturales de la realidad. Mediante la conexión entre dichas referencias y los personajes se indica el tiempo y el espacio de la historia como si se tratara de la vida real, a la vez que la iconografía y las creencias contribuyen a crear la verosimilitud. También se opina que algunos actantes se expresan a través del impacto que producen en los personajes, que la narración se lleva a cabo por varias voces narrativas, y que la imagen del mundo se completa mediante la focalización variada y la memoria colectiva. Se sostiene que existe una relación causal entre el amor, la memoria y la voluntad de narrar. Asimismo se opina que los sentidos de la vista, el oído y el olfato más las comparaciones, las descripciones y las frases largas se utilizan para visualizar el mundo posible de la obra.

  • 28.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La recuperación de la identidad en la novela Sefarad de Antonio Muñoz Molina2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the signification of identitary discourses in the novel Sefarad: Una novela de novelas by Antonio Muñoz Molina and determine to what extent these discourses represent and respond to identitary discourses in contemporary Spanish society. The analysis focuses on three principal questions: how is the narrative constructed, what is conveyed as a result, and what is the aim of the narrative.

    Identity is understood as a social construction, an individual and continuous process of assuming, defining, negotiating and maintaining cultural identities, elements of the surrounding world that provide the individual with a sense of meaning (Fromm 1956; Castiñeira 2005; Marsella 2008).

    The novel consists of different stories that manifest the social impact of the totalitarian regimes in Europe during the twentieth century, told by a diversity of voices. First, the analysis deals with the structure of the text, examined through the model of mise en abyme (Dällenbach 1989). Secondly, the significations of transition, transgression (Lotman 1978) and, analogically, stigmatization are deduced (Goffman 1972), processes that are related to the effects of the frontier as a metaphor (Pratt Ewing 1998) and to limit situations (Jaspers 1974). Thirdly, the study stresses the representation of the past, in which trauma, melancholy and mourning are significant (Benjamin 1992; Freud 1986).

    The conclusions confirm the claim that the novel corresponds to humanity’s treasure of suffering (Leidschatz), a cultural possession that thematizes the processes of memory and oblivion (Assmann 1999), represented through stories told by the victims of intolerance at different levels. The text is accordingly conceived as a mirror through which the narrator constructs his identity as a writer and transmits meaning to the reader by providing the opportunity to reflect upon identity issues today.

  • 29.
    Akermo, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns möjligheter till lek i en sydafrikansk förskola: En studie från en sydafrikansk kåkstad2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to find out how South African preschool teachers regard play and its relationship to learning, development and influence in play. What teachers think about children’s learning and development, and if children have any influence in their preschool play, according to the preschool teachers.The empirical material consists of interviews with six South African preschool teachers. The analysis has been conducted according to a thematic content of analysis focusing two themes; play, learning and development as one theme and children’s influence on their play as a second theme.The preschool teachers considered that play is beneficial for children in their learning and development. Play is about everything in children’s life; through play children discover the world, learn and develop in a general sense. Play also contributes to children’s learning about interaction with others.A conclusion from the study is that play is considered as an essential part in children’s lives, both in literature and in the interviews. The result shows that the preschool teachers wanted what is best for the children. As the Convention on the rights of the Child states about play: it’s about survival and development, which the teachers considered was a priority.

  • 30. Akrin, Catrine
    Asfaltsblomma: En studie om vilka barn som omplacerades på barnhem och i fosterhem i Karlskoga under åren 1918-19252014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Akselsen Andersson, Carmitha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En studie om hur skolgårdsmiljöns utformning påverkar barns leklust2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact on children's development around playing and how significance the formation of the schoolyards is focusing on how it inspire and calls to play within the children's. The study will also show how the youth workers experience the schoolyards and how they can incorporate the playground in their work to inspire the children's play and activities. The methods used in this study is based on both real conversations and by mail with educated youth workers and observations. The results shows that the schoolyard environment is very important for the children's play and development. The study reveals the importance of having nature like forest nearby and that the environment should be suited for everyone. The children need spaces on the schoolyard and in the nature to evolve their ways of free playing, and also their needs for suited playground equipment.

  • 32.
    Alastair, Henry
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst.
    Elevers möten med engelska i och utanför skolan : Upprop till deltagande i forskningsprojektet Bridging the Gap2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 4, 22-26 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Albertsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Kreativt skapande på gymnasiets estetiska program: Lärares och elevers syn på kreativt skapande och komposition inom enskild instrumental- och sångundervisning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explore teachers' and pupils' views regarding creative music production and composition within individual instrumental and vocal tuition in arts program at upper secondary school. The research questions is: How describes teachers and students the use of composition and arrangement in instrument and song tuition? How do they look upon on creativity in these activities? How do they look upon creativeness? The study is based sociocultural perspective and the method is qualitative interviews. The results show three themes: The creative instrument, Creativity and Attitudes about composition. In the last chapter, improvisation as a creative tool in the moment is discussed, as well as the presence of composition and creation and the approach to composition and creation in upper secondary school. 

  • 34.
    Albertsson, Sanne
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Kjellberg, Mirjam
    Kompetensutveckling i praktiken: En studie om spänningar mellan strategier och mjuka begrepp2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Albinson, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Att hitta stabilitet: med FMT-metoden som redskap2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med detta examensarbete vill jag redogöra för hur Funktionsinriktad MusikTerapi kom till, och vad dess metod (den s.k. FMT-metoden) går ut på. Med två fallbeskrivningar vill jag redovisa hur jag arbetat med metoden med två personer. Utifrån de två fallbeskrivningarna ska jag försöka svara på om, och hur FMT kan skapa förutsättningar för utveckling av stabilitet.

     

    Min slutsats är att jag, med hjälp av olika sätt att ställa upp instrument, användning av attribut och sätt att utforma en session, kunnat stärka och utveckla de två personernas stabilitet.

  • 36. Albrechtsen, D.
    et al.
    Evensen, L.
    Lindeberg, A.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Nordwrite Reports II1987Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37. Albrechtsen, D.
    et al.
    Evensen, L.
    Lindeberg, A.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Nordwrite Reports III,1988Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38. Albrechtsen, D. L.
    et al.
    Evensen, A.
    Lindeberg, M.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Analysing developing discourse structure:the NORDWRITE project1991In: Foreign/Second Language Pedagogy Research ed. by R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood-Smith & M. SwainArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Aldzic, Almir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Läraren får gärna också visa mer hur man ska göra": En studie av årskurs nio elevers inställning till idrott samt idrott och hälsa och deras uppfattning kring ämnets innehåll och arbetssätt.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40. Aldzic, Almir
    Om eleven själv får välja: Vad är viktigast och mest intressant ur kursplanens centrala innehåll i historia enligt niondeklassare? Vad saknar eleverna ur historieämnets centrala innehåll?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Aldén-Eriksson, Marie-Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Andraspråksundervisning för döva: En attitydundersökning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Aldén-Eriksson, Marie-Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Samtalets betydelse i undervisningen: en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Alestam, Lina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Jag behöver någon som förstår mig": En kvalitativ studie om mödrars upplevelse av relationen till handläggaren under kontaktfamiljsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur mödrar upplevde relationen till handläggarna under hela kontaktfamiljsprocessen på Familjeavdelningen i Karlstad kommun. För att undersöka detta valdes en kvalitativ metod där fem mödrar med minst ett års erfarenhet av kontaktfamiljsinsatsen intervjuades. Frågeställningarna var hur mödrarna upplevde delaktighet, bemötandet och vad de tror kunde påverka relationen med handläggaren. För att djupare kunna undersöka vad som sker i mötet mellan mödrarna och handläggarna analyserades materialet utifrån kommunikationsteori samt begreppet makt. Resultatet i studien visade att mödrarna till stor del kände sig delaktiga och väl bemötta av handläggarna på Familjeavdelningen. Denna känsla uppstod när de kände sig lyssnade på och upplevde tillit till handläggaren. En utmaning i relationen var handläggarbyten eller när mödrarna upplevde att de blivit bemötta alltför rutinmässigt. Mödrarna upplevde då otrygghet, vilket kunde resultera i en sämre relation till handläggarna. Vidare kunde vi även identifiera att det finns en rädsla för socialtjänsten hos mödrar med negativa erfarenheter av socialtjänsten, vilket i vissa fall påverkade deras möjlighet till delaktighet.

  • 44.
    Alexandersson, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Motiverande uppgifter i matematikboken: En kvalitativ studie om egenskaper i matematikuppgifter som elever i årskurs 2 finner motiverande.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that students largely work individually in math books and a lot of literature suggests that students' interest in mathematics decreases with age. As the source for the choice of my research is an interest in how the tasks and information in the textbook contributes to student motivation and desire to learn mathematics. One way to examine this is to find out what students think about the information in the mathematics textbooks by allowing them to describe the characteristics of the data that they are motivated by. The survey will contribute to the knowledge about the types of tasks which, according to the students, is more motivating to them than others. It provides a knowledge that teachers can weigh into their choice of textbooks and other teaching resources. The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of mathematic tasks students in second grade will find motivating. The information contained in the students' regular teaching materials and students' stories or descriptions are the starting point for the study. My research question is: what characterizes mathematic tasks that students experience that is motivating to learn math? The research strategy and research design is qualitative study. Information collected from interviews at a certain time. Of the result and the analysis I have concluded that what characterizes a motivating task is based on the difficulty of the tasks.

  • 45.
    Alexandersson, Natalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Den fria lekens betydelse: Förskollärares tankar kring den fria lekens betydelse för barns sociala kompetens2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to study four preschool teachers' attitude towards free play and social skills and how they define social skills in the free play. The methods I have used are studying relevant research and literature covering this field of studies. I have also conducted an interview with the, above mentioned, preschool teachers.

    The study indicates that the preschool teachers shared the conception that the free play is of importance for children to develop social skills. Children learn many social skills by free play. The study also confirms that the preschool teachers are very important for the development of social skills among children by supporting and stimulating the free play and by their attitudes towards both children and other adults.

  • 46.
    Alfsson, Diana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Mobbning i litteraturen - då och nu: Skillnader och likheter i beskrivningen av mobbning idag och för 60 år sedan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay is a comparative study of two youth novels with bullying as a motif. The novels are Vi kallar honom Anna by Peter Pohl and Gilla Hata Horan by Johanna Nilsson. Bullying at school is an ever present problem for students, teachers, parents and school management. The society is obliged to provide a safe and equal environment where every student is included. The school system of today take actions to prevent bullying. I believe literature could play a part in that work. The purpose of the essay is to examine similarities and differences between the texts in how bullying is described 60 years ago, and the bullying that exists today and often takes place on the Internet. I also plan to use the result in literature classes. I have in my analysis used a comparative method, and biografic science where focus lies on what the author wants to say with the text.

    My analysis shows that the texts displays many situations that relates to science. There are many similarities and differences between the texts, but the biggest difference is the description of how teachers and management looked at bullying in the 1950s, compared to today. Another difference is the description of how bullying today takes place around the clock, compared with how bullying mainly took place during school time 50 years ago, differences that clearly is stated in the novels. Back in the day you knew who the persons that performed bullying was. Today you can be anonymous, which makes it hard to know who is behind it. Both authors have their own experiences from bullying with a time difference of 40-50 years. Despite the time gap bullying is described with essentially the same universal components in cause and effect.

    Keywords: Bullying, study of motifs, comparative, intertextuality

  • 47.
    Alfsson, Diana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Tappar ungdomarna standardspråket om chatt/ungdomsspråket används inom skolan?: En studie av chatt/ungdomsspråkets inverkan på skriftspråket2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48. Alisson, Krister
    De värmländska australienfararna: Den värmländska emigrationen till Australien 1850 till 19142014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Allansson, Jimmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    When grundskoleklass becomes mainstream classroom: An investigation of the translation of Swedish compound nouns into English using Google Translate2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how Swedish compound nouns are translated by the machine translation program Google Translate. In order to conclude what main types of mistranslation occur, different texts were first translated by the program; all compound nouns were then listed and analysed, and the mistranslated compound nouns were categorised in accordance with the manner of mistranslation. The study was also working from a hypothesis that the frequency of a compound would affect the chances of getting a correct translation. To test this hypothesis, queries were run in a Swedish corpus to get an estimation of how frequently used the compounds are. The results show that mistranslations could be categorised into four different types, and that the most common types of mistranslation were omitting part of the compound, and translating reoccurring compounds inconsistently. The hypothesis that compounds with high frequency in the corpus would be correctly translated, while compounds with low frequency would be incorrectly translated, could not be conclusively confirmed or refuted. Although there was some indication of a link between frequency and translation accuracy, the connection was not clear enough to claim that there is a correlation.

  • 50.
    Almgren, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Musik – En viktig del i förskolan: Fyra förskollärares perspektiv på musikverksamheten i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to examine how four preschool teachers that work in a music-preschool observe the function of music in preschool and the importance of music activities for children in preschool. I decided to use a semi-structured group interview were four preschool teachers participated. I chose Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective as a theoretical starting point in my work.

    In my results, I could see a pattern of cooperation, community and the children's influence as aspects that are important for preschool teachers who participated in my survey. Every question that preschool teachers discussed during the interview took a starting point of children's interests and based on children's conditions.

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