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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Elise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pratbubblan: den röda tråden: En studie av Karlstads Stadsnäts visuella kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Karlstad City Fiber Network visual elements in the form of a pair of speech bubbles fit into the organization's holistic external communication and branding. The study examines whether Karlstad City Fiber Network image of the organization and the speech bubbles match the stakeholders view and how the visual elements are perceived and recognized by stakeholders. The theory associated with the study is theories of corporate visual identity, image, identity and branding and visual communication. These three elements are important to be aware of when a generation of an effective external communications. Qualitative interviews with employees at Karlstad City Fiber Network and Karlstad municipality has undertaken to give an idea of ​​what the organization wants to achieve and what their opinions are. Karlstad City Fiber Network wants stakeholders to perceive the brand building marketing records as playful, with a twinkle in his eye and inviting to dialogue while the direct information shall be straight and free of jargon. The organization wishes that stakeholders see them as a safe choice as well as local and accessible for inhabitants of Karlstad. Karlstad City Fiber Network sees it as a great advantage to be taken of Karlstad Municipality, which also welcomes the urban network is municipal. Through focus group interviews with Karlstad City Fiber Network stakeholders, the inhabitants of Karlstad, it has emerged that the speech bubbles is not recognized, but it is only when the speech bubbles is put into a context, such as newspaper or newsletter that it can be linked to anything that advocates the municipality of Karlstad and dialogue. It is concluded that corporate visual identity is the link between the visual and the context of an organization's marketing. Stakeholders see Karlstad City Fiber Network as a credible organization that is simple yet eye-catching newsletters, but believe that their marketing is somewhat vague and confusing.

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    Pratbubblan: den röda tråden
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Renhult, Elena
    Fräsch och strukturerad med attityd: Ett examensprojekt om tidningslayout2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractPresentation of the problem: The goal with this graduation project is to produce a new visual concept for the student newspaper Campus, this will be expressed in the form of page templates. The page templates will have a visual concept that appears through graphical elements. The client's wishes were that the student newspaper should be audience appropriate, attractive, inviting, reliable, modern and functional to work with.Theory: In order to implement the wishes and in a good way produce a consistent visual concept, we took a starting point in theory of graphic design. This theory has taken many of its principles from aesthetic theory, and therefore have we also used aesthetics to provide a deeper theoretical aspect. The principles we used in graphic design is; how to create a unity in the layout by using basic elements such as text, images, and white space. We have also looked at alignment-, form-, color-, contrast-, typography- and placement principles. The principles we have applied from aesthetics are color repetition, color contrasts, balance, visual harmony and depth.Method: The empirical studies consisted of a qualitative content analysis of student newspapers, followed by a focus-group study with respondents from the Campus newspaper target group. The purpose of the two studies was to, via a content analysis, get a general picture of the design language that is used on the market today. This, combined with theory, helped us to create a visual expression that stands outside the general form. It was done in four different dummies, these dummies were discussed by the focus-group.Results: Our first empirical study showed how student newspapers are designed today. With support of theory, the functioning principles was sorted out and used in the four dummies. During the focus-group analysis, opinions about the dummies were presented. We could therefore see what the respondents wanted in the page templates. Together with the client's wishes and analysis from the empirical studies, a new concept developed. It will be perceived as clean and structured together with attitude.

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    Fräsch och strukturerad med attityd
  • 3.
    Adams, Paul C.
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication Geography: A Bridge Between Disciplines2012In: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We call for a fundamental restruc turing of research paradigms in geography and media/communication studies to form a bridge between core concerns of the 2 disciplines. This endeavor responds to contemporary historical changes: mediated/mediatized mobility, technological convergence, interactivity, new communication interfaces, and the automation of surveillance. Long-standing concern with a set of issues we call representations, textures, structures, and connections provides a foundation for this interdisciplinary bridge. Integrating these concerns would produce a semi autonomous field, manifested through collaborations between geographers and media theorists.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Asp, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ett främjande verktyg: En kvantitativ studie om institutionaliserad feedback2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines the members' relationship with feedback within two institutions, the Department of Geography, Media and Communication (GMK) and the Department of Educational Studies (IPS) at Karlstad University. Feedback is a communication tool used to promote organizational development. This individual development is essential for a university's business because of its members knowledge and skills are one of its most important assets. The importance of this kind of communication is manifested in the university's institutionalization of feedback and how it is integrated into the work routines. The problem area is comprised of how these institutions differ in the structure in relation to the classical hierarchical business structure, with a clear ranking between boss and employee, focusing on the role of feedback in this type of organization. Research that focuses specifically on this type of structure within an organization is currently underrepresented and therefore creates a research hole. The purpose of the paper is to examine the two mentioned institutions with a focus on feedback, its institutionalization and its integration into the work routines, and how the members relate to this process. To investigate the impact of this institutionalization of feedback, the following three questions were created:  How is criticism conducted within an organization where feedback is institutionalized?  How does the view of feedback differ from these institutions compared with companies with a classical hierarchical organizational structure? How does organizational culture affect the ability but also the willingness to criticize and to give and receive feedback? In order to answer these questions, relevant prior research in the area has been identified. The different theories chosen relate to five different factors: Channel selection, leadership, relationships, organizational culture and feedback, all of which are directly linked to the research area. Examples of these theories are Information Richness Theory (IRT) that emphasizes how different communication channels should be applied. Leader membership exchange theory (LMX) and Conceptual model of employee questions emphasize how personal relationships affect communication and how leadership structure within an organization affects feedback. An additional central component of how members relate to feedback is the organizational culture. This culture can be broken into three different categories; identification, trust and dedication. They all have an impact on the feedback process and should therefore be taken into account. Research related to feedback can also be found in the previous research section. The application of a survey gave the opportunity to draw general conclusions about the population. The questions in the questionnaire are anchored in the previous research and are operationalized in relation to the three research questions. The collected data showed that the institutionalization of feedback has a predominantly positive effect on members' relation to this. The members of the institution generally have strong and prosperous relationships with their colleagues and leaders. Members feel that they can freely express their views regardless of their professional position, and these views are respected, which is a consequence of the strong trust they have for their colleagues and leaders. Identification to the institutions is generally strong, which affects the members' commitment and the willingness to develop. Feedback requires a channel that can transmit complex information, which will simultaneously enable two-way communication and be personalized to achieve the desired effect. This relates to the institutions and feedback is transmitted primarily orally. This result shows that a thoughtful attitude to feedback has a major impact on the organization's activities.

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    Ett främjande verktyg
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  • 5.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Communicating climate action: Combining action repertoires and linguistic repertoires in social movement message construction2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis is one of the largest global challenges that humanity has ever faced. Despite the scientific consensus on the threat, action is not occurring on the pace or level needed to stave off the consequences. As climate change is made up by complex and conjoined causes and effects, the issue is also riddled with communicative challenges which those calling for action need to tackle. Climate change communication research has, however, mainly focus on how traditional news media frame the climate change issue and overlooks climate activist and movement groups. This despite these actors being key for shifting public perceptions and public opinion. Although research on other communication actors exist, it is far from extensive and the research field overlooks the publics perceptions of the sender in relation to the construction of climate messages. Through survey data and an experiment, this doctoral thesis explores the public’s inclination towards different protest action repertoires and addresses the research gap in the climate movement message construction. Herein, the actions and words of three subgroups within the larger environmental movement is considered as one part of a larger message whole. The groups chosen action repertoires are viewed as part of the activists’ performed message and the linguistic communication styles created by lexical choices related to emotional appeals are part of the activists’ verbal/textual message. The results indicate that there is much to be gained from adhering to an alignment between lexical choices and action repertoires. Alignment may be key for understanding why some movement subgroups are successful in inspiring certain actions whilst others inspire other actions. Communication-action alignment is a way to approach the interconnectedness of actions and words for complex and abstract issues that require message recipients to construct consonant mental models to break potential cognitive dissonance.

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    Forskningspodden med Sol Agin
  • 6.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communication without borders: A quantitative study on how mobility and a cosmopolitan self-identity affect Swedish expatriates communication patterns with friends.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how Swedish voluntary migrants communicate with friends in three different groups: friends that resides in the same country as the respondent currently lives in, friends in Sweden, friends in other countries around the globe and whether or not individual mobility, demographic factors or a sense of global citizenship affect the chosen mean of communication. The reason behind the study is to introduce a previously unstudied area into the field of geographically based media studies and hopefully contribute to a deeper understanding of the role played by different means of communication in shaping the dynamics of global friendship. The theoretical approach in this study will be from three different outlooks, migration, polymedia (including the second-level digital divide) and cosmopolitanism.

    The study is based on data from the Institute for Society, Opinion and Media (SOM) and their survey questionnaire sent out to Swedish expatriates during fall 2014 / winter 2015, also known as Utlands-SOM. The total number of respondents are 2268. The study starts with basic frequencies to find out which media that are the most prominent, then binary logistic regressions have been made. The total number of dependent variables are 21 and these have then been analysed from seven independent variables; age, gender, education, travel patterns, years spent abroad, number of countries lived in and whether or not the respondent consider himself/herself being a cosmopolitan. This generates a total of seven tables (one for each media) with three models in each (contact with friends in current country of residency, contact with friends in Sweden and contact with friends in other parts of the world).

    Amongst Swedish expatriates, e-mail and Facebook are the two most popular media for keeping in touch with friends, regardless of the friends location. The most significant demographic variable is age. Usage of video call, text message, chat, Facebook and other social media tend to decrease with age. Every year spent abroad decreases the communication with friends in Sweden, but increases the communication in the current country of residency. The number of countries lived in have a positive effect on communication with friends in other parts of the world. Cosmopolitan self-identity is found to be most significant when communicating with friends in other parts of the world, and it also affects e-mail the most. Level of education, which in previous studies have been found closely linked to a cosmopolitan identity, is found to have no significant correlation. Arguably, this is explained by the other means of communications negative relationship with the variable.

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  • 7.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Communicative Action Repertoire Alignment (CARA): A theoretical model and methodological approach for evaluation of lexical-action alignment in social movementsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Conventional and Disruptive Protest Propensity: A Comparative Survey Study Across EuropeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Amiel, Pauline
    et al.
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Baisnée, Olivier
    Sciences Po Toulouse, France.
    Berthaut, Jérome
    University of Burgundy, France.
    Gousset, Cyriac
    Sciences Po Toulouse, France.
    Hubé, Nicolas
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Maurer, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Mothes, Cornelia
    Macromedia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Nollet, Jérémy
    Sciences Po Toulouse, France.
    Permanences and Mutations in the French andGerman Media Systems during the COVID-19 Pandemic2023In: Canadian Journal of Communication, ISSN 0705-3657, E-ISSN 1499-6642, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 529-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed journalistic practices and media roles in France and Germany.

    Analysis: As part of the Journalistic Role Performance Project (JRP), 9,438 articles published in France and Germany in 2020 were analyzed to determine trends in journalistic sources and the presence of six professional roles (watchdog, loyal facilitator, interventionist disseminator, service, infotainment, and civic) in news coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Conclusions and implications: Professional roles in French and German media production are similar despite the countries having distinct media systems. However, notable differences exist in terms of journalistic practices. German media are characterized by the use of sources to justify institutional decisions. In contrast, French journalistic content is less politicized with a focus on “health” sources.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Är vi vänner på Facebook?: En fallstudie om en icke-vinstdrivande organisations relationsbyggande på Facebook2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a big part of people's daily lives and therefore provides a great opportunity for organizations and businesses to reach out to more people. Although organizations have had a few years to find strategies adapted to social media, there are still many who see it as another channel to merely informing and market instead of using it to create relationships with the audience. This essay aims therefore to examine how Friends, who is a non-profit organization, communicate on Facebook to build and nurture relationships with their audiences. A relationship between the organization and the audience are based on a shared interest in each other and a mutual commitment. The study is based on theories of social media, engagement, dialogue and relationship-building communications to create a greater understanding of how a not-for-profit organisation use Facebook as a relationship-building communications channel. The methods used in the study is a quantitative content analysis to get an overall picture of the content of Friends Facebook page and the way it engages the audience and a qualitative content analysis to deeper analyze how Friends communicates to create relationship and engage their audience and how they handle the dialogue in the comment field. With the help of the methods, Friends Facebook page where studied in the form of posts, comments to posts, likes, shares, and answers to comments. The results of the analysis show that Friends partly are using Facebook to reach out with information about the organization and its purpose, but also use Facebook to engage the audiences in different ways. This is done by, among other things, encourage the audience to go out and contribute to a better society themselves and through entertaining and gratifying message that is linked to the organization's values. Friends uses many relationship-building elements in posts like giving thanks and recognize the audience, personal addressing and emotionally charged words. They also treat different kinds of comments in a way that is tailored to the commentary, which means that they mimic a real dialogue. In many of the comments Friends uses a personal approach and a personal signature that facilitates continued dialogue.

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    Är vi vänner på Facebook?
  • 11.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Cullberg, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jag Twittrar för Er: Nytänkande och ambassadörskap i medielandskapet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The projects purpose it to find out if the mediation has changed the work with Sweden as a brand.

    Issues: The main question this paper is based on is: How has the modern medialization changed VisitSweden's work with Sweden's brand?

    To answer the main question in a simpler way we will be using several sub queries as follows:

    What strategies does VisitSweden use to brand Sweden on Twitter?

    What are VisitSweden’s views on Social Medias?

    What does the image building look like on the Twitter channel @sweden when it comes to the brand Sweden?

    How has the use of curators democratized the work on the project Curators of Sweden?

    Theory: The theories in the essay are based on Nation branding, Public Diplomacy and Medialization with the weight on Public Diplomacy. Besides these theories the essay includes the theories of Public Relations and Public sphere that will be used to some extent.

    Method: The paper has investigated the Twitter channel @sweden's news flow through a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. It will also analyse the document Sverigebilden using a qualitative content analysis and document analysis, in the end, a qualitative interview with VisitSweden's Head of Social Media.

    Results: The survey reveals a nuanced way to which a Twitter channel can promote a country as a brand and how to utilise spokespersons to make it happen. VisitSweden shows how, through preparation and monitoring, all Public Relations can become good Public Relations. By being an early adopter of the medium, VisitSweden have been able to create interest through innovation and breaking new ground. It has since implemented a well controlled project that supports the brand through the use of core values that have been set in advance.

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    Jag Twittrar för Er
  • 12.
    Andersson, Wilma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Brunander-Lennartsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Vad är en organisationsidentitet och hur kommuniceras den?: En kvalitativ studie om kommunikatörers relation till organisationsidentitet.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A society with more organizations that want to reach out with their messages, as well as an increasingly changing role as a communicator form the background and the problem area of this study. This essay is placed within the area of organizational identity, more specifically how communicators communicate and maintain an organizational identity, and whether organizational identity can contribute to sensemaking within the organization. The study also examines communicators' familiarity with the concept of organizational identity and what their perception of the concept looks like. This study is based on a theoretical framework that consists of theory about the concept of organizational identity, Corporate Identity Mix, the SIR COPE model and sensemaking in the form of Communicative Constitution of Organizations and Employee Communication Behavior. The study's research gap is shown by taking up the already existing research in the areas of the role of communicators in the organization, the internal management of organizational identity and sensemaking linked to communication.  

     The empirical material was collected through qualitative interviews that used two focus groups, consisting of a total of eight communication professionals. The result shows that the knowledge of the concept of organizational identity is relatively low among the respondents, but similar concepts were used instead. The perceptions around the concept after a definition was established, were positive and the respondents considered it important for a communicator to know what an organizational identity is. What the results also show is that the respondents communicate organizational identity by highlighting what makes an organization unique. The role of the communication professionals is described in the results as leading in the communication of organizational identity, but also in other communication issues that concern the entire organization. The result indicates that organizations benefit from investing resources in communication management. The result also showed that sensemaking can be achieved within the organization, but it was not something that the organizations actively worked on, but rather something that they hoped would arise because of their work. The conclusions of this essay are that the concept of organizational identity was unknown to the professional role of communicators. Another conclusion is that the communicator has an important role in communicating and maintaining the organizational identity. The study also concluded that sensemaking is difficult to work with but that it can be achieved through work with the organizational identity.  

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  • 13.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Outdoor recreation in times of change2012In: Outdoor Recreation in Change - current knowledge and future challenges: Proceedings of the 6th InternationalConference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 110-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    bek-Arakélow, Hanna
    Karlstad University.
    Den kvinnliga politikern – straffad av mediernas gestaltningar?: En kvantitativ experimentstudie om genustypisk kvinnogestaltning vid politiska mediedrev2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Den kvinnliga politikern – straffad av mediernas gestaltningar?
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  • 15.
    Bene, Márton
    et al.
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre of Excellence, Hungary.
    Ceron, Andrea
    Universitá Degli Studi di Milano, Italy.
    Fenoll, Vicente
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Haßler, Jörg
    LMU Munich,Germany.
    Kruschinski, Simon
    Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Germany.
    Larsson, Anders Olof
    Kristiania University College, Norway.
    Magin, Melanie
    NTNU, Norway.
    Schlosser, Katharina
    LMU Munich, Germany.
    Wurst, Anne Kathrin
    LMU Munich, Germany.
    Lilleker, Darren
    Bournemouth University, UK.
    Maurer, Peter
    Universität Trier, Germany.
    Engaging Users Through Information or Critique?: "Likes" and" shares" for parties on Facebook during the 2019 European Election campaign2021In: Proceedings of the Weizenbaum Conference 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Besterman, Agnes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Bankers visuella externa kommunikation under ekonomiskt oroliga perioder: “Vi fokuserar på bolån så att du kan fokusera på livet”2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are currently in the middle of 2023 which is an economically troubled period due to the war in Ukraine, the corona pandemic, the energy crisis and inflation. Banks can be considered a vital social institution which, during this period, can reduce the worry in society, and at the same time build a strong brand with the help of visual external communication. Visual communication can quickly and clearly convey information, has an emotional impact and creates attractive and engaging communication. The problem is that there is a lack of research that looks at banks' external communication during troubled periods from a visual perspective. Therefore, this study aims to fill that research gap. The study also contributes with research that looks at banks' communication from a contemporary perspective in the context caused by current social crises, which is also a research gap to fill.

    The study is a qualitative creative project with Sparbanken as a case study where it is examined how they should communicate with their customers and the public regarding mortgages during prevailing inflation. In the project's design process, examples of campaign ideas are created that people who are affected by the increased mortgage interest evaluate in individual interviews Their opinions, together with theories in branding and visual external communication and previous research on banks' external communication, form the basis of the result and a completed campaign.

    The result shows that security and reliability should pervade communication, which is supported by previous research. But the study also shows that a symbolic and deeper meaning that creates an emotional connection between the recipient and the sender is significant. The study also demonstrates that visual elements that create recognition, simplicity, clarity and optimism should be used in visual external communication. The results are useful for banks to take part of in order to jointly reduce the worry in society with the help of visual external communication. Both now, and during any financially troubled periods ahead.

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  • 17.
    Björemo, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Har storleken betydelse?: Om att kombinera text och bild i reklamannonser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    C-uppsats, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
  • 18. Björklund, Eric
    et al.
    Börjesson, Johan
    With great power comes great social responsibility2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall vagueness of words and sentences can show differences in meaning and perceptions. Applying this to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives can end up being misleading, especially in an online setting such as social media, which has shown as a preferable medium for these kinds of messages. This awoke a curiosity within us as we ourselves have a critical way of thinking because of our studies within media communication and our own experiences with social media messages being somewhat misleading and shady in their nature. With theories and previous research from several authors revolving around complex concepts such as trust, transparency and authenticity. A definition of trustworthiness has been established to be used for this particular bachelor thesis for the basis of our variables and analysis of the results. This study aims to measure if trustworthiness in CSR posts on Instagram change depending on different levels of transparency. Research is conducted with a quantitative experiment with three web-based surveys containing each a different stimuli taking inspiration from real-life companies posts on Instagram. The results showed that the perceived trustworthiness changes depending on the levels of transparency, with a high trustworthiness towards message and action in an Instagram post of high transparency. Instagram posts with mid-range and low levels of transparency showed similarities but the post with low affinity of transparency showed the least amount of perceived trustworthiness.

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    With great power comes great social responsibility
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  • 19.
    Blom, Madeleine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jernfält, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    TYPISK FOODIE: Projektrapport för skapandet av magasinet FOODIE2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses typography and image connected to the creation of the food magazine FOODIE. Based on the research that is now available on typography we ask questions about why research on readability is overrepresented in this area? We are putting typography in a context of semiotics, denotation and connotation and based on that we put together a magazine that appeal to and influence the specific target group that is discussed in the end the report.

    The report is dealing with scientific theories about typography and conventions but is also based on the qualitative survey where typography is examined on the basis of the target groups feelings and preferences. The entire project is composed in consent by Madeleine Blom and Frida Jernfält.

    The magazine that has been created in this project is aimed for the target group called Foodies, people that despite age and gender has a genuine interest in gastronomy, food and culinary experiences. The target group is also interested in cooking for themselves as well as experience the food from professionals.

    The project study consisted of qualitative interviews with a sample of the target group. The product has also been tested on a focus group during the implementation phase where questions of sense, readability, design and visual communication were made and discussed by the respondents.

    The purpose of the project FOODIE is to find out which typographic and graphic qualities that appeal to or affect our target groups choices between different food magazines. The project also intends to answer how typography can be understood from other aspects than just readability and to add a way to explore typography, within research, more similar to the one presented in the profession where form, feeling and impact of major extent been included in the concept.

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  • 20.
    Boström, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Journalister, en överflödig yrkesroll?: En kvalitativ studie om den förändrade lokaljournalistens yrkesroll.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on central theories within journalism in an organization. Highlighted theories will we news evaluation, what issues makes it into news. Organization is driven by different goals, the economic goal and the publicist goals. How does the organization work with these goals joined with what the audience want from the organization when the audience has new possibilities to contribute through citizen’s journalism and participatory journalism? Is it possible to se the media user as a threat to or an extra asses for the news organisation when, according to citizen journalism anyone can call them self a journalism without any specific education.

    The result will be presented from eight qualitative interviews with journalist on local newspapers in Sweden. This is to present how the journalist perceives the changes in journalism as a profession. How do they see the citizen journalists, as an extra recourse or a threat?

    After guidance through central research and preformed Interviews the essay comes to the conclusion that the role as a journalism in not an excessive role. The work that a journalist produces is important and it is necessary which source the news comes from. 

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  • 21.
    Broberg, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Love yourself – men hur? En kvalitativ studie av svenska skönhetsföretags framställning av femvertising2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Swedish beauty companies use femvertising on their websites. Femvertising refers to the use of advertising messages that serve to empower women and the questioning of traditional female gender stereotypes found in advertising. Due to the fact that Sweden is considered to be one of the most equal countries in the world in terms of gender, the objects of study were the Swedish companies: CAIA Cosmetics, Rebecca Stella Beauty, Indy beauty and Viva La Diva. The study has focused on studying in what ways femvertising was expressed on their websites. Besides this purpose, the study also investigated how the femvertising expressed reoccurs in other parts of the website. For that purpose, the websites’ header and product images were studied. The study’s research question was: How does CAIA Cosmetics, Indy beauty, Viva La Divas and Rebecca Stella Beauty express femvertising on their websites and in what ways do these messages reoccur in the websites’ header and product image?

                          The theoretical framework used in the study involves the concept of femvertising, post feminism and commodity feminism, which is a concept closely related to femvertising. In addition to that, previous research done on the subject of femvertising is presented, e.g. about attitudes towards femvertising (Åkestam, Dahlén & Rosengren, 2014), problem areas and critics regarding femvertising (Gill & Elias, 2004) but also studies of specific femvertising campaigns (Murray, 2013).

                          The selection process resulted in the study of four websites’ parts: header, section containing femvertising and product images. Social semiotics were used to study the semiotic resources used in the phrases expressing femvertising, while the visual social semiotics were used to study similarities, differences and hidden meanings expressed in the images studied. The result of the analysis showed that a number of themes could be identified in the way that these websites expressed femvertising. One common theme expressed in all four websites were beauty comes from within. This theme is particular interesting because beauty companies sell make-up that (according to the study’s results) work as an outer tool to release the woman’s inner beauty. The results of the study show that beauty companies by their use of femvertising, actually establishes new standards for women regarding their thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The concept of femvertising is meant to challenge traditional female advertising stereotypes, but in this case the results show that these companies instead of challenging stereotypes – add new standards for women. Finally, are questions are raised whether these messages contribute to a more equal world?

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  • 22.
    Bylander, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Nicklasson, Hannah
    Karlstad University.
    "Vi säger inte det här till mina fröknar": Tematisk analys av en Green Screen aktivitet2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to increase knowledge about childrens ability in different ages to use Green Screen. The study examines children's ability to take a critical approach during an activity where the digital learning tool Green Screen is used. Our experiences of preschools' use of Green Screen differ and therefore we wanted to investigate the area. We conducted a participant observation that was filmed in two activities with Green Screen, one with two-year-olds and one with four-year-olds. The study was conducted at a preschool in a medium-sized municipality in Sweden. The collected data were analyzed multimodally using the thematic analysis method based on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, play and equilibrium. The results show that children aged two and four respectively act differently in activity with Green Screen. The two-year-olds discover the technology physically while the four-year-olds used the technology as a tool in play, which could suggest that the four-year-olds’ critical approach was more developed. There is limited research on Green Screen in preschool, therefore we believe that this study can contribute to the subject being noticed so that further studies can be done. 

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    "Vi säger inte det här till mina fröknar"
  • 23.
    Båge, Else Mikkelsen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Book Review: Surviving Mexico: Resistance and Resilience Among Journalists in the Twenty-First Century,by Celeste González de Bustamante and Jeannine E. Relly2024In: Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, ISSN 1077-6990, E-ISSN 2161-430XArticle, book review (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Börås, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Den kommunikativa organisationen – kejsarens nya kläder?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a greater understanding of what thoughts and feelings communication managers in eight Swedish municipalities have about the concept of "communicative organization", if and in such cases how the concept of "communicative organization" and research on the concept affect how one plans for and works with their communication and who benefits from the concept of "communicative organization". The focus of this study is on examining thoughts about the "communicative organization" (Heide et al, 2019) but also on whether and in such cases how the communicative organization differs from other similar "organizational labels"; for example, the listening organization, the innovative organization or the organization based on trust-based governance (Bringselius, 2017).

    Research question: 

    • What do communication managers think about the concept of "communicative organization"?
    • Does research on the concept of "communicative organization" affect how to plan for the organization's communication?
    • Does the term "communicative organization" differ from other "organizational labels"?
    • Which professions benefit from the very concept of "communicative organization"?

    Theories: The study is primarily part of the communication theory field of research and focuses more specifically on the concepts of "communicative organization" (Heide et al, 2019). The theoretical framework of the study consists of Heide's seven steps for a communicative organization as well as research on organizational definitions and profession research with a focus on communicators. These theories support this study's results and analysis by illustrating how a concept affects how the interviewed communication managers name, structure, package and work with their organizations' communications.

    Method: For this study, an operationalization schedule based on the purpose and questions of the study linked to the theoretical framework for the concept of "communicative organization", organizational theory and professional research has been set up. Since then, individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with communication managers at eight Swedish municipalities have been conducted. Since then, individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with communication managers at eight Swedish municipalities have been conducted. After conducting interviews, collected data has been transcribed and processed by coding in the analysis program NVivo. There, different themes have emerged and from this analysis and discussion and conclusion have been developed.

    Conclusion: None of the communications managers surveyed in the eight municipalities claim to have introduced or have plans to introduce “the communicative organization” to the letter as described in the research (Heide et al, 2019). That is, none of the municipalities interviewed had any kind of governing document or plan for all seven parts that the final report "The communicative organization" sets up for being a communicative organization. However, several of the municipalities surveyed say they are working with the research material as a basis for further developing the municipality's communication and all say that this is important and that they want to be a communicative organization.

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    Den kommunikativa organisationen – kejsarens nya kläder?
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  • 25.
    Cedergren, Elza
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Landén Lavendell, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Förpackningsdesign- mediet som räddar klimatet?: Ett explorativt experiment om hållbarhetskommunikation i förpackningsdesign.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People's need for consumption has led to rapidly escalating problems affecting animals and nature. The market's response to environmental threats includes increased interest in sustainability and, as far as possible, the exclusion of toxic products. A vast part of marketing occurs through packaging design where great opportunities to emphasize sustainable aspects exist. This problem sparked a desire to investigate how to optimize the communication of sustainability messages. This study thus aims to investigate how one can market sustainable aspects through packaging design, in order to establish guidelines that generate the greatest success in communication. The study treats packaging, cleaning agents, design and is carried out through an experiment based on semiotics. The stimuli in the experiments took the shape of a packaging design, the design of which was crystallized through an initial design process. Trusted theories, previous research and the experiment formed the foundation of the guidelines presented in the conclusion. The results show that the type of communication that works best varies depending on message, context and prior knowledge.

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  • 26.
    Cever, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Huuhka, Tiina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    #Godaremat: En studie om hur en reklamkampanj för ett ekologiskt varumärke kan utformas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att fördjupa oss i hur teori, metod och beprövad erfarenhet kan användas vid utformandet av en reklamkampanj. Vi har använt de kunskaper vi fick till att sammanställa en reklamkampanj åt uppdragsgivaren Zest som är en ekologisk matbar i Karlstad. Målet med kampanjen var att visa upp deras unika utbud av mat. För att vi skulle kunna utforma en kampanj som var både visuellt attraktiv och kunde nå ut till tänkbara kunder på bästa sätt grundades kampanjen i både teori om grafisk formgivning och dess principer. De principer vi använde inom grafisk formgivning var layout, bilder och bildkomposition samt typografi. Grafisk formgivning har hämtat många av sina principer från estetiken och därför använde vi oss även av estetiken som grund. Utöver dessa har vi använt oss av teorier om varumärke och identitet då uppdragsgivaren är väldigt måna om sitt varumärke och vill kontinuerligt jobba för att utveckla och göra det starkare. För att ha en teoretisk grund till budskapet i kampanjbilderna har vi även använt studerat hur man skriver för reklam. Vi har även studerat kommunikationskanaler och hur vi bör använda dessa för att nå ut till målgruppen. Utöver teorin och erfarenheter, grundas valet av kommunikationskanal samt budskapet i kampanjen på den empiriska undersökningen som utfördes i samband med projektet. Vi utförde en kvantitativ målgruppsundersökning i form av enkät med huvudsyfte att undersöka vad målgruppen har för matpreferenser samt vad som får dem att besöka en restaurang. Målgruppsundersökningen visade att målgruppen inte följer någon specifik kosthållning men tycker att ekologisk, fairtrade och närodlad/nyproducerad mat är viktig när de besöker en restaurang. Tillsammans med målgruppsundersökningens resultat och teorierna kunde vi utforma kampanjbilder som kan locka till sig kunder från dem närliggande platserna och samtidigt visa upp Zests unika utbud. 

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  • 27.
    Christensen, Miyase
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Discursively Shaping the Environment: Swedish National and Regional Media Coverage of The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen2012In: Communication @ the Center / [ed] Steve Jones, ICA , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Christensen, Miyase
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Online mediations in transnational spaces: cosmopolitan (re)formations of belonging and identity in the Turkish diaspora2012In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 888-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lives of transnational groups and individuals are marked by a spatial and imaginary split: a phenomenon wherein identity, belonging and representation have become increasingly elusive concepts, and the realm of the ‘cultural’ vastly important. And, the theoretical compasses of cosmopolitanism and transnationalism are particularly relevant and illuminating in considering social space, mediated communication and belonging in relation to urban diasporic communities and gendered subjectivities. The aim of this paper is to address expressions of identity and belonging at the intersection of online communicative practice and offline spatial formations, with a focus on the specificities of gendered constructions of sociality and subjectivity in the diaspora

  • 29.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Interveillance, Complicit Surveillance and the Question of Cosmopolitanism: Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatization2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Encapsulated vs. the Cosmopolitan Self? : Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatized Communication and Complicit Surveillance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediatization refers to a meta-process whereby social life in its totality is (re)embedded in and saturated with mediated processes. This paper addresses the relationship between two theoretically diverging, yet socially intertwined, realms pertaining to various mediatization patterns: cosmopolitanism and surveillance. Mediatization implies increasing opportunities for ‘extending the self’, experienced in terms of mediated proximity, immediacy and boundary transgression – ultimately sustaining a more cosmopolitan outlook of the world. Yet, mediatization also brings growing opportunities for securitization, boundary control and social encapsulation, on behalf of societal institutions as well as individuals and groups. Contemporary forms and extensions of surveillance and cosmopolitanism are increasingly interwoven through the meta-process of mediatization, most recently the social saturation of converging ‘social’ media. This paper suggests that phenomenology, as a heuristic tool, offers a well-contextualized and grounded socio-cultural perspective to grasp the everyday dimensions and subjective moral positionalities ensuing from increased mediatization and related openings and closures

  • 31.
    Dahlberg, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Forslund, Elsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Tolv år av professionalisering: En kvalitativ studie av Sverigedemokraternas professionalisering av valaffischer.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Election posters are an old traditional medium for political parties to reach out with their communication. Despite the new approaches to reach out with political communication thanks to digitalization, election posters are still a relevant medium despite having been used for a long time. Sverigedemokraterna are a relatively "young" party. They became interesting for this study as they have their roots in nazism and therefrom quickly grew to become Sweden's third largest party.

    This study presents an analysis of Sverigedemokraterna’s professionalization of electionposters during the electoral campaigns 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. A total of fifteen electionposters were analyzed, all of which were included in Sverigedemokraterna’s electioncampaigns during four different electoral movements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of professionalization of politics for Sverigedemokraterna’s visualpolitical communication, in form of their election posters. From this, questions at issue were formulated to answer the purpose: How has the communication through election posters from Sverigdemokraterna changed from 2006 to 2018? and How has the professionalization of visual political communication shown in Sverigedemokraternas election posters?

    The election posters in this study are processed on the basis of a qualitative textanalysis and with focus on one party. The qualitative textanalysis is based on a semiotic analysis, where a analysis model is used. The analysis model is a composition of 5 themes, 14 categories and 1 subcategory. The results of the study have primarily been analyzed with the help of previous research by Nicklas Håkansson, Bengt Johansson and Orla Vigsø (2014), who are often seen as references in connection with studies of election posters. The theories of political communication and professionalization form the basis of this study.

    The result of the analysis has been applied to a four time period in the development of the election posters and the conclusion shows that Sverigedemokraterna has gone through a

    change in the professionalization of election posters between 2006 and 2018, though for shorter periods than the four time periods of election posters. It is a change that has been adapted in line with developments in society, including in the form of digital development and the development of specialist professions in marketing and visual communication. The professionalization has also shown through the normalization of the party. The change inSverigedemokraterna’s communication in election posters has among other things been shown in their use of clear messages and strong opinions in their election posters to that their message has become more and more abstract and that they no longer need to argue for their cause. Their opinions have been normalized to the point that they no longer need to convince voters and other parties with their election posters.

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  • 32.
    Daleke, Sarah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communicative Democracy: Developing leadership accountability through ICTs: A qualitative case study from the Rwenzori region in western Uganda2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for citizen engagement in democracy around the world today, especially in the developing world. Events such as the Arab Spring show the potential ICTs can have on citizen engagement with those in leadership positions. Many studies have been conducted within the field of ICT4D (Information Communication Technologies for Development) in many different areas. But few studies have been done within the field of ICT4D that have focused on what happens with the local politicians´ situation in developing countries, when the citizens in these areas become digitally engaged. For a community to develop all levels within the community need to be developed and empowered, because if the local leaders do not have the tools or the incentive to meet the citizens demands then the wanted requirements cannot take place. Effective democratic and open government depends on closing the feedback loop between citizens and government (Making All Voices Count, 2014).

     

    The aim of this study is to get an understanding of the local politicians´ situation in Rwenzori region in western Uganda, as the citizens in this region successively have started to demand much more accountability from their leaders through ICTs.

    The main question guiding this study is:

    How are local political leaders in developing countries coping with citizens who are increasingly using ICT4D tools for leadership accountability?

    With the sub-questions being:

    How have ICTs changed the communication between the local political leaders and the citizens?

    Do the local political leaders have the ICT skills, tools and means they need to meet the digitally engaged citizens?

    Is leadership accountability improved through the use of ICTs?

    To conduct this study I have used qualitative interviews. And the main theory applied is Jürgen Habermas´s theory of communicative action. In essence Habermas’s theory tries to explain the social structures through an understanding of the ways in which communication is framed and organized (Unwin, 2009). The results are presented in form of selected quotes that reflect and represent the findings of this research, which are analyzed through the lens of the theory of communicative action.

    This research shows that the local political leaders in the Rwenzori region appreciate the increased demands from the citizens through ICTs. The research also reveals that ICTs have eased the communication between the local political leaders and their communities and therefore have contributed greatly to increase two-way-communication between the leaders and the citizens. But at the same time these local political leaders are also facing challenges when it comes to holding themselves accountable through the same channels. Some of these challenges are weak infrastructure, lack of skills and access to the ICTs themselves. One of the most notable findings that this research came across is the fact that hardly any of the local politician offices in the Rwenzori region has a budget targeted for communication with their communities. In conclusion this study reveals that leadership accountability in the Rwenzori region is improved through the use of ICTs, but an enabling environment is necessary if leadership accountability through ICTs is to be fully realized. 

    Looking at the results from this research through Habermas´s theory of communicative action has helped making visible not only the prospects of ICTs in democratic development, but also the challenges of using the same mediums.

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    Sarah Daleke, Undergraduate thesis
  • 33.
    Djalali Dehghani, Mina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lassfolk, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Mångfaldens omslag: En innehållsanalys av kulturell mångfald i bilderböcker på svenska riktade mot barn mellan 0-6 år.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to analyze cultural diversity in Swedish picture books for kids between the ages of 0-6. The project’s ambition was to contribute with further knowledge about representations of cultural diversity in children's literature. The project produced a proposal for how a series of picture book front pages that include cultural diversity can look in the current Swedish market.

    Previous studies in the children's literature field mainly focus on sex- and gender-related issues. It was therefore interesting to instead look at the subject of cultural diversity in children's literature because studies with this phenomenon as focus are lacking, especially in Sweden.

    The questions were:

    • What does the representation of cultural diversity look like in Swedish picture books aimed at children aged 0-6?
    • Which design elements have been applied most frequently on the covers of picture books aimed at children aged 0-6 in Sweden during the last 5 years?

    The project was based on the following theoretical frameworks: cultural diversity, children's learning, representation and semiotics, identification and identity, the visual research and design elements. Cultural diversity was used for a better understanding and defining of the issue. The children's learning was used to gain a deeper comprehension of the book's role in the child's life. Representation and semiotics were used to understand the connection between signs and the message they carry, as well as being able to get an accurate knowledge about signs from the analyzed covers for further applications. Identification & identity was used to understand how the representation of characters can affect the children. The visual research was used as a basis for the analysis of the covers. Design elements were used for a more detailed analysis  of  picture book cover’s selected parts.

    The method used for this study was a quantitative content analysis since it gave the opportunity to analyze a vast range of analysis units. The selection consisted of picture book covers in Swedish aimed at children aged 0-6. These books were selected randomly from the Karlstad city library's collection for the reason that these books are accessible  to the public.

    The analysis revealed that there is a lack of representation of darked skin characters, but the representation of dark-colored hair and light-colored hair were relatively equal. The results also showed that it was most common not to include character names or to have made-up names on the covers. Nevertheless when names were mentioned,  there was no clear connection between the name and cultural variation. Finally, the analysis showed that cultural symbols were barely represented, and in those few times that it was represented Christmas was the only theme. The result on the design elements showed that the most common general color was blue, the most common color of the title was red and the most frequent color of the rest of the text was black. All texts were generally written with the san-serif character family where the title was written in capitals and the rest of the text was written in lowercase letters. The overall of the text typographical was asymmetrical and the characters were generally placed in the middle of the page.

    The conclusions are that the representation of cultural diversity is to some extent included on the covers of the picture books, however there are plenty of areas in need of improvement. The most positive was the inclusion of different hair colors, otherwise more diversity aspects needed to be implemented, for example more characters with darker skin tones and names with diversal origins.

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  • 34.
    Engelbrektsson, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Säljande ideal: - En feministisk analys av influencer marketing på Instagram2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how women's ideals and values are reproduced on Instagram by examining how they are embodied in commercials that use influencer marketing. By analyzing and comparing the visual design with the verbally expressed within a paid collaboration, the questions can be answered: 1) What are the similarities and differences between the visual and the verbal presentation of women's ideals and values in paid influencer collaborations? 2) In what way do companies use influencers' stated ideals and values in advertising?

    The theoretical basis explains the creation of influencers, trust for influencers, in addition to a feminist theory, marketing, feminist gaze theory, Goffman's theory of gender representation and the design components. The study uses semiotic content analysis to analyze two commercials from the Swedish companies Aimn and Deodoc that uses influencer marketing published on Instagram. Then I compared the visual material with the verbal material in the form of the participating influencers' expressed opinions that they expressed in advertising for each company. In my analysis of the visual material, subordination and a sexualized image of the woman are frequent in the portrayal. Aimn's video frequently uses a camera angle from above and presents Nicole without a gaze which diminishes and subordinates her in relation to the observer. In Deodoc’s video, a neutral camera angle is used and Bianca is given a gaze that meets the camera, thus she owns her gaze and has equal power relationship to the viewer. Touch was used both to express fragility and strength in both commercials. In the verbal material, strong words and values which alluded to a proud and strong woman were used. Additionally, a value in being natural was expressed in the verbal material while the visual expressed a staging and the ideal of a fixed attractive woman. The results thus indicate that the two female influencers were portrayed differently in the visual and verbal portrayal.

    To answer the first question, it could be concluded that in Deodoc's video, the values are consistent even if the company prioritizes a visually attractive scene where Bianca is sexualized rather than portrayed as natural. Verbally, the campaign shows menstruation as something natural that no one should be ashamed of, but in the visual design, this is done attractively. In Aimn's video, the conclusion for the first question has been drawn that the video visually alludes to the body as an object while the influencer Nicole Falciani verbally speaks about the inside and what the body can do as the most important. To answer the second question about how companies use influencers' unique and trustworthy position in advertising, it has been concluded that these companies have used an influencer to create trust and confidence in the company and the message. 

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  • 35.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Kunskapscentrum för Katastrofpsykiatri (KcKP), Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet.
    Ett dubbelt trauma?: Medierapportering som stöd och belastning för överlevande efter olyckor och katastrofer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet ”Det dubbla traumat” var att undersöka interaktionen mellan journalister och drabbade, främst med utgångspunkt i överlevandes upplevelser av;(a) mötet med journalister på skadeplats och (b) medierapporteringen (publiceringarna), samt i förekommande fall egen medieexponering.

    De huvudsakliga teoretiska utgångspunkterna har hämtats från journalistikoch medieforskning rörande bland annat journalistiska arbetsvillkor specifikt vid katastrofrapportering, pressetik samt nyhetsförmedling, medielogik och nyheters dramaturgi. Från det psykotraumatologiska fältet har teorier om krisoch stressreaktioner stått för viktiga perspektiv, både när det gällt utformning av frågor och vid analys av resultat. Ett flertal metoder har tillämpats, däribland litteraturgenomgångar, innehållsanalyser, webb- och postenkäter samt kvalitativa intervjuer. Denna populärvetenskapliga sammanställning ger en skissartad översikt över resultaten från de olika undersökningarna.Projekttiteln antyder en hypotes, nämligen att medieexponering och interaktion med journalister direkt efter en traumatisk händelse potentiellt skulle kunna innebära ett dubbelt trauma för den överlevande. Är så fallet?Enligt projektets resultat är svaret på den frågan både ja och nej. För vissa drabbade individer, i vissa situationer, kan både journalisters agerande på skadeplats och den medierapportering som följer upplevas som ett sekundärttrauma. För andra kan mediernas agerande och publiceringar kan upplevas som ett stöd och ett bidrag till känslan av sammanhang. En kategori överlevande upplever mediernas aktiviteter i anslutning till den traumatiska händelsen som mer eller mindre försumbara. Hela spektret av upplevelser och erfarenheter finns således representerat, och här framträder en delikat uppgift för reportern eller fotografen på plats: att avgöra vem, när och var det kan vara lämpligt eller olämpligt att intervjua, fotografera och rapportera. De överlevandes syn på medierapporteringen förändras också över tid. Fler negativa reaktioner finns på journalistiken i akutskedet än på längre sikt.Reportage och inslag av uppföljande och förklarande karaktär beskriver deflesta drabbade i mer positiva termer än nyhetsrapporteringen i direkt anslutning till händelsen.

  • 36.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Growing into communicative and creative researchers: Swedish doctoral course helped 300 PhD students find their tone and voice in reaching out2023In: Pathfinders on a Mission: Exploring Engagement in a Complex World: Horizon Talk, Bolzano, Italy, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Educating future researchers in science communication is an important task for a university, and also of great societal relevance. At Karlstad University, Sweden, doctoral students have completed a postgraduate course, titled “Communicating science” for three decades. The course has centred on elements such as popular science writing, oral presentation techniques and media training. The extensive course evaluation survey has, among other things, given feedback on whether the course made the doctoral student better equipped to communicate research outside their own scientific field. This presentation reports on a study of evaluations submitted during a fifteen-year period by a total of 335 doctoral students in the fields of health, natural sciences, technology, humanities and social sciences. The results indicate that the doctoral course has been a successful model, contributing to the growth of the doctoral students, scientifically as well as communicatively.

  • 37. Englund, Liselotte
    Medieexponering av överlevande: stöd och belastning2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Arnberg, Filip K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Reporting under extreme conditions: journalists' experience of disaster coverage2023In: Frontiers in Communication, E-ISSN 2297-900X, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Media presence on site and reports on disasters are crucial parts of disaster communication. Aside from authorities, civil society, concerned businesses and citizens, the media constitute an important actor. The working conditions, situational competence and management among journalists on duty in a disaster area are important factors within the complex area of crisis management and disaster communication. This study aims to explore the working conditions, challenges, and coping strategies among journalists covering the Haiti earthquake in 2010.

    Methods: Ten months after the event, Scandinavian journalists (n = 32) provided free-text responses about their work on site through a web survey. The free- text responses underwent content analysis. In addition, self-report questionnaires were used to assess general mental health and posttraumatic stress.

    Results: We found that journalists faced five main challenges in Haiti: situational (technicalities, practical, collegial), professional (mission, approach, roles), personal (traits, emotions, coping), traumatic (general mental health and posttraumatic stress) and experiential (learning and growth). They described a difficult and challenging mission, but also an eye-opening and life-changing experience. Most respondents' questionnaire responses indicated low risk for both poor mental health and posttraumatic stress, with a few significant exceptions. Being properly equipped and mentally prepared, getting collegial support and maintaining professional focus were seen as important, and good leadership and clear instructions from editors at home were highlighted.

    Discussion: Corroboration of the present findings would strengthen our knowledge of their experiences, and may provide valuable insights for designing preparedness activities in the future as well as for applying to other communication functions in disasters.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Englund et al 2023 Reporting under extreme conditions: journalists' experience of disaster coverage
  • 39.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. P.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Researcher and Programme Director at the National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Riddez, Louis
    Reader and Surgeon at Karolinska University Hospital.
    Örtenwall, Per
    Senior Consultant Surgeon and Chief Emergency Medical Officer for the Västra Götaland region.
    The bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011: Kamedo report 972012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kamedo observer reports study the medical, psychological, organizational and social aspects of disasters. This report summaries experiences from the bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011. That may be valuable for the further development of the Swedish disaster preparedness system.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Kamedo_97
  • 40.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rönning, Helge
    Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon.
    Stenersen, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Kjerstin
    SADEV.
    Magnusson, Annika
    SADEV.
    Westberg, Sofia
    SADEV.
    Strategi för information och kommunikation – genomförande och effekter av verksamhet finansierad via Sida: SADEV REPORT 2012:22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 22 december 2011 fick Institutet för utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (SADEV) i uppdrag att utvärdera genomförande och effekter av den informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras via Sida (UF2011/76109/UD/USTYR).

    Regeringsuppdraget har genomförts i samarbete med Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Projektledare och huvudförfattare är fil dr Liselotte Englund.

    Utvärderingen belyser informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras av Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete, Sida, i enlighet med regeringens "Strategi för informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet, inklusive genom organisationer i det civila samhället 2010-2014" (UD2008/35922/USTYR) – infokomm-strategin. Syftet är att ge underlag för den fortsatta utvecklingen av verksamheten, inklusive regeringens styrning inom Sveriges internationella utvecklingssamarbete, i detta fall med fokus på informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten. Avsikten är också att göra en övergripande beskrivning av den verksamhet som har bedrivits inom ramen för anslagsposten, och av hur Sida genomför strategin med fokus på urval, reglering och uppföljning.

    Målet att den svenska allmänheten ska ha "… god kunskap om situationen i utvecklingsländer samt svenskt bistånd och dess resultat samt frågor som för utvecklingens drivkrafter i utvecklingsländer" betraktas av de flesta som omätbart. Det bidrar i sin tur till att frågan om effekter i informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten blir svårbesvarad. Strategin ger inte mycket vägledning gällande vad som avses med effekter i sammanhanget.

    Metoderna att mäta kostnadseffektivitet är bristfälliga. Ett ofta använt mått är kontaktkostnad. Detta mäter emellertid oftast bara exponeringsgrad eller uppmärksamhet, och mer sällan kunskapsökning. Huruvida den bild av biståndet som getts genom olika kanaler är korrekt och bred är svårt att bedöma mot bakgrund av befintliga undersökningar och mätmetoder.

    Strategin betraktas av de flesta berörda som icke ändamålsenlig, varför det också blir svårt att genomföra den på ett ändamålsenligt sätt. Många av Sidas kriterier och regler är svåra att tolka, mäta och följa upp. Hierarkin mellan olika styrdokument är mycket oklar, och budskapen inte alltid synkroniserade.

    En jämförelse av informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten perioden före och efter strategins införande ger vid handen att verksamhetens mål var tydligare före strategin. Även om det framstod som mer mätbart att redovisa måluppfyllelse avseende det dåvarande målet "ökat engagemang" så genererade rapporterna oftast generella kvantitativa mått som "visat intresse", "fullbokat" eller "nått många". Dagens målskrivning, att den svenska allmänheten ska ha god kunskap, framstår dock som ännu mer svårtmätbar och riskerar att i hög grad generera projekt som inte definierar effekter utan enbart rapporterar i termer av räckvidd och exponering.

    Rapporten utmynnar i rekommendationer inom ett antal områden, vilka preciseras närmare i rapporten:

    • en omarbetad strategi för information
    • ansvarfördelningen mellan SIDA och CSO
    • klargörande i opinionsbildningsfrågan
    • tydliggörande av strategier, policyer och planer
    • organisering av handläggningen på SIDA
    • informationsinsatsernas art
    • mer kostandseffektiva insatser
    • målgrupper
    • innehållsanalyser av medieutbudet
    • ansökningsförfarandet - fyra nya finansieringsformer
    • ökat krav på instruktioner för SIDA:s verksamhet
    • tydligare kravprofil för slutrapportering
    • transparens, CSO-databasen och Openaid.se
    • ökad metodkompetens
    • översyn av satsningen "nya aktörer"
    • en ny utvärdering tidigast hösten 2013

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Envall, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Arvidsson, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Wallmenius, Elina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Kristoffersson, Nora
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    The best you can get?: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys som belyser skillnader i Gillettes marknadsföring som riktar sig till kvinnor och män ur ett genusperspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research question is as follows:

    Have Gillette chosen to market their products from a gender perspective and if so,

    what are those differences?

     

    The purpose of the study is to compare the ways in which Gillette portrays the individual in their respective gender presentation. The theories used in this analysis come under the heading of  'gender theory' alongside 'feminist theory'. With these theories as a foundation this essay explores the differences between each Instagram account.

     

    In order to depict a fair and balanced overview, a systematic random selection has been used for each account type. The sample for this study included 100 images from the female account and 100 images from the male account. The research question has been analyzed using specific variables with associative values, all of which are directly based on previous research and are linked to the original question. When the study was completed, a large portion of the results were consistent with existing research, with some exceptions.

     

    In conclusion, the answer to the research question was; Yes, the individual accounts differ depending on which marketing group was targeted and it could be argued that Gillettes marketing is consistent with existing gender-related stereotypes of today’s society.

    However it is worth nothing that there were some occasions when the representations break from gender norms.

    Download full text (pdf)
    The best you can get?
    Download full text (pdf)
    Arkivfil
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Johansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Richardson, Clara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ur förövarens narrativ – svag och beskylld: En kritisk diskursanalys av Aftonbladets representation av kvinnliga våldtäktsoffer2023Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study examines the phenomenon of representation in the news media by analyzing how female rape victims are represented in the printed evening press in Sweden, from a critical discourse analysis perspective. Norman Fairclough's three-dimensional model is used to conduct the analysis in order to answer the case study's questions: “What lexical choices are used to construct female rape victims in Aftonbladet?” and “In what way are so-called rape myths challenged or reproduced in Aftonbladet's reporting on rape?” The analysis uses a framework to understand the underlying meanings of the text. The framework consists of framing theory, gender research and rape myths. The analysis is conducted on three levels of analysis based on Fairclough's model, using two analytical tools: use of lexical choices and the construction of the actor. The case study analyzes the linguistic choices made from a critical point of view to see the implicit meanings in the text. 

     

    When analyzing the first question of the case study, a number of categories were identified and then divided into three different themes: perpetrator's narrative, weak and blaming. In many articles, the female rape victim is minimally referred to and she is rather part of the perpetrator's story. The empirical material shows how the stereotypical gender roles are maintained through Aftonbladet's portrayal of the female rape victim as afraid, helpless and a victim of the superior man. Through the reporting, the woman is to some extent blamed for the rape, both explicitly and implicitly. The second question of the case study is answered using the results from the first question together with a deeper analysis on a third level. The results show that Aftonbladet's representation of rape and female rape victims has the potential to reproduce rape myths through their reporting. 

     

    The case study highlights the potential influence the media has on the societal understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, it discusses whether Aftonbladet, and news media, have the potential to influence and shape discourses in society about rape, victims and gender. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download full text (pdf)
    Arkivfil
  • 43.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Sweden's most appreciated employers: An evaluation of employer brand messages on three organisational career sites2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employer brand is the reputation that the organisation gains as an employer. The

    brand is a notion that is handled strategically, on long-term to attain competitive leverage

    over competition through persuasive methods to evoke awareness, trust and legitimacy

    among the organisations points of contact. The brand is the organisational channel for

    expressing what is unique and characteristic for a particular organisation, the

    organisational identity.

    The attention of, so called highly skilled individuals, is hard to get by - as of this there is

    a rightful reason for human resources as well as marketers to work together to create an

    employer brand that stands out and catches the attention of the talent pool. These

    communicative efforts are thus highly persuasive in their nature, as they are used to sway

    the individual’s perceptions of the organisation as being a good place to work, making

    the organisation an employer of choice.

    The selected cases for this study are Hennes & Mauritz, Netlight and King. Who, by

    2014 was the top three on Universum's Sweden’s most appreciated employers ranking. The

    study evaluates each organisations career site and their particular efforts, strategies and

    the representation of the organisational identity as being a good place to work. By this

    mode of evaluation, this study assesses the methods used by these organisations to

    address and in a sense fulfil prospective employees needs. By combining proposed

    benefits of employment with traditional modes of evaluating rhetoric messages, this

    study contributes to a contemporary reflection of the strategic methods used in employer

    brand messages.

    The results show that apparent strategies in the employer brand context consists of

    offering a wide array of benefits with themes such as development and rewards that are

    supported by ‘truthful’ praises from employees – which act as receipts of the

    employment experience. It is all about persuasion – they want you.

  • 44.
    Ersson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Dressed for success: En undersökning rörande enhetlig arbetsklädsel och dess roll för organisationsidentiteten2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Download full text (pdf)
    Dressed for succes
  • 45.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Participation in Flood risk Management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving interested parties in Flood Risk Management is a crucial and challenging issue. The implementation of the European Flood Directive requires the active participation of stakeholders. But how can this be achieved successfully? This publication gives a brief overview of participation issues in Flood Risk Management in order to prepare for and to assist participatory processes. It provides a synopsis of key issues, findings of literature research and project results in (public) participation in the field of water and flood risk management. 

    The focus here is on general aspects of (public) participation. This publication describes an understanding of what participation is and gives some definitions of relevant terms. Furthermore the question “why is participation important?” is considered and reasons for and against participation and potential barriers are described. Guidelines for the key questions that should be addressed before a participation process is started are offered and different working steps are explained. Finally, some examples of methods and tools for participation are described.

    However, this short description can only give an overview and orientation of this broad field. In fact, each project and process has to be adapted to the respective situation and conditions. Nevertheless, this brochure might contribute to the participatory process in Flood Risk Management and help to involve interested parties as required by the EU Floods Directive.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Coworking spaces as postdigital territories: Prospects and paradoxes of the (dis)connected workplace2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    (Dis)connected territories in the post-digital city2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Enter the post-digital housewife: Re-spatializing digital labour in the culture of disconnectivity2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Off the grid: Digital disconnection, technology and social space2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Post-digital capitalism and the disconnection turn in work2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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