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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Elise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pratbubblan: den röda tråden: En studie av Karlstads Stadsnäts visuella kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Karlstad City Fiber Network visual elements in the form of a pair of speech bubbles fit into the organization's holistic external communication and branding. The study examines whether Karlstad City Fiber Network image of the organization and the speech bubbles match the stakeholders view and how the visual elements are perceived and recognized by stakeholders. The theory associated with the study is theories of corporate visual identity, image, identity and branding and visual communication. These three elements are important to be aware of when a generation of an effective external communications. Qualitative interviews with employees at Karlstad City Fiber Network and Karlstad municipality has undertaken to give an idea of ​​what the organization wants to achieve and what their opinions are. Karlstad City Fiber Network wants stakeholders to perceive the brand building marketing records as playful, with a twinkle in his eye and inviting to dialogue while the direct information shall be straight and free of jargon. The organization wishes that stakeholders see them as a safe choice as well as local and accessible for inhabitants of Karlstad. Karlstad City Fiber Network sees it as a great advantage to be taken of Karlstad Municipality, which also welcomes the urban network is municipal. Through focus group interviews with Karlstad City Fiber Network stakeholders, the inhabitants of Karlstad, it has emerged that the speech bubbles is not recognized, but it is only when the speech bubbles is put into a context, such as newspaper or newsletter that it can be linked to anything that advocates the municipality of Karlstad and dialogue. It is concluded that corporate visual identity is the link between the visual and the context of an organization's marketing. Stakeholders see Karlstad City Fiber Network as a credible organization that is simple yet eye-catching newsletters, but believe that their marketing is somewhat vague and confusing.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Renhult, Elena
    Fräsch och strukturerad med attityd: Ett examensprojekt om tidningslayout2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractPresentation of the problem: The goal with this graduation project is to produce a new visual concept for the student newspaper Campus, this will be expressed in the form of page templates. The page templates will have a visual concept that appears through graphical elements. The client's wishes were that the student newspaper should be audience appropriate, attractive, inviting, reliable, modern and functional to work with.Theory: In order to implement the wishes and in a good way produce a consistent visual concept, we took a starting point in theory of graphic design. This theory has taken many of its principles from aesthetic theory, and therefore have we also used aesthetics to provide a deeper theoretical aspect. The principles we used in graphic design is; how to create a unity in the layout by using basic elements such as text, images, and white space. We have also looked at alignment-, form-, color-, contrast-, typography- and placement principles. The principles we have applied from aesthetics are color repetition, color contrasts, balance, visual harmony and depth.Method: The empirical studies consisted of a qualitative content analysis of student newspapers, followed by a focus-group study with respondents from the Campus newspaper target group. The purpose of the two studies was to, via a content analysis, get a general picture of the design language that is used on the market today. This, combined with theory, helped us to create a visual expression that stands outside the general form. It was done in four different dummies, these dummies were discussed by the focus-group.Results: Our first empirical study showed how student newspapers are designed today. With support of theory, the functioning principles was sorted out and used in the four dummies. During the focus-group analysis, opinions about the dummies were presented. We could therefore see what the respondents wanted in the page templates. Together with the client's wishes and analysis from the empirical studies, a new concept developed. It will be perceived as clean and structured together with attitude.

  • 3.
    Adams, Paul C
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Communication Geography: A Bridge Between Disciplines2012In: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Asp, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ett främjande verktyg: En kvantitativ studie om institutionaliserad feedback2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines the members' relationship with feedback within two institutions, the Department of Geography, Media and Communication (GMK) and the Department of Educational Studies (IPS) at Karlstad University. Feedback is a communication tool used to promote organizational development. This individual development is essential for a university's business because of its members knowledge and skills are one of its most important assets. The importance of this kind of communication is manifested in the university's institutionalization of feedback and how it is integrated into the work routines. The problem area is comprised of how these institutions differ in the structure in relation to the classical hierarchical business structure, with a clear ranking between boss and employee, focusing on the role of feedback in this type of organization. Research that focuses specifically on this type of structure within an organization is currently underrepresented and therefore creates a research hole. The purpose of the paper is to examine the two mentioned institutions with a focus on feedback, its institutionalization and its integration into the work routines, and how the members relate to this process. To investigate the impact of this institutionalization of feedback, the following three questions were created:  How is criticism conducted within an organization where feedback is institutionalized?  How does the view of feedback differ from these institutions compared with companies with a classical hierarchical organizational structure? How does organizational culture affect the ability but also the willingness to criticize and to give and receive feedback? In order to answer these questions, relevant prior research in the area has been identified. The different theories chosen relate to five different factors: Channel selection, leadership, relationships, organizational culture and feedback, all of which are directly linked to the research area. Examples of these theories are Information Richness Theory (IRT) that emphasizes how different communication channels should be applied. Leader membership exchange theory (LMX) and Conceptual model of employee questions emphasize how personal relationships affect communication and how leadership structure within an organization affects feedback. An additional central component of how members relate to feedback is the organizational culture. This culture can be broken into three different categories; identification, trust and dedication. They all have an impact on the feedback process and should therefore be taken into account. Research related to feedback can also be found in the previous research section. The application of a survey gave the opportunity to draw general conclusions about the population. The questions in the questionnaire are anchored in the previous research and are operationalized in relation to the three research questions. The collected data showed that the institutionalization of feedback has a predominantly positive effect on members' relation to this. The members of the institution generally have strong and prosperous relationships with their colleagues and leaders. Members feel that they can freely express their views regardless of their professional position, and these views are respected, which is a consequence of the strong trust they have for their colleagues and leaders. Identification to the institutions is generally strong, which affects the members' commitment and the willingness to develop. Feedback requires a channel that can transmit complex information, which will simultaneously enable two-way communication and be personalized to achieve the desired effect. This relates to the institutions and feedback is transmitted primarily orally. This result shows that a thoughtful attitude to feedback has a major impact on the organization's activities.

  • 5.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communication without borders: A quantitative study on how mobility and a cosmopolitan self-identity affect Swedish expatriates communication patterns with friends.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how Swedish voluntary migrants communicate with friends in three different groups: friends that resides in the same country as the respondent currently lives in, friends in Sweden, friends in other countries around the globe and whether or not individual mobility, demographic factors or a sense of global citizenship affect the chosen mean of communication. The reason behind the study is to introduce a previously unstudied area into the field of geographically based media studies and hopefully contribute to a deeper understanding of the role played by different means of communication in shaping the dynamics of global friendship. The theoretical approach in this study will be from three different outlooks, migration, polymedia (including the second-level digital divide) and cosmopolitanism.

    The study is based on data from the Institute for Society, Opinion and Media (SOM) and their survey questionnaire sent out to Swedish expatriates during fall 2014 / winter 2015, also known as Utlands-SOM. The total number of respondents are 2268. The study starts with basic frequencies to find out which media that are the most prominent, then binary logistic regressions have been made. The total number of dependent variables are 21 and these have then been analysed from seven independent variables; age, gender, education, travel patterns, years spent abroad, number of countries lived in and whether or not the respondent consider himself/herself being a cosmopolitan. This generates a total of seven tables (one for each media) with three models in each (contact with friends in current country of residency, contact with friends in Sweden and contact with friends in other parts of the world).

    Amongst Swedish expatriates, e-mail and Facebook are the two most popular media for keeping in touch with friends, regardless of the friends location. The most significant demographic variable is age. Usage of video call, text message, chat, Facebook and other social media tend to decrease with age. Every year spent abroad decreases the communication with friends in Sweden, but increases the communication in the current country of residency. The number of countries lived in have a positive effect on communication with friends in other parts of the world. Cosmopolitan self-identity is found to be most significant when communicating with friends in other parts of the world, and it also affects e-mail the most. Level of education, which in previous studies have been found closely linked to a cosmopolitan identity, is found to have no significant correlation. Arguably, this is explained by the other means of communications negative relationship with the variable.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Är vi vänner på Facebook?: En fallstudie om en icke-vinstdrivande organisations relationsbyggande på Facebook2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a big part of people's daily lives and therefore provides a great opportunity for organizations and businesses to reach out to more people. Although organizations have had a few years to find strategies adapted to social media, there are still many who see it as another channel to merely informing and market instead of using it to create relationships with the audience. This essay aims therefore to examine how Friends, who is a non-profit organization, communicate on Facebook to build and nurture relationships with their audiences. A relationship between the organization and the audience are based on a shared interest in each other and a mutual commitment. The study is based on theories of social media, engagement, dialogue and relationship-building communications to create a greater understanding of how a not-for-profit organisation use Facebook as a relationship-building communications channel. The methods used in the study is a quantitative content analysis to get an overall picture of the content of Friends Facebook page and the way it engages the audience and a qualitative content analysis to deeper analyze how Friends communicates to create relationship and engage their audience and how they handle the dialogue in the comment field. With the help of the methods, Friends Facebook page where studied in the form of posts, comments to posts, likes, shares, and answers to comments. The results of the analysis show that Friends partly are using Facebook to reach out with information about the organization and its purpose, but also use Facebook to engage the audiences in different ways. This is done by, among other things, encourage the audience to go out and contribute to a better society themselves and through entertaining and gratifying message that is linked to the organization's values. Friends uses many relationship-building elements in posts like giving thanks and recognize the audience, personal addressing and emotionally charged words. They also treat different kinds of comments in a way that is tailored to the commentary, which means that they mimic a real dialogue. In many of the comments Friends uses a personal approach and a personal signature that facilitates continued dialogue.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Cullberg, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Jag Twittrar för Er: Nytänkande och ambassadörskap i medielandskapet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The projects purpose it to find out if the mediation has changed the work with Sweden as a brand.

    Issues: The main question this paper is based on is: How has the modern medialization changed VisitSweden's work with Sweden's brand?

    To answer the main question in a simpler way we will be using several sub queries as follows:

    What strategies does VisitSweden use to brand Sweden on Twitter?

    What are VisitSweden’s views on Social Medias?

    What does the image building look like on the Twitter channel @sweden when it comes to the brand Sweden?

    How has the use of curators democratized the work on the project Curators of Sweden?

    Theory: The theories in the essay are based on Nation branding, Public Diplomacy and Medialization with the weight on Public Diplomacy. Besides these theories the essay includes the theories of Public Relations and Public sphere that will be used to some extent.

    Method: The paper has investigated the Twitter channel @sweden's news flow through a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. It will also analyse the document Sverigebilden using a qualitative content analysis and document analysis, in the end, a qualitative interview with VisitSweden's Head of Social Media.

    Results: The survey reveals a nuanced way to which a Twitter channel can promote a country as a brand and how to utilise spokespersons to make it happen. VisitSweden shows how, through preparation and monitoring, all Public Relations can become good Public Relations. By being an early adopter of the medium, VisitSweden have been able to create interest through innovation and breaking new ground. It has since implemented a well controlled project that supports the brand through the use of core values that have been set in advance.

  • 8.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Outdoor recreation in times of change2012In: Outdoor Recreation in Change - current knowledge and future challenges: Proceedings of the 6th InternationalConference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 110-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Björemo, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Har storleken betydelse?: Om att kombinera text och bild i reklamannonser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Blom, Madeleine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jernfält, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    TYPISK FOODIE: Projektrapport för skapandet av magasinet FOODIE2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses typography and image connected to the creation of the food magazine FOODIE. Based on the research that is now available on typography we ask questions about why research on readability is overrepresented in this area? We are putting typography in a context of semiotics, denotation and connotation and based on that we put together a magazine that appeal to and influence the specific target group that is discussed in the end the report.

    The report is dealing with scientific theories about typography and conventions but is also based on the qualitative survey where typography is examined on the basis of the target groups feelings and preferences. The entire project is composed in consent by Madeleine Blom and Frida Jernfält.

    The magazine that has been created in this project is aimed for the target group called Foodies, people that despite age and gender has a genuine interest in gastronomy, food and culinary experiences. The target group is also interested in cooking for themselves as well as experience the food from professionals.

    The project study consisted of qualitative interviews with a sample of the target group. The product has also been tested on a focus group during the implementation phase where questions of sense, readability, design and visual communication were made and discussed by the respondents.

    The purpose of the project FOODIE is to find out which typographic and graphic qualities that appeal to or affect our target groups choices between different food magazines. The project also intends to answer how typography can be understood from other aspects than just readability and to add a way to explore typography, within research, more similar to the one presented in the profession where form, feeling and impact of major extent been included in the concept.

  • 11.
    Boström, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Journalister, en överflödig yrkesroll?: En kvalitativ studie om den förändrade lokaljournalistens yrkesroll.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on central theories within journalism in an organization. Highlighted theories will we news evaluation, what issues makes it into news. Organization is driven by different goals, the economic goal and the publicist goals. How does the organization work with these goals joined with what the audience want from the organization when the audience has new possibilities to contribute through citizen’s journalism and participatory journalism? Is it possible to se the media user as a threat to or an extra asses for the news organisation when, according to citizen journalism anyone can call them self a journalism without any specific education.

    The result will be presented from eight qualitative interviews with journalist on local newspapers in Sweden. This is to present how the journalist perceives the changes in journalism as a profession. How do they see the citizen journalists, as an extra recourse or a threat?

    After guidance through central research and preformed Interviews the essay comes to the conclusion that the role as a journalism in not an excessive role. The work that a journalist produces is important and it is necessary which source the news comes from. 

  • 12.
    Cever, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Huuhka, Tiina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    #Godaremat: En studie om hur en reklamkampanj för ett ekologiskt varumärke kan utformas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att fördjupa oss i hur teori, metod och beprövad erfarenhet kan användas vid utformandet av en reklamkampanj. Vi har använt de kunskaper vi fick till att sammanställa en reklamkampanj åt uppdragsgivaren Zest som är en ekologisk matbar i Karlstad. Målet med kampanjen var att visa upp deras unika utbud av mat. För att vi skulle kunna utforma en kampanj som var både visuellt attraktiv och kunde nå ut till tänkbara kunder på bästa sätt grundades kampanjen i både teori om grafisk formgivning och dess principer. De principer vi använde inom grafisk formgivning var layout, bilder och bildkomposition samt typografi. Grafisk formgivning har hämtat många av sina principer från estetiken och därför använde vi oss även av estetiken som grund. Utöver dessa har vi använt oss av teorier om varumärke och identitet då uppdragsgivaren är väldigt måna om sitt varumärke och vill kontinuerligt jobba för att utveckla och göra det starkare. För att ha en teoretisk grund till budskapet i kampanjbilderna har vi även använt studerat hur man skriver för reklam. Vi har även studerat kommunikationskanaler och hur vi bör använda dessa för att nå ut till målgruppen. Utöver teorin och erfarenheter, grundas valet av kommunikationskanal samt budskapet i kampanjen på den empiriska undersökningen som utfördes i samband med projektet. Vi utförde en kvantitativ målgruppsundersökning i form av enkät med huvudsyfte att undersöka vad målgruppen har för matpreferenser samt vad som får dem att besöka en restaurang. Målgruppsundersökningen visade att målgruppen inte följer någon specifik kosthållning men tycker att ekologisk, fairtrade och närodlad/nyproducerad mat är viktig när de besöker en restaurang. Tillsammans med målgruppsundersökningens resultat och teorierna kunde vi utforma kampanjbilder som kan locka till sig kunder från dem närliggande platserna och samtidigt visa upp Zests unika utbud. 

  • 13.
    Christensen, Miyase
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Discursively Shaping the Environment: Swedish National and Regional Media Coverage of The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen2012In: Communication @ the Center / [ed] Steve Jones, ICA , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Christensen, Miyase
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Online mediations in transnational spaces: cosmopolitan (re)formations of belonging and identity in the Turkish diaspora2012In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 888-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lives of transnational groups and individuals are marked by a spatial and imaginary split: a phenomenon wherein identity, belonging and representation have become increasingly elusive concepts, and the realm of the ‘cultural’ vastly important. And, the theoretical compasses of cosmopolitanism and transnationalism are particularly relevant and illuminating in considering social space, mediated communication and belonging in relation to urban diasporic communities and gendered subjectivities. The aim of this paper is to address expressions of identity and belonging at the intersection of online communicative practice and offline spatial formations, with a focus on the specificities of gendered constructions of sociality and subjectivity in the diaspora

  • 15.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Interveillance, Complicit Surveillance and the Question of Cosmopolitanism: Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatization2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Christensen, Miyase
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Encapsulated vs. the Cosmopolitan Self? : Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Mediatized Communication and Complicit Surveillance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediatization refers to a meta-process whereby social life in its totality is (re)embedded in and saturated with mediated processes. This paper addresses the relationship between two theoretically diverging, yet socially intertwined, realms pertaining to various mediatization patterns: cosmopolitanism and surveillance. Mediatization implies increasing opportunities for ‘extending the self’, experienced in terms of mediated proximity, immediacy and boundary transgression – ultimately sustaining a more cosmopolitan outlook of the world. Yet, mediatization also brings growing opportunities for securitization, boundary control and social encapsulation, on behalf of societal institutions as well as individuals and groups. Contemporary forms and extensions of surveillance and cosmopolitanism are increasingly interwoven through the meta-process of mediatization, most recently the social saturation of converging ‘social’ media. This paper suggests that phenomenology, as a heuristic tool, offers a well-contextualized and grounded socio-cultural perspective to grasp the everyday dimensions and subjective moral positionalities ensuing from increased mediatization and related openings and closures

  • 17.
    Dahlberg, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Forslund, Elsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Tolv år av professionalisering: En kvalitativ studie av Sverigedemokraternas professionalisering av valaffischer.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Election posters are an old traditional medium for political parties to reach out with their communication. Despite the new approaches to reach out with political communication thanks to digitalization, election posters are still a relevant medium despite having been used for a long time. Sverigedemokraterna are a relatively "young" party. They became interesting for this study as they have their roots in nazism and therefrom quickly grew to become Sweden's third largest party.

    This study presents an analysis of Sverigedemokraterna’s professionalization of electionposters during the electoral campaigns 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. A total of fifteen electionposters were analyzed, all of which were included in Sverigedemokraterna’s electioncampaigns during four different electoral movements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of professionalization of politics for Sverigedemokraterna’s visualpolitical communication, in form of their election posters. From this, questions at issue were formulated to answer the purpose: How has the communication through election posters from Sverigdemokraterna changed from 2006 to 2018? and How has the professionalization of visual political communication shown in Sverigedemokraternas election posters?

    The election posters in this study are processed on the basis of a qualitative textanalysis and with focus on one party. The qualitative textanalysis is based on a semiotic analysis, where a analysis model is used. The analysis model is a composition of 5 themes, 14 categories and 1 subcategory. The results of the study have primarily been analyzed with the help of previous research by Nicklas Håkansson, Bengt Johansson and Orla Vigsø (2014), who are often seen as references in connection with studies of election posters. The theories of political communication and professionalization form the basis of this study.

    The result of the analysis has been applied to a four time period in the development of the election posters and the conclusion shows that Sverigedemokraterna has gone through a

    change in the professionalization of election posters between 2006 and 2018, though for shorter periods than the four time periods of election posters. It is a change that has been adapted in line with developments in society, including in the form of digital development and the development of specialist professions in marketing and visual communication. The professionalization has also shown through the normalization of the party. The change inSverigedemokraterna’s communication in election posters has among other things been shown in their use of clear messages and strong opinions in their election posters to that their message has become more and more abstract and that they no longer need to argue for their cause. Their opinions have been normalized to the point that they no longer need to convince voters and other parties with their election posters.

  • 18.
    Daleke, Sarah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communicative Democracy: Developing leadership accountability through ICTs: A qualitative case study from the Rwenzori region in western Uganda2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for citizen engagement in democracy around the world today, especially in the developing world. Events such as the Arab Spring show the potential ICTs can have on citizen engagement with those in leadership positions. Many studies have been conducted within the field of ICT4D (Information Communication Technologies for Development) in many different areas. But few studies have been done within the field of ICT4D that have focused on what happens with the local politicians´ situation in developing countries, when the citizens in these areas become digitally engaged. For a community to develop all levels within the community need to be developed and empowered, because if the local leaders do not have the tools or the incentive to meet the citizens demands then the wanted requirements cannot take place. Effective democratic and open government depends on closing the feedback loop between citizens and government (Making All Voices Count, 2014).

     

    The aim of this study is to get an understanding of the local politicians´ situation in Rwenzori region in western Uganda, as the citizens in this region successively have started to demand much more accountability from their leaders through ICTs.

    The main question guiding this study is:

    How are local political leaders in developing countries coping with citizens who are increasingly using ICT4D tools for leadership accountability?

    With the sub-questions being:

    How have ICTs changed the communication between the local political leaders and the citizens?

    Do the local political leaders have the ICT skills, tools and means they need to meet the digitally engaged citizens?

    Is leadership accountability improved through the use of ICTs?

    To conduct this study I have used qualitative interviews. And the main theory applied is Jürgen Habermas´s theory of communicative action. In essence Habermas’s theory tries to explain the social structures through an understanding of the ways in which communication is framed and organized (Unwin, 2009). The results are presented in form of selected quotes that reflect and represent the findings of this research, which are analyzed through the lens of the theory of communicative action.

    This research shows that the local political leaders in the Rwenzori region appreciate the increased demands from the citizens through ICTs. The research also reveals that ICTs have eased the communication between the local political leaders and their communities and therefore have contributed greatly to increase two-way-communication between the leaders and the citizens. But at the same time these local political leaders are also facing challenges when it comes to holding themselves accountable through the same channels. Some of these challenges are weak infrastructure, lack of skills and access to the ICTs themselves. One of the most notable findings that this research came across is the fact that hardly any of the local politician offices in the Rwenzori region has a budget targeted for communication with their communities. In conclusion this study reveals that leadership accountability in the Rwenzori region is improved through the use of ICTs, but an enabling environment is necessary if leadership accountability through ICTs is to be fully realized. 

    Looking at the results from this research through Habermas´s theory of communicative action has helped making visible not only the prospects of ICTs in democratic development, but also the challenges of using the same mediums.

  • 19.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Kunskapscentrum för Katastrofpsykiatri (KcKP), Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet.
    Ett dubbelt trauma?: Medierapportering som stöd och belastning för överlevande efter olyckor och katastrofer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet ”Det dubbla traumat” var att undersöka interaktionen mellan journalister och drabbade, främst med utgångspunkt i överlevandes upplevelser av;(a) mötet med journalister på skadeplats och (b) medierapporteringen (publiceringarna), samt i förekommande fall egen medieexponering.

    De huvudsakliga teoretiska utgångspunkterna har hämtats från journalistikoch medieforskning rörande bland annat journalistiska arbetsvillkor specifikt vid katastrofrapportering, pressetik samt nyhetsförmedling, medielogik och nyheters dramaturgi. Från det psykotraumatologiska fältet har teorier om krisoch stressreaktioner stått för viktiga perspektiv, både när det gällt utformning av frågor och vid analys av resultat. Ett flertal metoder har tillämpats, däribland litteraturgenomgångar, innehållsanalyser, webb- och postenkäter samt kvalitativa intervjuer. Denna populärvetenskapliga sammanställning ger en skissartad översikt över resultaten från de olika undersökningarna.Projekttiteln antyder en hypotes, nämligen att medieexponering och interaktion med journalister direkt efter en traumatisk händelse potentiellt skulle kunna innebära ett dubbelt trauma för den överlevande. Är så fallet?Enligt projektets resultat är svaret på den frågan både ja och nej. För vissa drabbade individer, i vissa situationer, kan både journalisters agerande på skadeplats och den medierapportering som följer upplevas som ett sekundärttrauma. För andra kan mediernas agerande och publiceringar kan upplevas som ett stöd och ett bidrag till känslan av sammanhang. En kategori överlevande upplever mediernas aktiviteter i anslutning till den traumatiska händelsen som mer eller mindre försumbara. Hela spektret av upplevelser och erfarenheter finns således representerat, och här framträder en delikat uppgift för reportern eller fotografen på plats: att avgöra vem, när och var det kan vara lämpligt eller olämpligt att intervjua, fotografera och rapportera. De överlevandes syn på medierapporteringen förändras också över tid. Fler negativa reaktioner finns på journalistiken i akutskedet än på längre sikt.Reportage och inslag av uppföljande och förklarande karaktär beskriver deflesta drabbade i mer positiva termer än nyhetsrapporteringen i direkt anslutning till händelsen.

  • 20. Englund, Liselotte
    Medieexponering av överlevande: stöd och belastning2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. P.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Researcher and Programme Director at the National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Riddez, Louis
    Reader and Surgeon at Karolinska University Hospital.
    Örtenwall, Per
    Senior Consultant Surgeon and Chief Emergency Medical Officer for the Västra Götaland region.
    The bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011: Kamedo report 972012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kamedo observer reports study the medical, psychological, organizational and social aspects of disasters. This report summaries experiences from the bomb attack in Oslo and the shootings at Utøya, 2011. That may be valuable for the further development of the Swedish disaster preparedness system.

  • 22.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rönning, Helge
    Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon.
    Stenersen, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Kjerstin
    SADEV.
    Magnusson, Annika
    SADEV.
    Westberg, Sofia
    SADEV.
    Strategi för information och kommunikation – genomförande och effekter av verksamhet finansierad via Sida: SADEV REPORT 2012:22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 22 december 2011 fick Institutet för utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (SADEV) i uppdrag att utvärdera genomförande och effekter av den informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras via Sida (UF2011/76109/UD/USTYR).

    Regeringsuppdraget har genomförts i samarbete med Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Projektledare och huvudförfattare är fil dr Liselotte Englund.

    Utvärderingen belyser informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras av Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete, Sida, i enlighet med regeringens "Strategi för informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet, inklusive genom organisationer i det civila samhället 2010-2014" (UD2008/35922/USTYR) – infokomm-strategin. Syftet är att ge underlag för den fortsatta utvecklingen av verksamheten, inklusive regeringens styrning inom Sveriges internationella utvecklingssamarbete, i detta fall med fokus på informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten. Avsikten är också att göra en övergripande beskrivning av den verksamhet som har bedrivits inom ramen för anslagsposten, och av hur Sida genomför strategin med fokus på urval, reglering och uppföljning.

    Målet att den svenska allmänheten ska ha "… god kunskap om situationen i utvecklingsländer samt svenskt bistånd och dess resultat samt frågor som för utvecklingens drivkrafter i utvecklingsländer" betraktas av de flesta som omätbart. Det bidrar i sin tur till att frågan om effekter i informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten blir svårbesvarad. Strategin ger inte mycket vägledning gällande vad som avses med effekter i sammanhanget.

    Metoderna att mäta kostnadseffektivitet är bristfälliga. Ett ofta använt mått är kontaktkostnad. Detta mäter emellertid oftast bara exponeringsgrad eller uppmärksamhet, och mer sällan kunskapsökning. Huruvida den bild av biståndet som getts genom olika kanaler är korrekt och bred är svårt att bedöma mot bakgrund av befintliga undersökningar och mätmetoder.

    Strategin betraktas av de flesta berörda som icke ändamålsenlig, varför det också blir svårt att genomföra den på ett ändamålsenligt sätt. Många av Sidas kriterier och regler är svåra att tolka, mäta och följa upp. Hierarkin mellan olika styrdokument är mycket oklar, och budskapen inte alltid synkroniserade.

    En jämförelse av informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten perioden före och efter strategins införande ger vid handen att verksamhetens mål var tydligare före strategin. Även om det framstod som mer mätbart att redovisa måluppfyllelse avseende det dåvarande målet "ökat engagemang" så genererade rapporterna oftast generella kvantitativa mått som "visat intresse", "fullbokat" eller "nått många". Dagens målskrivning, att den svenska allmänheten ska ha god kunskap, framstår dock som ännu mer svårtmätbar och riskerar att i hög grad generera projekt som inte definierar effekter utan enbart rapporterar i termer av räckvidd och exponering.

    Rapporten utmynnar i rekommendationer inom ett antal områden, vilka preciseras närmare i rapporten:

    • en omarbetad strategi för information
    • ansvarfördelningen mellan SIDA och CSO
    • klargörande i opinionsbildningsfrågan
    • tydliggörande av strategier, policyer och planer
    • organisering av handläggningen på SIDA
    • informationsinsatsernas art
    • mer kostandseffektiva insatser
    • målgrupper
    • innehållsanalyser av medieutbudet
    • ansökningsförfarandet - fyra nya finansieringsformer
    • ökat krav på instruktioner för SIDA:s verksamhet
    • tydligare kravprofil för slutrapportering
    • transparens, CSO-databasen och Openaid.se
    • ökad metodkompetens
    • översyn av satsningen "nya aktörer"
    • en ny utvärdering tidigast hösten 2013

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Sweden's most appreciated employers: An evaluation of employer brand messages on three organisational career sites2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employer brand is the reputation that the organisation gains as an employer. The

    brand is a notion that is handled strategically, on long-term to attain competitive leverage

    over competition through persuasive methods to evoke awareness, trust and legitimacy

    among the organisations points of contact. The brand is the organisational channel for

    expressing what is unique and characteristic for a particular organisation, the

    organisational identity.

    The attention of, so called highly skilled individuals, is hard to get by - as of this there is

    a rightful reason for human resources as well as marketers to work together to create an

    employer brand that stands out and catches the attention of the talent pool. These

    communicative efforts are thus highly persuasive in their nature, as they are used to sway

    the individual’s perceptions of the organisation as being a good place to work, making

    the organisation an employer of choice.

    The selected cases for this study are Hennes & Mauritz, Netlight and King. Who, by

    2014 was the top three on Universum's Sweden’s most appreciated employers ranking. The

    study evaluates each organisations career site and their particular efforts, strategies and

    the representation of the organisational identity as being a good place to work. By this

    mode of evaluation, this study assesses the methods used by these organisations to

    address and in a sense fulfil prospective employees needs. By combining proposed

    benefits of employment with traditional modes of evaluating rhetoric messages, this

    study contributes to a contemporary reflection of the strategic methods used in employer

    brand messages.

    The results show that apparent strategies in the employer brand context consists of

    offering a wide array of benefits with themes such as development and rewards that are

    supported by ‘truthful’ praises from employees – which act as receipts of the

    employment experience. It is all about persuasion – they want you.

  • 24.
    Ersson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Dressed for success: En undersökning rörande enhetlig arbetsklädsel och dess roll för organisationsidentiteten2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Participation in Flood risk Management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving interested parties in Flood Risk Management is a crucial and challenging issue. The implementation of the European Flood Directive requires the active participation of stakeholders. But how can this be achieved successfully? This publication gives a brief overview of participation issues in Flood Risk Management in order to prepare for and to assist participatory processes. It provides a synopsis of key issues, findings of literature research and project results in (public) participation in the field of water and flood risk management. 

    The focus here is on general aspects of (public) participation. This publication describes an understanding of what participation is and gives some definitions of relevant terms. Furthermore the question “why is participation important?” is considered and reasons for and against participation and potential barriers are described. Guidelines for the key questions that should be addressed before a participation process is started are offered and different working steps are explained. Finally, some examples of methods and tools for participation are described.

    However, this short description can only give an overview and orientation of this broad field. In fact, each project and process has to be adapted to the respective situation and conditions. Nevertheless, this brochure might contribute to the participatory process in Flood Risk Management and help to involve interested parties as required by the EU Floods Directive.

  • 26.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Selling (the idea of) mediatization: Contemporary technology discourse and the indispensability of mobile media in work/life2017In: NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatization research has informed us about the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatization is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatization has been explicated e.g. by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatization studies that consider the economic interests of mediatization stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this paper scrutinizes what the alleged ‘mobility revolution’ entails according to some of those who would benefit the most from such a revolution. More concretely, the paper studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei, and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatization theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the paper asks: if mobile media changes ‘everything’ in life – whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are ‘indispensable’ to modern ways of living – what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the paper speaks to the theme of this special issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatization is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: ‘technologies of cosmos’, ‘technologies of self’, and, ultimately, ‘technologies of life’. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatization by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern – notably, urban and privileged – lives. In addition to providing answers to the study’s empirical questions, the paper includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatization theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the ‘discursive turn’ in mediatization studies.

  • 27.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

    The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

  • 28.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hierarchical channels: Conflicts of communication in crisis environments in Ghana2013In: Why should I trust you? Challenges for communication in times of crisis, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of trust is of vital importance in crisis environments. In developing countries, where vulnerabilities, threats, and risks are higher, establishing proper channels of communication that can generate trust in the population are even more important. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the channels of communication during a crisis situation in Ghana, and to assess the degree of trust generated while transmitting the information. To address this call, this study examines the role of trust in citizens in the social structures and hierarchical settings through a series of interviews with crisis managers from the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO). The results of this study show that while government officials convey information to the public through all means possible, a large amount of the population decide not to follow the recommendations, and large communities need to be addressed through their chiefs, and not individually. The trust in the local chief as communities feel reluctant to follow a distant governmental agency, makes the relationship with the chiefs of outmost importance, as they become the sole channel of communication with communities and settlements in some developing countries.

  • 29.
    Gille, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Cedergren, Oliwer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Frysdisketiken: Vikten av att kommunicera Corporate Social Responsibility inom livsmedelsbranschen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to explore the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the food industry. We have decided to focus on how five different ethical labels are communicated towards students and the standpoint of the study is the students understanding of the communication. The labels that we have chosen to examine in the study are KRAV, Fairtrade, Svanen, Ekologiskt Jordbruk and Rainforest Alliance. The primary research question in the study is

    ” How are the students purchase behavior affected by ethical labels in the food industry?”.

    Throughout the study we will refer to CSR-products as products are stamped with one or several of the named ethical labels. The study also contains one sub-question that will help to support the main research question and provide the study with a broader base. You will find the sub-question below.

    ”To what extend does the students understand the communication of the ethical labels?”

    The theories that we will use in this essay are ”Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)”, ”Brands”, ”Social Identity” and ”Encoding/Decoding”. CSR will be used as the main theory for this essay. The reason for this is that not only is it a theory but also the main topic that we investigate in this essay. We use branding as a theory because we want to examine if the communication from the labels affects students.  Social Identity is used to explore if the students at Karlstad University chose products with ethical labels because of trends and a feeling of belonging with specific groups. Encoding/Decoding is used to analyze and understand the communication of the ethical labels between the ethical labels and the students.

    We have chosen to use a Webb survey in our study to gather empirical data. The survey has been available for the population on Karlstad universities study platform “It’ s Learnings” homepage during two weeks.

    The result of the survey displays that the area of concern that the respondents believe is the most important is the environment and labor conditions.  The link that we see here is that KRAV, Fairtrade and Svanen all have high demands on environmental and labor condition-initiatives if a product should be allowed to carry their label. This means that this two area of concern is most important for the students. We can also see from the result that KRAV, Fairtrade and Svanen are the labels that are most visible in commercials and food stores. The research displays that friends together with social media are the channels where the students understand the highest amount of communication from ethicals labels work. We can also see in the result that quality is the most valued feature regarding products in the food industry. Quality is also one of the most important features for the products that are approved by the ethical labels presented in this study.

    The most notable result is that the students valued the labels but the ethical values did not always lead to a direct purchase. The result also pointed out that the reason for not always leaded to a purchase is different kinds of difficulties. The communication reaches the students but sees as deficient and has to develop to reach its full potential. 

  • 30. Gunnarsson, Katarina
    Kroppen är vårt ankare i världen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Handler, Reinhard Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Collaborative media practices: A critical perspective in search of an explanation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of »collaborative media« (Löwgren & Reimer 2013) promotes digital media as enabling practices that turn the passive audience into active media producers. Collaboration receives an overly positive connotation accompanied by grand claims of democratisation, equality, proactive participation and community building.

     

    This paper adopts a critical perspective by exploring some of the problematic issues that arise with this optimistic consensus. The logic of collaborative media practices are discussed along these four major points:

    1. Top-down systems are believed to be replaced by collaborative networks that neglect strict hierarchies and are built on ‘trust and long-term cooperation’ (Benkler 2011:1). Do collaborative media practices promote a Post-Fordist model of cooperation in a bureaucratic setting? Or do collaborative practices particularly thrive in project-based settings with a strong emphasis on working together for a limited, and often short, amount of time?

    2. Alongside collaboration, participation (Jenkins 2009) has become a key concept of innovative media practice. Do the terms participation and collaboration express the same idea of users becoming producers (Bruns 2008)? Or do collaborative media practices with its emphasis on hacking the infrastructure promote a different logic? Can we differentiate that from participation as a skillset that describes mastering the new means of production and actively participating in the creation and distribution of artifacts?

    3. Collaboration generally receives a positive connotation as a community experience. Are media collaborators embedded in a stable, coherent community? Or is networked collaboration a project-bound modus operandi that is an expression of a »liquid modernity« (Bauman 2000)?

    4. Claiming collaboration is working among equals. Drawn from the notion of collective intelligence (Lévy 1997), collaboration comes with an equalitarian notion. On the other hand collaborative media practices generally refer to the appropriation of technology by highly skilled amateurs (nerds) while most people are satisfied with consuming finished media products.

  • 32.
    Handler, Reinhard Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Technologies of Collaboration: The Transformation of Hacker Practices into Everyday Life2016In: ECREA 2016  Abstract book, Prague: CZECH-IN , 2016, p. 442-, article id PP488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an expansion of the way we understand collaboration as a model for cultural production and media practices. According to scholarly work, collaboration is the basis for participating in the production of media content (Jenkins 2006), for egalitarian peer production (Benkler 2006), for sharing knowledge (Tapscott & Williams 2008), for collectively creating information and knowledge resources that are non-exclusive (digital commons), to the usage patterns of social networks to “prosuming” and "produsage” (Bruns 2008) and to the cultural consequences of the gifts economics of "sharing". While there is a plethora of literature and research on these particular practices, there is a shortage of analysis on collaboration itself, its roots and the reason for its success.

    Here, collaboration is analysed from a socio-technical perspective of practices rather than from a classic media perspectives. While digital media have become prevalent, the emerged practices cannot be explained with media specifics (Fuchs 2014) in a reference to the computer or the Internet. I argue that collaboration is deeply rooted in the development of computer technologies like Vannevar Bush’s (1944) Memex and hacker culture (open source developers, free software producers). Collaboration carried a libertarian notion that included freedom of knowledge, transparency, independency, openness and sharing as cultural models of creating value. In contrast, there are assessments of collaboration as a mode of control in the media industries (Born & Hesmondhalgh 2000; Jensen & Scacchi 2005). Interviews with open software developers, hackers and entrepreneurs at “Fosdem 2016”, Europe’s biggest conference and meeting for open and free software, show that practices like hacking, coding and programming differ from classic industry environments. Rather, these collaborative practices need to be understood as a craft that is improvised (Agre 1997, p.7). However, this improvisation must not be understood as random acting. It is rather a constant re-negotiation between necessary planning in order to work on complex projects and the curiosity and the crafting skills of hackers (Kelty 2008).

  • 33.
    Harkman, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    108 år i textfabriken: En longitudinell studie om brottsrapportering i lokaltidning med fokus på pressetik2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur rapporteringen av brott ser ut och har sett ut i en lokaltidning över tid med fokus på pressens etiska regler och namnpublicering. Undersökningsfokus ligger på i vilken utsträckning tidningen väljer att publicera namn och andra känsliga uppgifter på offer och förövare, hur detta har sett ut historiskt och om det går att utläsa några skillnader allteftersom de pressetiska reglerna har utvecklats.

    Teori: Då det inte finns någon enskild relevant teori om frekvensen av namnpublicering och andra känsliga uppgifter över tid så presenteras istället tidigare forskning från närliggande områden. Teorierna är avsedda att bidra till en viss förståelse för vilka faktorer som kan spela in när en mindre lokaltidning överväger en namnpublicering.

    Metod: Uppsatsen har med hjälp av att använda kvantitativ innehållsanalys som metod undersökt brottsartiklar i lokaltidningen Mora tidning från år 1898 till år 2006. Genom ett strategiskt urval har en vecka i februari vart tredje år valts ut och analyserats. Det har gett ett resultat på 251 analyserade enheter.

    Resultat: Mora tidning har publicerat namn och annan känslig information på offer och förövare genom hela sin publiceringshistoria. Namnpublicering av både offer och förövare var som vanligast före andra världskriget, då det inte heller var ovanligt med spekulationer. Sedan år 1945 har Mora tidning endast publicerat namn på en förövare tio gånger. Identifiering via namnpublicering på offer har däremot varit vanligare då sådana uppgifter publicerats 50 gånger sedan 1945. Men resultatet visar ändå att i takt med att de pressetiska reglerna bearbetas, utökas och kontrolleras har också namnpubliceringen av offer och förövare minskat.

    Nyckelord: Brott, pressetik, lokaltidning, innehållsanalys.

  • 34.
    Hedin, Amanda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Persson, Jennifer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Kommunikation - en trygghet: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ studie av organisationen Ungdomar för trygghets kommunikativa arbete med högstadieelever i Karlstads kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är skriven om organisationen Ungdomar för trygghet, en organisation som är en del av räddningstjänsten i Karlstad kommun. Ungdomar för trygghet arbetar med att skapa en tryggare tillvaro och att vara förebilder till ungdomar i Karlstads kommun. Denna uppsats undersöker hur organisationen genom kommunikation försöker skapa en relation, vara förebilder för- och undvika personliga kriser hos elever på de högstadieskolor som de besöker två gånger i veckan. De skolor som undersöks i denna studie är Vålbergsskolan, Frödingskolan, Rudsskolan och Hultsbergsskolan i Karlstad.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad Ungdomar för trygghet vill uppnå med sitt kommunikativa arbete både i skolorna och via sociala medier samt att undersöka om de får ut det de vill till de skolor som studien är avgränsad till. Studien är både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ studie som inleddes med fokusgruppsintervjuer med ungdomarna som arbetar på organisationen, där syfte var att ta reda på vad organisationen vill uppnå med sitt kommunikativa arbete. Utifrån de svar som framgick i intervjuerna sammanställdes en enkät som gavs ut till eleverna på de fyra högstadieskolorna för att på så sätt ta reda på om Ungdomar för trygghet lyckas nå ut med det som organisationen önskar. Den kvantitativa delen av studien undersöker hur god medvetenhet eleverna har till Ungdomar för trygghet och elevernas allmänna åsikter kring sin relation till dem. Vidare undersöker den kvantitativa delen av studien också vad eleverna tycker om organisationens arbete med sociala medier och om informationen via de sociala medierna når ut till eleverna. Teoretiska utgångspunkter som denna uppsats kommer att beröra är kriskommunikation, organisationslärande, sociala medier, kommunikativa synsätt, interpersonell kommunikation och bemötande. I teoriavsnittet presenteras de teoretiska utgångspunkterna som är mest relevanta i Ungdomar för trygghets arbete. I resultatdelen redovisas de resultat som framkommit när studien sammanställts. Några exempel på de resultat som framkom i studien är att av alla svarande på den kvantitativa enkäten så låg de allmänna åsikterna om relationerna med Ungdomar för trygghet ett medel på fyra på en femgradig skala. Åtta av tio svarande har någon gång haft kontakt med Ungdomar för trygghet på sin skola. Cirka 83 procent uppger att de skulle våga ta kontakt med ungdomar för trygghet. De allmänna åsikter kring Ungdomar för trygghets arbete, både i skolorna och via de sociala medierna stödjer det som organisationen vill åstadkomma med sitt arbete. Undersökningen jämför också skillnader mellan de olika skolorna där Hultsbergsskolan ger Ungdomar för trygghet högst betyg och Rudsskolan ger dem ett lägre betyg. Alla resultat ligger relativt högt på skalan mellan ett och fem, vilket visar att de når ut med det som de vill med sitt arbete. Studien kommer att gå in djupare på och analysera de resultat som studien har gett. I studiens analys- och diskussionsdel kopplas de teorier som redovisats i teoridelen ihop med de resultat som studien visat samt med de frågeställningar som finns i studien.

  • 35.
    Henriksson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Kriskommunikation; Komplex eller enkel?: En undersökning av fyra organisationers kriskommunikation på Facebook2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay have been to gain a better understanding of how four different organizations utilize today’s communication technology in their crisis communication. Today’s communication technology referrers to social medias, more specifically Facebook. To complete the purpose of this essay, the four organizations crisis communication has been studied during a crisis and how they chose to handle the flow of information during a crisis. The four organizations that have been picked for the essay is the municipality of Karlstad, the municipality of Halmstad, SJ AB and Värmlandstrafik. These organizations uses Facebook in their crisis communication and the essay have thereby used that information in the study. Two questions were asked to help the essay reach its purpose:1. How do these four organizations work with their crisis communication on Facebook?2. Is there any similarities or differences between these organizations and how they communicate during a crisis?The theoretical framework for the essay presents early studies within the subject, different theories and concepts within crisis communication. Theories that have been used are situational crisis communication theory, a theory that builds around the concept of categorizing crises and choosing a proper response to the crisis. Complexity theory, which builds around the concept that every crisis is unique and therefore cannot be handled in the same way as a previous crisis. Command and control, as well as Action-nets, which is a theory about how organizations use social medias to communicate during a crisis.The methods used for the essay have been a quantitative content analysis of the four different organizations Facebook feed during a crisis, between 2009-01-01 and 2012-12-24. A qualitative content analysis was also conducted on parts of the data gathered from the quantitative analysis.The results from both analysis showed that the municipality of Karlstad, the municipality of Halmstad and SJ AB all used both situational crisis communication theory and complexity theory in their crisis related messages. At the same time it also showed that Värmlandstrafik is lacking within crisis communications. It also showed that all organizations still used a more traditional crisis communication, command and control, in the way they used the flow of information during a crisis. In conclusion: The studies have given a better understanding

  • 36.
    Hermansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Forsman, Jacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    En Elektrisk Kris: En studie om en kommun och dess lokala aktörers krisförberedelser vid ett omfattande elavbrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Huatorpet, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    "Man vill ha Likes!: En kvalitativ studie om ungdomars kunskaper och ageranden vid text- och bildpublicering på sociala medier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what knowledge 16 year old highschool students have when it comes to text- and imageposting on social media and how they act on the basis of their skills and attitudes on text and image publishing. An important aspect of this was to investigate the impact of young people 's identity in relation to text- and image posting on social media as this according to research is a big part of what motivates young people in their everyday practices (Buckingham, 2008). The essay questions was , What is young people’s experience on posting text- and image on social media? How aware are young people at the pros and cons on posting text and images on social media? What are young people's attitudes about text and image posting? And how do young people act on the basis of experience , awareness and attitude? Which role plays identity in their actions? To seek answers to my questions and achieve the aim of the thesis was conducted three semi-structured focusgroup interviews in collaboration with two high schools. The results have been reported, interpreted and analyzed by pattern-seeking.

     

    The theoretical framework used in this paper is the research and theories of primarily media researchers who have distinguished themselves in the Media and Youth research, For example, Ulla Carlsson, David Buckingham, Sonia Livingstone and Kristen Drotner. I have primarily studied books with different themes within the topic of identity, Media literacy, children , media and culture. Through these researchers and their theories I could gather knowledge about young people's media habits and identity processes in relation to media use. Media Literacy during the course of the study proved to be a very important topic and especially the book Children and Youth in The Digital Media Culture, editor Ulla Carlsson, contains a lot of interesting theories and reflections on the subject. Through the various articles in the book I have gained an understanding and knowledge on the topic Media Literacy, a topic that most of the researchers argue is so important, but seems to be forgotten, or even not taken into consideration in schools. This study showed that young people are living a life where the boundary between the physical and the digital world is in principle non-existent but that several of the youngsters lacked guidance and support when it came to things that happened on the internet. Despite the fact that the digital world is as integrated into the physical world in the lives of young people, adults are not present in the young people's life’s on the internet. However, one of the schools in this study had focused on teaching Media Literacy and these young people showed a greater confidence and security in their virtual living. These young people had a clearer strategy and awareness of the risks of social media. The researchers' strong argumentation for educations in Media Literacy in schools teach from the youngsters in this study to be highly relevant arguments, however, Media Literacy seems to be a forgotten subject in schools , a subject that in most schools is’nt taken into consideration. Why? Is it the lack of time or the lack of knowledge about the youngsters or the subject?

     

    Some interesting conclusions could be drawn from the focusgroup interviews in this study and it was that there is a big difference in how knowledge is achieved amoung the students. The girls had knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of text and picture published by particularly bad experiences and had thus learned how best to act on social media and the internet. The boys, however had media and information education in school and experienced social media as a relatively safe place to stay on. This in theory could be due to differences between the sexes when girls are generally more vulnerable in society, but also according to researchers it could have to do with Media Literacy. Media Literacy is currently no compulsory element in the curriculum, but can pose a big difference to young people 's digital lifestyle. Why let go of the children in the digital world when we hold their hands in the physichal?

  • 38.
    Huss, Alexander
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Augustsson, Jimmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Marknadsföring i TV-Spel: En studie av marknadsföringsstrategier inom den virtuella världen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Janson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Styrning av EU-finansierade turismprojekt2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EU-projects are a frequent phenomenon in the tourism industry. The projects is often criticized for being difficult to handle, and are questioned whether the gains are corresponding to the invested resources. The purpose of the study is to examine the project manger’s ability to manage and control the project towards a target with the desired results.

     

    The investigated area is relatively unexplored. The theoretical base is therefore of general project management theory. In the study, five project managers of EU-funded tourism projects are being interviewed. Survey design and results is largely a product of respondents' thoughts about their own situation.

     

    Project Manager's ability to control and manage the project consists, in this study, of two main factors:

     

    - Establishment of the project plan's overall objectives.

    - Active communication towards the stakeholders in the project organization.

     

    To manage the project towards a desired result, the project may start with an anchoring process. This involved the beneficiary of the project results in the specification of project objectives.

  • 40.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Interveillance and Identity: A Quantitative Study of Privacy Concerns Related to New Social Media2012In: Comunicazioni sociali, ISSN 1827-7969, no 2, p. 274-287Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Mediatization and Social Space: Communication Geography as a Humanistic Project2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Perceptions of Surveillance: Reflexivity and Trust in a Mediatized World (the Case of Sweden)2012In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 410-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the field of surveillance studies has expanded during the last decade, there is still a need for studies that empirically explain and contextualize people’s perceptions of the increasingly mediatized ‘surveillance society’. This article provides a ‘middle range’ social theorization, following Giddens, as well as an updated empirical account, based on a nationwide Swedish survey, of how various forms of surveillance are perceived as social phenomena. Through factor analysis three dimensions are elaborated: state surveillance, commercial surveillance and mediated interveillance. The article argues that the realm of interveillance blurs the line between systemic and social trust, and thus calls for context-specific modes of routinized reflexivity. Whereas such modes of boundary maintenance may potentially run across social lines of division, the results suggest that the management of interveillance primarily constitutes an instance of sociocultural structuration.

  • 43.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Home Comer and the Settler: Mediatization and Re-Embedded Cosmopolitanism2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Att bedöma en lärling: Ett bekymmer eller en möjlighet?2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med detta arbete är att lyfta fram eventuella problem som finns med att kunskaps-bedöma yrkeselever som gör sina praktiska moment på företag. Historiskt sett har gymnasie- lärlingsutbildning varit svag i Sverige. Det har startats ett antal utbildningar men ingen har blivit bestående. Inför nu nedlagda GY-07 diskuterades lärlingsutbildningen flitigt men också inför kommande GY-09. Regering, skola och företag är intresserade av att starta lärlings- utbildningar, men är skolan och lärare förberedda på detta?

    Jag har i mitt arbete intervjuat lärare och handledare som bedriver företagsförlagdutbildning och observerat hur de arbetar tillsammans med att betygsbedöma transportelever. Läraren skall i samråd med handledaren sätta elevens betyg. Undersökning visar att kommunikation mellan lärare och handledare är en viktig faktor för ett fungerande samarbete, men dokumentation, utbildning och tid måste också anses vara viktiga faktorer vid bedömning av elever som går lärlingsutbildning. Genom kommunikation kan läraren inte bara få kännedom om elevens kunskap utan också om handledarens behov av utbildning i skolans styrdokument.

    Under mina litteraturstudier framkom att lärlingsutbildning formellt sätt bara finns på individuella programmet på gymnasieskolan. De utbildningar som utförs på företag får inte kallas för lärlingsutbildning. Kallar man det för företagsförlagdutbildning finns det inga hinder. I gymnasieförordningen finns inga klara regler över hur själva bedömningen skall tillgå utan detta ansvar ligger på kommun och skola.

    Nyckelord: Bedömning, handledare, kvalitet, lärling

  • 45.
    Johansson, Karolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Dahlgren, Karolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Det går som tåget: Organisationers kommunikativa krisutmaningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine different organizations' views on their communicative crisis work. The study will analyze organizations' crisis prevention efforts, its views on the crisis of accountability in relation to stakeholders and to work for a crisis to be elucidated. In order to delineate the study focuses the investigation on various train organizations. Then the concept of crisis is something that circulated widely in the train sector in recent years.

    Theory: This examination has chosen to use the theory Situational Crisis Communication Theory. It is an empirically tested theory of a collection of different strategies. The theory is about to work out a framework, a sort of guide that intends to provide guidance in a crisis. The theory is based on the knowledge of how an organization's stakeholders react to a crisis, which in turn makes it possible to prepare a crisis prevention work. This will in turn protect an organization's reputation in a crisis. The study also focuses on how an organization chooses to look at a crisis. The organization can choose to see it as a single event that is unpredictable or as a part of the organization's life cycle. Within SCCT publishes Image Restoration Theory of a substantial part. The theory is about how stakeholders perceive an organization and highlights the importance of communication mix with a social aspect.

    Method: The empirical examination in this study consists of five qualitative interviews, conversations with carefully selected respondents in different train organizations information and communications services. This survey aims to study organizations´ approach to its crisis communication efforts.

    Findings: The study shows that crisis preclusive information seems to be about to be formalized within the investigated train organizations. The idea of the information system is to provide protective and preparatory information to an organization's stakeholders. What also emerges is the variation that exists in the regarding crisis definitions the investigated organizations.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Öst, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Vad vore en studentkår utan studenter?: En komparativ studie mellan Karlstad Studentkårs och Örebro Studentkårs arbete med extern kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to compare how Karlstad Student Union and Örebro Student Union are working with their external communications in order to reach existing and potential members. By comparison, we looked for similarities and differences in how these student unions work with media mix, press contacts, goals, profiling and strategies. We also analyzed how the latter three impact external communication. In making this comparison, we wanted to state whether the unions’ external communication could be improved.The main questions of this study are;How do Örebro’s Student Union and Karlstad’s Student Union work with their external communication?What differences are there in their external communication?What strengths and weaknesses exists in the student unions’ work with their external communication?Are there approaches in their external communication that could be more effective?The aim of the study will be reached by interviews with employees at the unions and by analyzes of the results based on theories of external communication and strategic communication, goals, profile, strategy, media mix and press contacts.The results show that the student unions are working quite differently with their communication. Karlstad Student Union has a communications policy, and they have a clear plan for how to communicate. They work actively with their profile and have a plan as well as to how they work in social media, such as how to express themselves to their target groups. Örebro Student Union works in an unstructured way and lacks long-term thinking, even though it is active, such as using Facebook and demonstrates visibility in other ways.Therefore, the analyzes shows that Karlstad Student Union has a more effective external communication approach based on a strategic and long-term think process which is reflected in most aspects of their communication work. Örebro Student Union has a lack of continuity in their communication efforts leading to more spontaneous work. There are strengths and weaknesses within both organizations. For example, more evaluations and clearer target group analysis would well serve Karlstad Student Union and Örebro Student Union has desirable elements in their work with press contacts.

  • 47.
    Josephsen, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Glömda Kriser: En studie av hur ideella organisationer marknadsför humanitära och miljömässiga risker och kriser som allmänheten tappat intresse för2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the fall of 2012, the report Kriserna Svenskarna Glömt (“The crises forgotten by the Swedes”), was issued by the organization Läkare Utan Gränser - the Swedish department of Médicins Sans Frontières. This report stressed the fact that there are several humanitarian crises in the world, that the Swedish public is unaware of - the “neglected crises”. A possible reason for the lack of awareness among members of the public is, according to the report, presumed to be low media coverage about the crises. The term “neglected crises” is based on the concept that a crisis or a risk can be said to suffer from an unclear position in time and space. This results in a low news value. The term can also be expanded to include environmental risks and crises since these also to some extent suffer from a lack of public awareness. In order to bring the neglected crises the attention they deserve, they must be marketed.

    The purpose of this study is to further investigate the neglected crises. This will be done through a study of two non-profit organizations and their marketing of humanitarian and environmental risks towards the general public. The theoretical framework of this essay is based on theories of global risk society as well as theories of how people perceive situations as risks or crises. Furthermore, theories of marketing are discussed in order to facilitate an understanding of how it is possible to view risks as products, in a more traditional, commercial sense. Theories of semiotics and rhetoric in marketing are presented to create an outline for the analysis.

    Six campaign movies from the organizations Läkare Utan Gränser and Naturskyddsföreningen constitute the material for analysis. Since the scientific field of communication of neglected crises is yet rather unexplored, a qualitative methodological approach has been chosen. To perform an in-depth analysis of the material, a qualitative content analysis based on a rhetorical and semiotic perspective is used. Based on the prerequisites of the field of the neglected crises the study aims to create a foundation for further research in this area.

    The content analysis resulted in several interesting findings. Through the use of the rhetorical figures such as synecdoche, the distance between the viewer and the crises is both expanded and reduced when it comes to the time- and space aspects. Other rhetorical figures are also found in the material, such as rhetorical questions, contrasts and exclamations. As far as semiotics is concerned, signs are an imperative part of audiovisual communication. However, in the material studied, the use of semiotic signs appears to be coincidental rather than intentional. Finally, in all the campaign movies, the study revealed a clear ambition to educate its target audience about the neglected crises on a deeper level. This corresponds to the requests made in the report from Läkare Utan Gränser, stating that more detailed information about the forgotten crises is required in order to raise awareness among the public.

  • 48.
    Karlsson, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Muntligt berättande: -en känsla av gemenskap2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a research on the concept of storytelling, I have based my research on the question: How can I use storytelling as a tool in teaching? The research is preformed by study of literature, Internet sites and qualitative interviews with respondents living in a shantytown in South Africa.

    The concluded result is that storytelling is a good tool to use in education. You can by use of storytelling create a more meaningfull education for the students where subjects from the daily life and facts can be mixed and create a coherent message to the listener.

  • 49.
    Kirchoff, Ingrid Synnøve
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Everything is NOT awesome: A study on the campaign that ended LEGO’s partnership with Shell2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an on-going discussion in public relation scholarship surrounding the implication of critical theory on the study of activists’ utilization of public relations tools. One side believes that the mainstream theoretical models are sufficient for explaining the situation in which conflicts and negotiations between activists and corporations are happening, the other believes that critical theory needs to be applied. The purpose of this thesis is to provide an example that sheds light on this type of situation. It will study the 2014 conflict between Greenpeace and LEGO to see if orthodox theories are applicable, or if not, how and why critical theory should get more attention from public relations scholars.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to solve the conflict through studying a case. To solve the dispute two research questions are aiming to scrutinize the negotiation situation between LEGO and Greenpeace. The questions are asking what images of the Greenpeace campaign was most frequently used by the media, and how these frame LEGO. A method triangulation was applied to answer these questions. First, a quantitative study identified what images that were most frequently used by the media to cover the story. Later a qualitative text analysis in the form of semiotics was used to analyse how these images framed LEGO. The result shows that almost 90% of the images used by mass media was directly illustrating Greenpeace’s campaign. The messages in these images framed LEGO on one hand, as a passive player that would stand by and watch as their business partner polluted both the earth and kids’ imaginations.  On the other hand the company was portrayed as an almighty institution that would not take stakeholders wishes and opinions into consideration.

     

    The study serves as an example on the negotiation situation between activists and corporations. The conclusion relates the thesis back to the problem definition. The public relation communication utilized by Greenpeace, and studied in this thesis, is evidence that the scholarship needs broaden the intellectual domain by incorporating activism and critical theory into the academic field.

  • 50.
    Klonova, Anastasiia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The Role of Mega-events in Country Branding: Case Study on Brand of Ukraine before European Football Championship 20122012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Successful presentation of a country as a brand and positioning its unique image on the global level can give significant opportunities for development and progress of the state in the different areas. This research applies theories on the country branding to estimate impact of mega sport events on the image of state. To accomplish these goal I used case study – formation of brand Ukraine before hosting European Football Championship 2012 (EURO 2012). To investigate  brand strategy of Ukraine and analyze implemented projects I conducted in-depth interviews with government officials and independent experts, who are involved in promo campaigns of Ukraine.

    The research concluded that Ukraine is in the process of  brand formation, but it is too early to to assume the existance of the comprehensive brand of the country. For Ukraine, EURO 2012 impulses change of negative perceptions of the country and  is a step towards complex strategy of brand creation. Future of this strategy therefore depends on conducting preliminary studies of each promo project and coordinated collaboration between all actors who take part in creation of brand Ukraine. Research also provides recommendations on how to make brand campaign more efficient. 

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