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  • 1.
    Aflaki, Inga Narbutaite
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Miles, Lee
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. UK.
    Entrepreneurship in the polis: Understanding political entrepreneurship2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamics of entrepreneurship have attracted growing attention from scholars of political science, policy studies, public administration and planning, as well as more recently, from the realms of international relations and foreign policy analysis. Under the banner of political entrepreneurship, this volume considers and maps out conceptual approaches to the study of entrepreneurship drawn from these fields, discusses synergies, envisages new analytical tools and offers contemporary empirical case studies, illustrating the diverse political contexts in which entrepreneurship takes place in the polis. Drawing upon an international cast of senior academics and cutting edge young researchers, the volume takes a closer look at key aspects of political entrepreneurship, such as, defining political entrepreneurs, how it relates to change, decision-making and strategies, organizational arrangements, institutional rules, varying contexts and future research agendas. By highlighting the political aspects of entrepreneurship, the volume presents new exciting opportunities for understanding entrepreneurial activities at regional, national and international levels. The volume will be of particular relevance to scholars and students of political science, policy studies, public administration, planning, international relations and business studies as well as practitioners interested in the nexus and utility of entrepreneurship in the modern-day political world.

  • 2.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University.
    Att sova med fienden: - Om väljarstöd, blockidentifikation och blocköverskridande styren2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Minority- and cross-bloc regimes in Swedish municipalities have more than doubled the last ten years. The phenomenon should be seen in light of the fact that the traditional blocks have lost support in favor of new parties in the municipal parliaments, such as the Swedish Democrats and different local parties. Historically, the municipal political arena is usually described as less ideological than the national arena. Nevertheless, in the 2014 elections, the turnout resulted in formations of weak center-right/center-left minority governments in one third of the muncipalities in Sweden. When municipal elections result in hung parliaments, remarkably many parties seems to favor minority governments instead of establishing cross-bloc majorities. Why? A possible explanation is that the party identification among the swedish electorate has been replaced by a strong bloc identification, which might induce the parties to avoid coalitions that jeopardize the support from bloc identificated voters. But is this fear rational? Do political parties that form cross-bloc coalitions lose more electoral support than parties that form bloc coalitions?

       Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide new knowledge about the Swedish electorate and the impact of bloc identification on Swedish politics, by investigating whether coalition parties election results are related to the choice between bloc and cross-bloc coalitions. This is done by statistical Mann-Whitney tests of election data from Swedish municipal elections between 1994-2014.

       The study shows that the average voter support does not differ significantly for parties in blocs compared to parties in cross-bloc coalitions. The exception is the Social Democratic Party, which on average loses fewer votes in cross-bloc coalitions compared to scenarios in which the party is ruling alone or in a traditional bloc. With these results, the study complement previous research on bloc identification and electoral behavior. Furthermore, the study does not support the hypothesis that a party's electoral support in cross-bloc coalitions differs, depending on whether or not the party is leading the cross-bloc coalition.

       In summary, the study does not provide rational support for non-scientific assumptions that cross-bloc coalitions are associated with particular declining electoral support, despite increasing political mobility and enhanced block identification among the electorate.

  • 3.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Besvär!: Om motståndet hos två tvångssammanslagna kommuner i samband med kommunblocksreformen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate why the two Swedish municipalities of Frykerud and Östmark were the only municipalities in Värmland that were forcibly merged by the state during the ”Municipality block reform” of 1971, and whether local identities played a role in the resistance against this reform. 

        The study is designed as a comparative case study and builds on both history and political science to analyze the topic from a broader perspective. Based on the research situation three theoretical theses have been formulated, the durability of which will be tested in the analysis part of the essay.

        The study notes that Frykeruds resistance against the ”Municipality block reform” started when the reform prevented a planned retirement home construction in the municipality. In the analytical part of the essay, the author discusses how the discontent can be interpreted as symptomatic of bourgeois centralization resistance, as well as being due to the fact that traditional, local self-government as a political subject was perceived as threatened. In Östmark, the "Municipality block reform" developed into a political struggle between the reformist Social Democrats and the "reform-skeptical" conservative parties. The battle started with disagreements over the completions of investments in the municipality.

        In the analysis section, the hypotheses previously formulated have been tested, and the author also formulates a new hypothesis regarding the local communities and local identities' political role in the resistance against the "Municipality block reform".

  • 4.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den lyssnande kommunen: Om medborgardialog ur förtroendevaldas, tjänstemäns och medborgares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For the last decades, the party memberships in Sweden have decreased from 600.000 to 300.000, although the general interest in politics have been stable during the same period. This situation can be percieved as a threat to swedish democracy; if the political parties are loosing contact with the citizens, the parties will also face the risk of not being able to canalize the views of the citizens. If that’s the case, the represenative democracy might loose legitimacy. These conclusions have triggered local municipalities in Sweden to launch ”civil dialogue”, innovative ways to include the citizens in public projects and welfare services, with the purpose to re-establish connection and trust between the public and civil sector. However, political studies suggest that civil dialogue rarely have succeeded to strenghtened democracy. In some cases, civil dialogue seemed to hurt trust and legitimacy in local municipalities. That makes the civil dialogue phenomenon interesting – how can attempts to reinforce trust and democracy result in a backfire? What in the core of civil dialogue might catalyze this backlash?

       The nature of civil dialogue suggest that cooperation between the public and civil sphere is becoming more acceptable, even desirable, in swedish politics. This development breaks with the traditional ways of public administration and bureaucracy in Sweden. However, the cooperation between the public and civil sphere is also the core of a new broad trend in public administration and governing, namely ”governace”. Governance refers to a way of adminstrating public affairs by the logic of networks, including the civil society in the public affairs with the purpose of making the public administration more effective and to find creative solutions on new problems. The first aim of this study is to recieve a new understanding how the subjective experiences of civil dialogue participants can affect legitimacy and trust, by analyzing the experiences of participants in a failed dialogue. The second aim is to explore wether civil dialogue is better understood as a part of a new broad trend in public buraucracy, governance, rather than more traditional bureaucracy. These aims are fulfilled using a case study, which has a swedish local municipality, Sunne, in focus.

       The results of the study suggests that none of the participants of the civil dialogue in Sunne experienced that they had ”been listened to”, which seems to be an important cause behind the negative result of the specific dialogue. The innovativeand failed attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of local democracy resulted in a negative reaction through the traditional channels of political participation. The study also suggests that civil dialogue and governace have some similarities regarding their main principles of value and general logic, but since the municipality of Sunne didn’t implement the steering logics of civil dialogue in its full practice, it’s hard to judge wether it should be perceived as governance or not.

  • 5.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University.
    Håll gränsen!: Centerpartiets försvarspolitik 1912-20152016Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy between the years 1912-2015. and try to outline potential ideological changes in their politics during the same period. An ideology analysis is employed for the purpose.

    The analysis is carried out by a method based on ideological ideal types, to which the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy through history are compared to. The ideological ideal types ”liberalism” and ”realism” are aiming to describe the international defense policy, whilst the ideal types ”doves” and ”hawks” are aiming to describe the national defense policy. The use of ideal types, as it is done in this study, is to be seen as a way to bridge the gap between everyday policies and more abstract ideology.

    The result of this study shows that not only has an ideological change taken place in the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy during the course of history; three major changes are identified and described. The study also shows that the Swedish Centre Party has made an ideological travel from being isolationistic pacifists pre-World War I to approaching a more liberal hawk-influenced defense policy in the 21th Century.

  • 6.
    Albinsson, Carl
    Karlstad University.
    Sverigedemokraternas utskottspolitik2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Alfredsson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University.
    Ett Förändrat Ledarskap?: En studie av EU:s ledarskap sett ur ett institutionellt perspektiv, kopplat till internationella miljöförhandlingar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Political Science, level III thesis

    Spring semester 2010

    Author: Emelie Alfredsson

    Supervisor: Tomas Mitander

    "A Changed Leadership? - A study of the EU leadership from a institutional standpoint, related to multilateral environmental negotiations"

    The EU has for a relatively long time considered itself a leader in the environmental policy area as a whole as well as in multilateral environmental negotiations. This study attempts to classify and identify the European leadership with the purpose of relating it to the institutional framework of the Union. The treaties of the European Union decide its ability to act and its institutions the right to engage in different policy areas, the environmental area being the focus of this study. With the recent ratification of the Lisbon treaty this study aims to make out if the type of leadership the Union showed during the Kyoto negotiations has changed with the new treaty, into a new type during the COP-15 meeting in Copenhagen. The results shows that the Union has kept the same type of leadership despite the change in treaties, though with great potential of changing leadership if or when the new reforms of the new treaty are better implemented. This result points to the fact that institutional changes have a small effect on the EU leadership and that other factors such as ability to unite the member countries may play a bigger role.

    Keywords: EU, leadership, multilateral environmental negotiations, Copenhagen, Kyoto

  • 8.
    Alström, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    En av Sveriges mest jämställda kommuner?: En implementeringsstudie av en kommun med höga visioner2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most equal countries in the world and equality is supposed to mainstream all political areas. Implementation is a common issue when it comes to democracy. It is important that national decisions are recognisable in the municipalities and it is there for important that the decisions are implement correctly. A successful implementation, due to implementation theory, shall consist of three conditions; the applier needs to understand the decision, the applier needs to want to implement the decision and the applier has to be able to implement the decision. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if Karlstad municipality has been able to imply equality within its organisation, as an employer, which also constitutes my research question. This thesis consists of a case study from an implementation theory perspective where interviews and text analysis are the primary sources. The conclusion shows that Karlstad municipality has not

  • 9.
    Alvarez Cea, Camila
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Verklighet eller en politisk illusion?: En studie av den svenska pressens syn på sjukförsäkringsreformen i USA.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Essay in Political Science, C-level, by Camila Alvarez Cea, spring semester 2010.

     

    Tutor: Alf Sundin

    “Reality or a Political Mirage? – A Study of the Swedish Press Views on the Health Insurance Reform in the USA”

     

    The purpose of this essay is partly to examine whether the picture that Swedish press presents of the health insurance reform in the US, which is part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Act bill, will be of crucial importance to the possibilities that the American population has to receive health insurance. The main research question is accordingly: “Does the picture that Swedish press presents of the health insurance reform in the USA, seem like something that will be of radical importance to the possibilities of the population to receive healthcare?” The purpose is also to examine in which model (demand or market) the opinions of the Swedish press fits. This purpose will be answered by using three specific questions asking whether their opinions differ when it comes to three criterions: organization, financing/resources and delivery systems. These criterions come from a model from Milton I. Roemer’s book “National health systems of the world,” which also is the theoretical foundation of this essay.

     

    The methodological approach of this essay is a qualitative text analysis along with an analysis chart, where the three criterions have been examined from the reporting of the four Swedish newspapers chosen for this essay. The conclusions that have been reached from the analysis chart are that the opinions differ greatly within Swedish press, and that the picture that Swedish press presents of the health insurance reform is that it will become easier for the American population to receive health care.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Albin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ringström, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kunskapsöverföring genom slutdokument: och möjligheterna till att ta del av och sprida lärdomar - En fallstudie på Karlstads universitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's fast-changing organizations often strive to stay competitive in the labor market, which tends to place increasing demands on the efficient dissemination of knowledge. In many cases, an organization chooses to use the project format to complete the tasks. A projects temporary nature means additional handling experience and lessons learned, especially when there is a risk that the experience is wasted when a project is finished. For this reason, there are many methods and theories that explain how the organization should capture the lessons learned and disseminate them between projects. One method consists of routine and structured creation of final reports, which includes the experience to be captured, stored and archived.

    The purpose of the study is to identify trends regarding the handling of the final document and the options available to spread and share experiences and lessons learned at Karlstad University.

    Two research questions were formulated to answer the purpose of the study:

    • How does the handling of the final document work at Karlstad University?
    • How does project managers perceive the opportunities to distribute and share lessons learned between projects at Karlstad University?

    A qualitative approach has been applied where we performed five interviews with project managers at Karlstad University. The empirical data were then analyzed on the basis of our theoretical framework of matters, including various coordination mechanisms, the final report and in particular the transfer of knowledge and the problems that may arise regarding this phenomenon.

    The results indicate that the informal channels perceived strong within the organization, where close contact had a significant role in knowledge transfer. The final document is made from a formal template, which is a relatively new procedure for the organization. This development has been seen as very positive because it contributes to a wealth of experience in the organization. However, we have been able to see trends that there are difficulties in accessing the final reports through the organization systems, partly because project management has tended to be a “IT-matter”. We have also been able to see a demand for a more structured system that is placed centrally in the organization. Finally, we have been able to discern some tendency’s that indicate that a project office would serve as a potential tool to the structure and certain problems that the respondents are experiencing.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Emmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Irans kvinnor: Och deras möjligheter till politisk påverkan2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the actual political conditions that exist for the Iranian women. What is the political reality of the Iranian women and how can they exert political influence within the political system that exists in Iran today. This is done to see how the Iranian women's potential political influence affects Iran's democratic status. This will be answered through the overall research question: What opportunities do the Iranian women have to influence policy? This overall question is then split into three smaller research questions:

    1) What formal possibilities to political influence do the Iranian women have?

    2) What real possibilities to political influence do the Iranian women have?

    3) How have women in Iran tried to exert political influence outside the institutional framework?

    This will be done through a qualitative text analysis where texts concerning the Iranian women’s political influence are examined. The theoretical basis for the study is Dahl's theories of an ideal democracy and polyarchy together with radical and liberal feminism.

    The Iranian women have many formal rights and opportunities for political influence given by the Constitution but these are not transferred to reality. The Iranian women have also been active in various political actions to influence their situations and the policies of the country. Because of the fact that women are underrepresented in political institutions, prevented from standing for all political offices and that the government exercises strong control over both women and society Iran cannot be considered to meet Dahl's five criteria for an ideal democracy or the seven institutions necessary for polyarchy. Therefore Iran cannot be regarded as an ideal democracy or as a polyarchy. According to radical and liberal feminism Iran also has a patriarchal political system with a society that supports the male dominance over its women.

  • 12. Andersson, Louise
    Patriarkatets makt: En studie i lokal makt i ett värmländskt brukssamhälle2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Får vi lov?: IKEA:s etablering i Karlstad sett ur ett resursberoendeperspektiv2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA is probably one of the most well known Swedish companies in the world. During thepast decades millions of people all across the globe have decorated their homes according tothe style of IKEA. But just exactly how big and influential are they? Many, if not to say all,municipalities in Sweden wants IKEA to establish and build their famous stores in one oftheir towns. But at what cost? When deciding on a municipality to establish in, IKEAnormally tends to have an advantage when it comes to controlling the conditions and terms ofthe establishment.To undertake this dissertation I use a theory based upon the inter-organizational theoriescalled resource dependency theory. The theory stresses the importance of controlling andobtaining resources as an organization among other organizations in order to survive. Fromthe theory one can see a pattern that organizations with a lot of resources tend to have biggeradvantage when dealing with other organizations.The question I want to answer was if the municipality of Karlstad has eroded its dominantplane when dealing with strong financial actors like IKEA?This is a case study of IKEA and their establishment in Karlstad. Unfortunately IKEA choosenot to be a part of the thesis due to lack of time. The method used in the dissertation is basedupon interviews with high senior officials that were involved in the establishment in one wayor another. To supplement the interviews a document study was performed.The result of the study is surprising in two ways. First of all the fact that IKEA has been sucha strong actor during the negotiations which gave them nearly whatever they asked for. Thesecond reason is the fact that the municipality has eroded its dominant plane in such anobvious way. If IKEA did want to, they could have built a store where ever they wanted.IKEA is probably one of the most well known Swedish companies in the world. During thepast decades millions of people all across the globe have decorated their homes according tothe style of IKEA. But just exactly how big and influential are they? Many, if not to say all,municipalities in Sweden wants IKEA to establish and build their famous stores in one oftheir towns. But at what cost? When deciding on a municipality to establish in, IKEAnormally tends to have an advantage when it comes to controlling the conditions and terms ofthe establishment.To undertake this dissertation I use a theory based upon the inter-organizational theoriescalled resource dependency theory. The theory stresses the importance of controlling andobtaining resources as an organization among other organizations in order to survive. Fromthe theory one can see a pattern that organizations with a lot of resources tend to have biggeradvantage when dealing with other organizations.The question I want to answer was if the municipality of Karlstad has eroded its dominantplane when dealing with strong financial actors like IKEA?This is a case study of IKEA and their establishment in Karlstad. Unfortunately IKEA choosenot to be a part of the thesis due to lack of time. The method used in the dissertation is basedupon interviews with high senior officials that were involved in the establishment in one wayor another. To supplement the interviews a document study was performed.The result of the study is surprising in two ways. First of all the fact that IKEA has been sucha strong actor during the negotiations which gave them nearly whatever they asked for. Thesecond reason is the fact that the municipality has eroded its dominant plane in such anobvious way. If IKEA did want to, they could have built a store where ever they wanted.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Nationalism och EU: Är konstitutionsmisslyckandet ett resultat av ”ny nationalism”?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Nationalism and the EU, A threat to further integration?

    Thesis in Political Science (C-level) at Karlstad University by

    Magnus Andersson, Fall 2006

    Tutor: Susan Marton

    This is a comparative study where I am searching for a correlation between nationalism and the attitudes toward the European Union and its development. I am Using Delanty and his theories about cosmopolitism and new nationalism to form an abstract theory and then I use McLaren and Kaldor to operationalize it. Then I use three different methods to examine nationalism and the attitudes towards the EU. I use Pearson’s r, Analytical schedules and categorical data.

    My main research question is

    • Can the result in the referendums be an expression for new nationalism in its material form?

    Then I have two questions that will help me answer my main question.

    • Is there any connection between nationalism and the economic variables?

    • Is there any connection between nationalism and the social variables?

    The material that I have used is mainly from Euro stats, who is a well known and a well recognized statistical database. I have also used SCB (Statistiska Central Byrån) which is the Swedish national statistical unit, and then I have also used Nation master who is an international statistical database who has been recognized internationally.

    After analyzing the material that I have collected I found that there was little correlation between my dependent variable (% of population positive to the new constitution of the European Union) and the independent variables (unemployment rate, Trade, Education and transfer payments). The only variable that showed correlation was transfer payments which showed a very good correlation.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    The Fall of the Ivory Tower: En Diskursanalys av den högre utbildningens policyöverlappning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Centerpartiet och kärnkraften: En studie av förändring i ett parti2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    D Level Essay in Political Science, Autumn Semester 2008 by Mattias Andersson. Tutor: Alf Sundin. “The Swedish Centre Party and Nuclear Power. A Study of Change in a Political Party”

    The aim of this essay is to examine the policy of the Swedish Centre Party on nuclear power. More exactly the aim is to study if the Centre Party has been going through a change of policy on nuclear power and, if so, how the policy has changed. The essay is about the Centre Party, the Centre Party’s Youth League and the Centre Party’s Women’s Association. The Student Association as well as different special interests in trade and industry with a connection to the Centre Movement have been delimited. The time periods studied are 1979-1988 and 2001-2008. The analysis of the ideology is based on Herbert Tingsten. The various arguments are presented in tables. A couple of concepts from Gunnar Sjöblom have also been used. These are the research questions:

    - Has the Centre Party changed its ideology on nuclear power?

    - Has the Centre Party changed its arguments on nuclear power?

    - Has the Centre Party’s Youth League changed its policy and its arguments on nuclear power?

    - Has the Centre Party’s Women’s Association changed its policy and its arguments on nuclear power?

    - Have the prospects of success for the Centre Party’s policy on nuclear power changed:a, in the electoral arena?b, in the parliamentary arena?c, in the internal arena?

    The research has been made from political and environmental programs as well as some newspaper articles and interviews. Motions on nuclear power to the Centre Party’s assembly have also been studied. The essay makes it plain that the Centre Party has changed its ideology on nuclear power. The fundamental values have changed as well as the recommended action. The main arguments are still the same and have not changed, however a few of the arguments from the earlier time period are no longer used. The Centre Party’s Youth League has been going through the biggest change and is today even in favour of uranium mining in Sweden whereas the Centre Party’s Women’s Association has changed from a strong commitment into a lack of a policy on their own. Earlier there was a strong sense of consensus in the Centre Movement. Today there are all kinds of views on nuclear power within the movement. The policy of today has good prospects of success in the parliament and among voters but is problematic within the party.

    Remaining research fields are to further examine the internal opinions on nuclear power, especially within the Youth League and the Women’s Association. Another field is to study whether the change has been influenced by special interests in trade and industry. A further examination of the concept of change would also be clarifying. 

  • 17.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Lissabon Fördraget: Värnet mot Globaliseringen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Dissertation in political science, C-level by Niklas Andersson, Spring Semester 2009. Tutor: Arne Larsson

    “The Treaty of Lisbon – The Defence against Globalization?”

    In the modern world globalization have undermined the nation-state and left it without the right measurements to adequately deal with the social and economic unrest that follows in its way. The states, built on contract theories, have an obligation to protect its citizens from the state of nature which seems to have failed as globalization has changed the rules.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the contract theories of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Rawls to identify the elements of a state and create a modern and ideal contract theory. The treaty shall then be used on the Treaty of Lisbon as it can be seen as a contract between the European states to create an entity in the shape of the European Union with the power to defend Europe from the unrest created by globalization.

    My question for this was as follows:

    Is the new treaty for the European Union acceptable as a new social contract according to the social contract theories?

    During my research the following criteria’s for a social contract was found:

    1. A legislative branch 2. An executive branch 3. A judicial branch 4. The Right to taxation

    5. A centralized educational system 6. The right to property 7. Equalizing redistribution system 8. The right to leave the contract.

    The first four is essential in creating a state and are the primary criteria’s for its existence while the other four is determining the character of the state that is created and are therefore not essential in the creation of the state and are consequently secondary criteria’s in a states creation.

    The answer to the question is no, as the Treaty of Lisbon first of all don’t give the Union the right of taxation on its citizens and secondly, the Union are not given the mandate to act for an educational or an equalizing redistributive system. Without these criteria’s the EU don’t have the possibility to quickly act on its own to deal with urgent problems that rises from the negative aspects of globalization.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Samhällen i Kris: När Washington Tar Över2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dissertation in political science, D-level by Niklas Andersson, Spring Semester 2010. Tutor: Malin Stegmann McCallion

    “Societies in Crisis – When Washington Take Over”

    An economic meltdown wreaks havoc on the world and has plunged the Western world into a spiral of economic stimulus in order to keep their way of life intact. At the same time the same institutions that support these countries have had another agenda for more unfortunate and less influential countries where nothing has been free and everything been to a price of self-sacrifice in order to get the consent of the IMF and the World Bank. Everything according to the points stated in the so called Washington Consensus.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to research what impact the Washington Consensus has on the state in terms of power over the market and sovereignty. This shall be done by examining the points of the Consensus and then delve into the IMF and World Bank’s own program in four countries, Argentina, Russia, Kenya and the Republic of Korea. The findings shall then be compared to the Andersson Contract, a social contract theory summary showcasing the ideal liberal state, to determine if the Consensus gives enough room for the state to act against the market. This shall also be backed up with theories on economics from Adam Smith and Karl Polanyi in order to strengthen the comparison on the economic issues.

    The research question thus for the dissertation are:

    Which institutions and features does the Washington Consensus highlight as necessary for a state? Is the state they proposes to weak to uphold society according to the social contracts?

    According to the research there are parts of the Washington Consensus that fits the social contract and should therefore in theory be able to maintain a level of social dignity and be able to take part in the positive effects of the market. Other parts on the other hand show that some crucial institutions lack certain strength in order to be able to keep the free market in check, but they still exist. Therefore the answer to the question is that it’s ambiguous as all the necessary institutions exist, but some of them need to be strengthened in order to make sure the market remains free as well as the countries should be able to choose their own way to economic welfare.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Påverkar internetcommunities det politiska engagemanget: En analys utifrån tribaliseringsteori2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Something is happening in the world today. The participation in the Swedish elections used to be over 90 %, but has drastically decreased, primarily among first time voters. The memberships are declining among both political parties, as well as within non-governmental organizations. But why?

    The purpose of this paper is to test if the sociological theory of neo-tribalisation can explain the decreasing commitment, in the form of internet communities. The research is based upon the hypothesis: youths will seek themselves to Maffeolis tribes, witch will lead to fewer youths in political organizations. The hypothesis was tested using statistical analysis of members in political organizations and compared with posts on the community Lunarstorm.

    The result of the analysis was that the hypotheis can not be said to be true, but therefore not dismissed. Something new is awakening, that we do not fully understand or comprehend yet. So the final analysis is that more studies needs to be carried out to get the final awnser to the question: are the youth of today being tribalized?

  • 20. Aronsson, Peter
    et al.
    Aspers, Patrik
    Beckman, Ludvig
    Erixon, Fredrik
    Micheletti, Michele
    Möller, Göran
    Strömberg, Kenneth
    Uddhammar, Emil
    Dygder som drivkraft och föredöme2001Report (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Arvidson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    G. D. H. Coles syn på lojaliteter2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Axelsson, Hilde
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Marika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Implementering av balanserad styrning i Arvika kommun: Faktorer som underlättar eller försvårar implementeringen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with an overview of the organizational structure of the municipality of Arvika the Balanced Scorecard was introduced as a management model. After the Balanced Scorecard has been in use over a period of years the conception of it varies throughout the organization.

    The purpose of this study is identifying which factors are facilitating and which factors are obstructing when implementing the Balanced Scorecard in the municipality of Arvika. This is a case study of the staff organization of the municipality of Arvika. The study is explanatory as our objective is to describe why the current situation appears as it does today. A qualitative method has been applied during this study. Empirical data has been collected through interviewing 17 managers and supervisors at various administrative levels within the organization.

    The result of the study shows that there are several factors which are facilitating as well as several factors which are hindering in the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard. Examples of factors obstructing the implementation are the lack of information of the management model as well as the absence of a project organization. Factors such as that the model is perceived to be effective and useful within the organization as well as that it enables an undifferentiated monitoring throughout the organization are examples of facilitating factors.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Høyer, Hans Christian
    Den passende logikk i styring av krisesituasjoner2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Høyer, Hans Christian
    Løgstrup-Machiavelli-grafen2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Høyer, Hans Christian
    Suveräna livsyttringar - i politiken?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Høyer, Hans Christian
    Tillit og kontroll: som ild og vann eller sukker og kanel?2016In: Tillit, styring, kontroll / [ed] Høyer, Hans Christian; Kasa, Sjur; Tranøy, Bent Sofus, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27. Axelsson, Julia
    Offshoringens effekter på två värmländska kommuner: Fallen Årjäng och Säffle2014Student paper second term, 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Axelsson, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Socialdemokraternas förskjutning inom synen på arbetsmarknadspolitik: En idé- och innehållsanalys av partiprogram från 1990, 2001 och 2013.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the change of the Swedish party Socialdemokraterna (S). It is a very current subject, since many political newspapers write about that the party moves into the political middle. Apparently the party is not what it used to be and that is what this essay will explore and analyze. My purpose is to explore what ideal type answers best to the Social democrats change. The chosen ideal types are neo-liberalism, reformist socialism and the third way. And the materials I use are political programs from 1990, 2001 and 2013.

    To achieve my purpose I’ve chosen two different methods: 1. Content analysis 2. Idea analysis. Each of them has been very useful and to combine them has proved efficient. The results of the content analysis show that the party in 2001 and 2013 is using a different vocabulary than in 1990. The results of the idea analysis are that the political program from 2013 show that some of the ideas are divergent. For example, a traditional social democratic value is that the working hours should be shorter. But in 2013, the party doesn’t suggest shorter working days and weeks.

  • 29.
    Axelsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Stärkta av konflikten?: EU:s försvarspolitiska samarbete efter Irakkrisen2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine whether the EU’s defence policy cooperation has strengthened since the Iraqi war to avoid the ESDP being paralyzed in the future by differing preferences of its member states. This leads to my main research question: Has the EU’s defence policy cooperation strengthened since the Iraqi war?

    Drawn upon theories of Michael H. Smith and Michael E. Smith I’ve constructed a theoretical framework that puts institutionalization as the independent variable and cooperation as the dependent variable. By using M.H. Smith’s “layers on cooperation” I’ve been able to examine the objectives, institutional capacity and possibilities to cooperate. Michael E. Smith’s “stages of institutionalization” have been used to examine possible changes of institutionalized cooperation.

    From this theoretical framework, I’ve formulated two specific research questions that will help me answer my main question. These are, 1) has the EU’s defence policy cooperation been institutionalized since the Iraqi war?, and 2) has the unity between the objectives, the institutional capacity, and the possibilities to cooperate improved since the Iraqi war?

    Furthermore, I’ve used this theoretical framework to compare the cooperation on two points in time; 1) at the outbreak of the Iraqi war in March 2003, and 2) the present time, spring 2006. Based on the principles and general guidelines for the cooperation, I’ve examined the military aspects of ESDP at these points in time.

    The answers to my specific research questions are that the cooperation has institutionalized since the Iraqi war. However the unity among the layers has deteriorated since only the layer of ideas has institutionalized. This means that the defence policy cooperation hasn’t strengthened since the Iraqi war.

  • 30. Baaz, Mikael
    et al.
    Lilja, Mona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Sociologi.
    Vinthagen, Stellan
    Researching Resistance and Social Change: A Critical Approach to Theory and Practice2017Book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Badian, Reza A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Norway and Sweden - allies in the war in Afghanistan: A study of Norway´s and Sweden´s foreign policy regarding involvement in Afghanistan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

                       

    “Norway and Sweden- allies in the war in Afghanistan”

    A study of Norway’s and Sweden’s foreign policy regarding involvement in Afghanistan

     

    This thesis intends to identify Sweden’s and Norway’s Afghan policies and to explore how these policies can be explained through perspectives of both realism and liberalism.

    Study intends to use theories within realism and liberalism to investigate if an overall strategy behind Afghan policies can be identified. The study is based on qualitative-comparative analysis of Swedish and Norwegian foreign policy statements, delivered by Ministers of Foreign Affairs in each of the two countries in question.

    The results of the study indicate that Afghan policies of both Norway and Sweden are a mixture of both realist and liberal policies with preponderance of liberal policies.

    Use of military force as an indication of realism’s ultima ratio in international politics and liberal policies towards Afghanistan as indications of liberalization process of a non-liberal state.

    These two theoretical perspectives can be regarded as a continuum as opposed to two discontinuous opposite poles, when analyzing Afghan policies of Norway and Sweden.

    International liberalism is argued to be the overall strategy that is driving the Afghan policies of Norway and Sweden forward.

     

     

    Key words: Norway’s Afghan policy, Sweden’s Afghan policy, realism, liberalism, liberalization process, security community, liberal internationalism.

  • 32.
    Baker, Talan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Abrahamsson, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nyliberalismens inflytande i Malmös samhällsplanering: Hur det nyliberalistiska idealet utrycker sig i Malmö stads planering2017Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur nyliberala idéer uttrycker sig i Malmös

    samhällsplanering. Det teoretiska ramverket för denna uppsats är nyliberalismen och dess

    påverkan på städer och samhällsplaneringen, såväl som tidigare forskning om nyliberal

    planering i Malmö. Med hjälp av kvalitativ textanalys studeras dokument från Malmö stad i

    den empiriska undersökningen. Det nyliberala fenomenet klargörs och kopplas till möjliga

    igenkännande och inflytanden i stadens planering. Fenomenet uttrycker sig tydligt i

    planeringen, dels genom strävan efter att öka den ekonomiska tillväxten, men också genom de

    olika strategierna attraktivitet, konkurrenskraft, kreativa klassen och marknadsföring. Syftet

    analyseras sedan i form av en sammanställning av teorin och empirin. Materialet och resultat

    från föregående kapitel sammanställs och kopplas till varandra för en vidare diskussion.

    Diskussionsdelen diskuterar hur nyliberala idéer påverkar samhällsutvecklingen i Malmö. De

    effekter man möjligtvis kan se genom nyliberalismens påverkan, är bland annat ökade sociala

    klyftor, bostadssegregation och social exkursion i samhället. Slutsatsen besvarar

    frågeställningen kortfattad med en summering om hur nyliberala idéer uttrycker sig i Malmös

    samhällsplanering.

  • 33.
    Baldebo, Chris
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors villkor i kommunalpolitiken i Karlstads kommun: sex politiker berättar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Essay in political science, C-level by Chris Baldebo spring semester 2010. Tutor: Arne Larsson. “Women’s conditions in municipal politics in the municipality of Karlstad - Six politicians tell”.

     

    The purpose of this paper is to explore women’s conditions in the municipal political work in the municipality of Karlstad. Based on the objective, one research question is formulated: How is women’s political acting space limited on the basis of gender power relations in local politics in the municipality of Karlstad? To be able to say something about the women’s conditions my approach has been to interview six active local politicians to collect empirical data to analyze from Maria Höjer Wendts & Cecilia Åses theorizing about women and politics, and Yvonne Hirdmans theory of a gender system.

    My conclusions are that women’s political room for maneuver is limited in several ways in municipal politics in Karlstad. Foremost it is a restriction by various prevailing beliefs about the characteristics men and women are supposed to have and should have, and which behaviors that are legitimate in the local political process. These become the norm for their genders and contribute to various social practices are created and maintained. There is also a clear male dominance in terms of speaking in various political forums, where men to a higher extent compared with women are talking. Therefore women do not have the same opportunity to exercise half the real power when they are subjected to oppressive treatment, while local politicians are characterized by the male norm from which women are not valued as highly. The municipal politicians in the municipality of Karlstad (at various levels) is thus far from equal, although the lack of gender varies in different degrees depending on the forum politicians find themselves in.

  • 34.
    Behnam, Beyan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University.
    Turkiets väg mot ett EU-medlemskap: En studie utifrån socialkonstruktivismens perspektiv på mänskliga rättigheter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay deals with the relationship between the EU – Turkey. The aim is to examine how the EU thinks of Turkey on human rights in the light of social constructivism. My questions can be summed to the EU views on Turkey about human rights, what criteria should Turkey fulfill to become a member of the EU and how described Turkey’s relations with EU from a perspective on social constructivism.

    My analysis and my conclusions drawn from Thomas Risse’s and Kathryn Sikkink’s theory of social constructivism in which they have compiled this by a spiral model.

     

    Keywords: EU, Turkey, human rights, social constructivism

  • 35.
    Belander, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Försörjningsstöd och lokalsamhälle: En explorativ studie om låga försörjningsstödskostnader i Säffle kommun2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate if structural factors to welfare indicators and the internal organisation of handle social assistance in combination with dominating ways of living with their values and norms can be used to explain why the costs of social assistance are low in Säffle township. The character of this study is exploratory, though important aspects in this case was unknown. The empiricism come from descriptive secondary statistics and from qualitative interwievs with three inhabitants in Säffle, whom are experts which means they know the township of Säffle and it´s inhabitants well. Säffle has been studied from four perspectives, of which the first two have a top- or macroperspective. In the study appears two divergent pictures. In the first macroperspective, the planning perspective, are several structural factors that used to imply high costs of social assistance. The level of education is low in Säffle, and the unemployment is high, especially among the young people. However there are positive structural factors that seem to counteract or ease the effects of the negative factors. The character of Säffle is high promotion of Self-employed and farmers. The high promotion of self-employed and farmers and their traditions of supply from many sources can be important reasons for the inhabitants of Säffle getting by without asking for help at the public institutions. In the second macroperspective, that focus on individual welfare indicators, the study shows that the inhabitants of Säffle have a low level of ill health respect several of the welfare indicators. In the mesoperspective the study shows that causes to low costs of social assistance in Säffle are not to be found in organisation or methods for handle the social assistance. The study indicates in a microperspective that the inhabitants in Säffle may have a traditional way of being and have values and norms that it is worthily to fend for oneself in exposed situations and that it is unworthy to ask for social assistance. The informants tell that the privat social relations of the inhabitants in Säffle indicates a divided place with solid groups hard to break. If there are norms and values in the group that says it is unworthy to ask for social assistance, though you might be entitled, there is a strong reason not to ask for social assistance. Though my empiricism about the norms and values of the inhabitants in Säffle are limited, the area is important and interesting for further studies. The social services in Säffle should look for better processing routines for handling the social assistance and to develop and improve the information about rights and obligations for the social assistance. Increasing costs for social assistance in Säffle hereafter would be motivated because of the non take up of social assistance that probably exists in Säffle.

  • 36.
    Bele, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Synen på ett svenskt Nato-medlemskap: En kvalitativ studie av Sveriges tre största partiers uppfattning rörande ett svenskt Nato-medlemskap.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze the connection between the perceived security policy threat and the view of a solution on the matter offered by the three biggest political parties of Sweden. These three parties are the Moderate Party, the Social Democratic Party and the Sweden Democrats. By studying these parties’ perceived point of view regarding the Swedish security policy threat, focusing Russia, and their opinion concerning a Swedish Nato-membership, opens up for the possibility of making conclusions whether each parties’ opinion regarding a Swedish membership of Nato is based on their assumption of what they believe are to be the current Swedish security policy treat, or if there might be, totally or partly, other aspects behind each parties’ opinion concerning a Swedish membership of Nato.

    The purpose of this essay is to be answered with help from the following research questions:

    1. What are the standpoint regarding the current Swedish security policy threat, focusing Russia, for the Social Democratic Party, the Moderate Party and the Sweden Democrats?

    2. In what extent are the Social Democratic Party, the Moderate Party and the Sweden Democrats standpoint regarding a Swedish Nato membership based on their point of view concerning the current Swedish security policy threat, focusing Russia?

    The theoretical framework of the essay is based on Allison & Zelikow´s rational choice model "The Rational Actor".

    The material used, in order to answer these two questions, consists of party programs, motions from the Defense committee and interviews with defense representatives from each of the three parties. The answer to question number one indicates that the Moderate Party and the Social Democratic Party, to a large extent, describes a similar threat whilst the Sweden Democrats is slightly different because of their focus of the interstate military threat.

    Research question number two is answered by analyzing the answer of question number one through "The Rational Actor model". The analyze shows that the Moderates is the party that, to the greatest extent, base their standpoint concerning a Swedish membership in Nato on their assumption of the current security policy threat, focusing Russia. The Sweden Democrats to a certain extent and the Social Democrats is the party that to the least extent base their standpoint concerning a Swedish Nato-membership on their assumptions of the Swedish security policy threat, focusing Russia.

    Some of the reasons behind the answer of question number two could partly depend on the fact that the Moderate Party is a historically traditional conservative party where questions concerning a strong defense and a clear approach to the western countries always has played an important role.

    The Social Democratic Party, on the other hand, has for a long time been in favor of a Swedish non-alignment policy, which entails them having invested a great deal of political capital in to this question. In terms of the Sweden Democrats, the author, notes that they do not have as firm standpoint as the other two parties have, concerning their views about the Swedish non-alignment policy. Due to this fact it is not all together out of question that the Sweden Democrats would support either a Swedish membership of Nato or a continued Swedish non-alignment policy, in exchange for influence in other political polices that would have higher priority for the party.

  • 37.
    Bergkvist, Karolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Kirlić, Nedim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Nationalism, främlingsfientlighet och islamofobi i politiken: En studie av fyra europeiska partier2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Bergström, Liza
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Political Participation: A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    “Political participation”

    - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    Thesis in Political Science, D-level

    Author: Liza Bergström

    Tutor: Michele Micheletti

    On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes are affecting the participation of citizens in politics in Hong Kong.” It asks: What, if anything, has the new political situation meant for the political participation in Hong Kong?

    Two perspectives have been used to answer the purpose, a structural approach and an actor-oriented approach. Five research questions have served as the starting point for my analysis and I have answered the general question on the basis of them.

    1. Do the citizens in Hong Kong believe they have the ability to participate in politics, that the political system facilitates their participation in politics?

    2. Do the citizens in Hong Kong believe that China tries to repress Hong Hong’s political rights?

    3. How do the citizens of Hong Kong participate in politics?

    4. How do the citizens of Hong Kong view their own political participation?

    5. Do the citizens of Hong Kong object to the political situation in Hong Kong?

    Empirical materials for this study have been collected in qualitative interviews with six citizens of Hong Kong, that is people who are Hong Kong Chinese. The conclusion is that the new political situation has not meant a lot for the political participation in Hong Kong. The answer of the general question from a structural approach is that the political system to a certain extent prevents the respondents from participating politically. On the basis of the actor-oriented approach the answer to the general question is that the new political situation has not meant anything for the political participation in Hong Kong.

  • 39.
    Björk, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Kultur kontra regler: En fallstudie av omorganisering i offentlig sektor2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the subject of change in public administration from an instrumental and an institutional structure perspective. The purpose of the thesis is to examine whether institutional structures affect the development of instrumental structures and if it in turn is possible to affect institutional structures by changing the instrumental structures. This case study is primarily based on a series of deep interviews with senior administrators and politicians within two new administrations in the municipality Karlstad, both which have been created by merging several smaller administrations, but also thorough analysis of several official document such as protocols from the municipal council meetings, Tjänsterskrivelser and internal PMs.   The result of the analysis indicates that both institutional structures and the forming instrumental structures affect each other and  that their ability to affect each other depends on the dominance over the organization each structure has.  In my specific research case we can see that the institutional structure of the city-technical and housing administration has affected the outcome but the institutional structure of the cultural and tourism administration hasn’t.  While the structural change of the city-technical and housing administration hasn’t effected the institutional structure but the structural change of the cultural and tourism administration has affected the institutional structure of this specific administration.

  • 40.
    Björkegren, Ylva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Sida ur ett lilberalfeministiskt perspektiv: Finns jämställdhetsidéer av liberalfeministiskt slag i Sidas bistånds - och utvecklingspolitik?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Essay in Political Science, C – level, by Ylva Björkegren, spring semester 2008. Tutor: Anna Spånning. “Sida from a liberal feministic perspective. Are there gender equality-ideas of liberal feministic kind in Sidas aid – and development policy?”

    The purpose of this essay is to study if Sidas aid – and development policy reflect gender equality. I aim to do this by applying liberal feministic thoughts on gender and development. Liberal feminism is here seen as that men and women should have the same responsibilities and rights in all spheres of society. My research question is as follows: Are there gender equality-ideas of liberalfeministic kind in Sidas aid- and development policy?

    Connected to this question are three variables: Entrepreneurship, Ownership and Education. By examining if Sida promotes gender equality in their work within these variables I aim to answer my research question. I examine this by counducting interviews with Sida-personnel and by, with a qualitative approach, studying Sida-documents and publications.

    I perform this research by conducting a comparative case – study; I compare and study Bangladesh and Ethiopia within these variables.

    I also conduct a general discussion on wether these variables can have an effect on the level of development in these countries. Development is in this essay expressed through three indexes; Human Development Index, Gender – related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure.

    My delimitation lies in the fact that I only compare two countries. I believe that I would get a more generalizable result if I would have compared say all fifty LDC-countries. The fact that I only study three variables is also a delimitation.

    The answers to my research question is that Yes – there are gender equality-ideas of liberalfeministic kind in Sidas aid- and development policy. I have also found that my variables are variables that are likely to have an influence on the level of development. I am also very well aware of the fact that there are lots of other variables, that I have not examined, which also have that influence on development.

    Key words: gender, gender equality, development, entrepreneurship, ownership, education, Bangladesh, Ethiopia

  • 41.
    Björling, Ameli
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    CSR och politisk konsumtion: - en studie av Nikes och Pumas CSR- rapporter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “CSR and political consumption – a study of Nike’s and Puma’s CSR-reports”

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine if political consumption has influenced multinational corporations to improve their Corporate Social Responsibility reports and policies more, than a company who has not been a target for political consumption.

    This dissertation is a content analysis of Nike’s and Puma’s first (Nike 2001, Puma 2001) and latest (Nike 2007/09, Puma 2007/08) CSR- reports. Archie Carroll’s model of Corporate Social Responsibility is used as theoretical framework in this study. The model is used to focus on four areas within CSR; economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic. There has been delimitation in these four areas. Considering the economic area the study focuses on minimum wage, the legal area is focusing on minimum age, the ethical area is focusing on dialogue with stakeholders and control of suppliers and the philanthropic area is focusing on non-profit organization, projects and programs.

    The results indicate that political consumption in the case of Nike, has no impact on the company to improve their CSR-report but they have improved their policy against CSR. In comparison to Nike, Puma has changed more from the first report until the latest. This could be because it is more generally popular to work with CSR today. Compared to Puma, Nike has changed more considering their policy against CSR. 

    Keywords: Archie Carroll’s Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility, Change, Corporate Social Responsibility Report, Multinational Corporations, Nike, Policy, Political consumption, Puma

  • 42.
    Bjørkquist, Catharina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    Stakeholder Influence in Higher Education: Old Ideas in New Bottles?2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with how national higher education policy affects stakeholder influence in practice, i.e. how two selected higher education institutions, the University of Oslo and Telemark University College, have interpreted and adapted to national policy reforms. The aim of this dissertation is threefold. First, four stakeholder regimes: the expert, welfare, bargaining and entrepreneurial regimes, are developed. Second, these stakeholder regimes are used to investigate the evolvement of norms and structures for stakeholder influence over time, i.e. approximately 40 years, at the University of Oslo and Telemark University College, respectively. Third, historical institutionalism is used at an organisational level in order to reveal the evolvement of continuity and change in stakeholder influence at these two institutions.

    This dissertation argues that the two higher education institutions have both undergone an evolvement of stakeholder influence in three phases where the two first phases have paved the way for the ultimately dominant characteristics of the entrepreneurial regime. At the same time, the analysis shows that the initial institutional legacies of the University of Oslo and Telemark University College differed. The University of Oslo had an established institutional legacy where the professors had the most influence, whereas the participation of other internal stakeholder groups became part of the legacy during the 1970s. Recently, ideas of strong leadership have been added to the legacy. In contrast, the institutional legacy of Telemark University College was based on cooperation with external stakeholders already from the outset of the period studied here.

    On a general level, this dissertation argues that policy is more likely to change practice if the changes are incremental and introduced as layering modes of change on the structural aspects of the regime models. Along with these incremental changes – where the University of Oslo and Telemark University College become more alike in several aspects – both higher education institutions display a number of continuous practices; cooperation with external stakeholders is one example which can be traced back to the early stage of this study. However, Telemark University College initially opened up more to the outside world than the University of Oslo.

  • 43.
    Bock, Joacim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Delar av Sverige ska leva!: En studie av legitimitetsfaktorerna för svenska regionsammanslagningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to – through a discourse analysis – examine how the parliamentary committee – Ansvarskommittén – legitimizes the need for merging administrative regions. The committee’s investigation is what underlies the present debate on regionalisation and the merging of regions in Sweden. To carry out this discourse analysis, I have used “What’s the problem represented to be?”, by Carol Lee Bacchi as an analytical framework. The analytical framework aids the examination on how political parties construct problems through the solutions they propose. After carefully examining the final dictum of Ansvarskommittén, this study concludes that the committe’s investigation legitimizes the merging of regions primarily through three discourses. First, it is being legitimized through Neo-Regionalism which is also a component in the remaining two discourses. The second discourse is Europeanization that is intended to adapt the regions to the regional standards of the European Union. The third discourse is the financial growth discourse and is intended to maintain the financial growth and competitiveness of regions against other regions. Consequently, the regions are given the responsibility of the state’s wealth instead of the state being responsible for the wealth of the regions as seen in traditional welfare states.

  • 44. Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Føllesdal, Andreas
    Klintman, Mikael
    Micheletti, Michele
    Sørensen, Mads
    Political Consumerism: Its Motivations, Power and Conditions in the Nordic Countries and Elsewhere2005Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Bozorgi, Ronak
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Attitudes and Adaptation Towards the EU: A Case Study of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses upon the adaptation of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and Moderate Party towards the European Union. Adaptation is explored by examining attitudes the political parties have on different issues related to the EU. In other words it is assumed that adaptation is dependent on attitudes, amongst other things, and the attitudes are examined by studying officially expressed opinions by the parties in party programmes and in parliamentary protocols. By expanding the study to three years possible alterations in the attitudes can be detected and something can be said on the level of adaptation the parties show towards the EU in each research question. The questions are (1) Should Sweden take an active part in developing the European integration process?, (2) Is it believed that participation in international collaboration provides output benefits that the nation state no longer can provide?, (3) Is pooling of sovereignty problematic?, (4) Is military non-alignment important for Sweden? and (5) Is it important that Sweden participates in a common European security policy? The three years of research are 1995, 2006 and the first half of 2010. Two of the questions are developed by utilising the fusion perspective, that is a part of the fusion approach, which is also the theoretical framework of this study.

    The findings of this study show that both the Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party experience attitudinal alterations in almost all the questions investigated. This causes some shifts in their level of adaption towards the European Union. Furthermore the results show that the Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party are adapted towards the Union in most of the years researched.

  • 46.
    Bozorgi, Ronak
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Den finansiella nedgångens påverkan för politikers aktivitet: En studie av LiV2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Essay in political science, C-level, by Ronak Bozorgi, fall semester 2007. Tutor:

    P.O. Norell. “The affect of financial decline on politician’s activity. A study of LiV.”

    The purpose of this essay is to examine if financial decline affect the activity of the politicians. It is important to shed light on politician’s activity since it is connected to the principal of representation. I study if the decline affects the activity in a specific case, landstinget i Värmland (LiV), and my method is thereby a case study. Activity is measured as raising bills and more precisely I measure three aspects of this particular form of activity. The aspects lead to the specific questions (1) Does financial decline lead to fewer raised bills in the case landstinget i Värmland? (2) Dose financial decline affect the characteristic of the bills in the case landstinget i Värmland? (3) Dose financial decline affect how the politicians in the bills express there own representative roll in the case landstinget i Värmland?

    The theoretical framework is based on theories about financial problems (besparingsteorier) and their hypothesis that financial decline leads to a lower degree of activity is in focus for analyse of the first question. The technique I use to answer the questions is to examine the financial situation parallel to the numbers of bills raised, the characteristic of the bills and the roll expressed in the bills. In this way it will be reviled if the aspects do change at a decline or not. For the empirical part of the study I use primary sources in the form of economic accounts and bills. Other sources are academic literature, a rapport and oral sources between others. The two most important delimitations of the study is the time frame which reaches from the year 1982 up to 2007 and the fact that activity is measured at raising bills.

    My conclusion is that financial decline does affect the activity of the politicians in the case landstinget i Värmland, but that the hypothesis of the theories about financial problems is falsified. The decline does not lead to fewer raised bills (the empirical results indicate the opposite), it does affect the characteristics of the bills and it also affect how the politicians express their representative roll.

  • 47.
    Brage, Hannes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Socialdemokraterna och bostadspolitiken2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Broman, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    Att göra en demokrat?: Demokratisk socialisation i den svenska gymnasieskolan2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses upon the extent that teaching about democracy affects pupil comprehension and opinions about democracy. Its point of departure is the question, “to what extent is school an agent of democratic socialization?” The overall aim of this study is to contribute to understanding the democratic socialization process and especially to understand the role that school can play in that process.

     

    The study is comprised of a survey about democratic values, democratic institutions and democratic authorities completed by 318 upper secondary pupils upon two occasions. The first was just prior to the start of the course, “Samhällskunskap A” and the second was at the end of that course. The survey also included a number of background questions related to each individual participant; 28 pupils in one of the schools who had not yet studied “Samhällskunskap A” were used as a control group. Twelve teachers involved in actual teaching at that time were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward the official documents about democratic socialization and whether or not they saw the goals as articulated in those documents as possible to achieve.

     

    Based upon theories about democratic socialization and socialization agents, a number of conditions and problems were formulated and operationalized in order to analyse the outcome of the study. Three main concepts were used as analytical tools: democratic orientations, democratic socialization and socialization agent.

     

    The results do not support the assumption that school can be seen as a general democratic socialization agent through teaching about politics and democracy. But certain situations and aspects of democratic orientations demonstrate that the school has a tendency to affect socialization; therefore school is seen as a specific democratic socialization agent. The main conclusion of this study is that teaching about politics and democracy is expected to have limited influence on pupils in upper secondary school. Also important is the finding that the pupil’s average change on the aggregate level is low, but on individual level, many pupils made significant changes regarding their democratic orientations during the course. The results support a view that the process of democratic socialization is a complex process and is difficult to predict.

  • 49.
    Bryntesson, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Unga Kommunpolitiker: Varför blir vissa unga kommunpolitiker, hur upplever de att det är och vad tycker de ska göras för att engagera fler unga inom politiken?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    C-essay in political science by Anna Bryntesson

    Supervisor: Michele Micheletti

    Spring 2006

    “Young municipality politicians - Why some young people become municipality politicians, how they think it is and

    what they think should be done to engage more young people in politics?”

    The Swedish municipalities have problem with that they doesen´t have many politicians under 30 years. Many of the young people who become politicians drop out after a short while. The conclusion of this is that the Swedish municipalities have problems to engage young people in politics.

    The purpose of this essay is to study and try to find out what young people think about politics? This is done with personally interviews with 7 young municipality politicians from the municipality of Eda.

    The specific research questions are:

    • Who are they which became young municipality politicians?

    • What was the reason that they became politicians?

    • How do they look at municipality politics?

    • Which roll and function does the young people have as a municipality politician?

    • What do they think should be done to get more young people to engaged in politics and become a municipality politician?

    The young Eda politician is a girl living in a house in the country and she has middle education. Many of the young politicians in Eda has become politicians because their parents has asked them if the want to be a politician. They think that politics is hard but fun. Their roll is to look at think in a new way. Politicians need to go to schools and tell the kids in school what they do a a politician to try to make young people more intrested in politics. The teory that is more usually that men is engaged in politics than womans isn´t right in Eda. Because there among the young peolpe more womans than men are engaged.

  • 50.
    Bäckström, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Kommunalt självstyre i en (ny)regional kontext: En diskursnanalys om regionala dimensioner på kommunal planering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze four public document published by the Swedish state to see what the problems is represented to be, which makes the politics move to a certain direction where municipal planning, more specifically spatial and social planning and housing planning, should take into account regional perspectives. Also, the purpose of this essay is to analyze the terms of the local self-government in a context where the municipal planning is increasingly to be arranged in a regional perspective.

    This essays theoretical- and methodological approach contains of a scientific package created by Carol Bacchi. Her theoretical- and methodological approach studies problem representations and to answer this essay overall questions I use a discourse analysis tool inspired of Bacchis approach.

    The empirical analysis shows that there is a problem representation about an ongoing regional expansion, thus expanding functional regions. Another problem representation is that it is considered necessary to have a greater coordination of the municipal planning. The municipal monopoly, which is a part of the local self-government, is problematized in the examined document to be of great importance, but there are some shortcomings in the application. All of these problem representations and problematisations can be traced to a discourse in which sustainable development, competitiveness and growth is desirable. The terms of the local self-government can be understood in the sense that one of its cornerstones, the municipal planning, greater will be arranged in a new regional logic, which builds upon a certain kind of politics with a consensus tradition

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