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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares arbetssätt och material som kan hjälpa elever med dyslexi2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Larsson, Maria G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 3.
    Alberg, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Utredningsarbete och åtgärdsprogram: En gruppintervjustudie baserad på tre pedagogers tankar och känslor kring processen att utföra utredningsarbete och formulera åtgärdsprogram2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Albinsson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Särskilt stöd i förskolan: En studie om verksamma pedagogers syn på särskilt stöd2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Särskilt stöd i är en viktig del i förskolans verksamhet då den ska möta alla barn som har olika behov och förutsättningar. Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med kunskap om vad särskilt stöd i förskolan innebär. Mina frågeställningar handlar om vad pedagogerna anser vara särskilt stöd och vilka som är i behov av det. För att få svar på mina frågeställningar har jag använt mig av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem verksamma pedagoger i förskolan.  I litteraturgenomgången ges en teoretisk bakgrund av mitt valda problemområde samt vad forskningen säger om särskilt stöd. Resultatet av min undersökning visar att särskilt stöd i förskolan kan se ut på olika sätt. Arbetet med särskilt stöd innehåller flera delar men de intervjuade pedagogerna poängterar att det viktiga är att man som pedagog tar tag i de svårigheter som uppstår i förskolan. Det är viktigt att man kontinuerligt förändrar verksamheten utefter de som vistas i den.

  • 5.
    Albinsson, Ronja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Biologi i förskolan: En undersökning om förskollärarnas inställning till biologi i jämförelse med ämnets användning i förskolan.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the preschool teachers knowledge and interest in biology and how they teach the subject. To answer my questions in this study, I used the survey questionnaire. A total of 88 preschool teachers responded to the survey. They answered questions about their own views regarding biology and how they teach the topic. Results showed that approximately half of the participants mentioned that they did not teach, in equal terms, all areas of biology, the focus was primarily on the areas of animals and nature. It was important for the teachers to consider the children’s interest, and they focus on what they themselves were interested in and had knowledge about.

  • 6.
    Alexandra, Guseva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att organisera för lärande: En studie av samband mellan gruppens ålderssammansättning och förutsättningar för barns lärande i förskolan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are some patterns and connections between the teachers’ experiences of the conditions for children’s learning and age settings at preschool groups. The study is quantitative, and a web survey is used to collect the data from the teachers. The study includes all preschools in a municipality in Värmland, Sweden. 144 preschool teachers from 55 municipal preschool groups participated in the study. Following age settings are represented in the study: same-age preschool groups, groups with children between 1-3 years old, groups with children between 3-5 years old and groups with children between 1-5 years old.

    The study is based on interactionistic theories, which means that the preschool is examined from various interacting aspects and dimensions. Conditions for children’s learning are seen in the study in relation to preschool quality, which is a complex phenomenon constituted in the interaction between dimensions of structure, process, and outcome. The study focuses on age setting as a structural aspect of preschool quality and following aspects of process quality: organizing of the pedagogical environment, teachers’ approach to organizing of daily activities and teachers’ interplay with children

    The results of the study show that there are important differences between groups with different age settings regarding organizing of the pedagogical environment and interplay between teachers and children. However, these differences are rather ambiguous and can be explained by other aspects and factors such as group’size, children’s age, and pedagogical approach. Therefore, age setting as such is not the key to preschool quality but must be seen in relation to other aspects and dimensions.

  • 7.
    Alvåg, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Bygg och konstruktion i förskolan: En studie där pedagoger beskriver sitt arbete med bygg och konstruktion2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how teachers are working with build and construction in preschool. Further how they reason on the basis of material importance for build and construction. Theoretical basis of the study is of the socio-cultural perspective and research method used qualitative semi-structured interviews.

     

    The result of the study shows that activities and any planning of build and construction in the surveyed preschools, to the greatest extent were based up on the children´s influence and interests. Further it shows the teachers thoughts on the prospects for planning and working with build and construction in preschool. It shows what kind of materials the interviewed teachers had access to. For example, all teachers had access to blocks, Lego and some form of recycling materials. The result also shows how teachers reason on the basis of material and it´s role in working with build and construction in preschool.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Lärlingsutbildning som skolform: Hur ställer sig lärare, elever och handledare till det?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Andersson, Cecilia
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Matematiksvårigheter: Klasslärarens arbetsmetoder2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to contribute knowledge about how class teachers can work with students who are in mathematics difficulties. The question at issues I have is: Which methods can class teachers in grades 1-3 use to help students with mathematics difficulties? and Which obstacles and opportunities are there in this work? To get answers to my questions, I have read relevant literature and interviewed 3 class teachers in central Sweden. Through my interview I learned that education should include and build on concrete materials and methods. I also got to know that time is the biggest obstacle to helping students with mathematics difficulties.

     

    Keywords: mathematics difficulties, methods, obstacles, opportunities

  • 10.
    Andersson, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Livsåskådning: Ett sätt att se på livet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how teachers interpret information in curriculum about the term worldview, and how they plan and perform education. The term worldview describes as a ground experience about humans’ worldviews. Humans can have different experiences in religious and non-religious meaning. Humans view on existence and the world, could be from a worldview. The term worldview includes many questions about why we exist, how humans are, what society stands for and the belief in “higher power”. International research from the 70th showed that there is not an equivalent term for the word “livsåskådning” (worldview). In the curriculum Lpo94, describes how education active can promote humans equal value. In the curriculum Lgr11 describes how humans view on life had changed and still is. Religion and worldview is central terms in education of religion, because they are important for the human culture. In society of today we live in diversity and with increased knowledge we understand each other better. In education in religion will pay attention to how human in religious traditions lives and express their beliefs in different ways. In curriculum Lgr11 describes how the pupils should have abil- ity to develop and reflect over their questions of life, identity and approach.

    In education are discussions about what may affect pupils understanding to religion and their worldview. There is negative aspects with teachers decisions about content in edu- cation when teachers themselves have an own worldview and interpretation that they think are important. This could lead to that the pupils not have ability to develop their own worldview.

    The connection between worldview and didactics shows how pupils should be given space to create their own choice between different worldviews. Education in religion should provide pupils knowledge about different worldviews. The pupils are often given knowledge about world religions and a fast review about worldviews. Non-religious worldviews constitute a part of the subject of religion in different forms of rituals and culture.

    The study is built on a qualitative design, which means to develop deeper understanding of the subject. This study is based on interviews with three teachers in elementary school, 4-6, who teaches religion. The interviews was performed with semi- structured, audio recording interviews with opened supplementary. After the interviews the material was transcribed directly by the author. The text was read several times to find similarities and differences in the teacher’s description of the term worldview. The result are divided in categories that connect the interview questions. Four categories showed: The term worldview, Teachers description of the term worldview in the curriculum and Teachers interpretation of the curriculum and also planning and implementing of their education current worldview. In the category teacher’s interpretation of the curriculum and also planning and implementing of their education current worldview are divided into five subcategories: interpretation, implementing and teacher’s description of the pupils and teachers team. The result showed that informants did not have awareness about the term worldview and did not have time to educate about the term in the subject religion. The study also showed that the teachers thought it were difficult to discuss the term with the pupils their worldview though it could perceive as sensitivity.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ingegerd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Skolmiljöns betydelse för inkludering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker fyra grundskole - och grundsärskoleelevers upplevelser av den egna skolmiljön i en inkluderande verksamhet. Studien är baserad på kvalitativa undersökningsmetoder som deltagande tekniker, observationer och samtal. En analys av materialet har gjorts utifrån rumslig, social och didaktisk aspekt av inkludering. Resultaten av studien visar att eleven kan vara inkluderad utifrån en eller flera aspekter. Eleverna har beskrivit sin skolmiljö och uttryckt de behov de har för att kunna delta i skolans arbete. Det finns en samstämmighet hos eleverna i deras önskemål om en lugn miljö och arbete i mindre grupp. Trots att klassrummet synbarligen hade en lugn miljö, var det ändå ansträngande att vistas där en hel lektion.

    För att utveckla skolans arbetsmiljö kan man arbeta med ett mer medvetet förhållningssätt till klassrummets utformning. Klassrummet ska vara en plats för lärande och en social mötesplats. För att göra skolan tillgänglig måste miljön studeras utifrån olika synvinklar och där kan eleverna vara med och påverka. Studien kan bidra till att lyfta fram metoder och synsätt för att göra skolmiljön tillgänglig för alla elever.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    En skola för alla: Specialpedagogiska perspektiv i praktiken2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My thesis is about the possibilities and the difficulties to be a school for everyone that can meet

    the pupils and give them the individual support that they need. To include children in special

    need in regular classes and give them the special education amongst other children with or

    without special needs in the frame of the regular teaching. I have done two qualitative interviews

    with teachers with an extra exam in how to conduct special education and their experiences about

    the school and its possibilities and difficulties to be a more inclusive school. They meant that it is

    important to have inclusion as a goal but they also showed the difficulties such as a lack of

    competence amongst teachers, politics and different ways to meet children in special needs and

    different approaches on how to conduct special education.

    Keywords: children in special need, Inclusion, special educational perspectives and special

    education

  • 13.
    Andersson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Mamma, pappa, barn: En studie om flickor och pojkars lek i docvkrån på fritidshemmet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Andersson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Känsla av sammanhang: En studie om KASAM i årskurserna 1, 3 och 62010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sense of coherence, SOC, is a way to study health and wellbeing in a salutogen perspective. SOC is a theory that Aaron Antonovsky came up with and it involves three elements; comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. These three elements is a objective way to look at our existence. The aim of this study was to examine how high the pupils sense of coherence was in the grades 1, 3 and 6 in a school in Karlstad. And with the result as starting point have a discussion around the pedagogical consequences and which educational work procedures we can use to work with SOC in school. It turned out that the students sense of coherence had a high mean value and that it got even higher through the grades.

     

    The study will underlie for further development in this subject field and work as a foundation for further studies around the theory SOC.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Möjligheter och hinder för ämnesintegration: En studie av karaktärsämneslärares uppfattning av ämnesintegration på Industriprogrammet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A correlated curriculum is a way to give the subject relevance in a wider context to strengthen the pupils’ education.  The idea is that students' motivation will increase for their studies, as the goals to aim for. This study intends to find out vocational teachers perception of a correlated curriculum within the Industrial programme. The studies of opportunities and obstacles of a correlated curriculum are made through qualitative interviews with six vocational teachers within the Industrial programme. The study compares vocational teachers understanding of a correlated curriculum with the perceptions of core subject teachers of another study. The results show that vocational teachers perceive more opportunities than obstacles and have found ways to overcome barriers to integrated working substance. The possibilities are described as increasing motivation, accelerated learning and a holistic approach to knowledge. The obstacles are described as approach to knowledge, lack of communication and time. The solutions are described as taking the initiative, creating common time, clear and simple goals.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Utevistelsen som lärtillfälle: Pedagoger berättar: Utemiljöns betydelse för deras arbete med kunskapande om djur och växter i förskolan.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to find out what preschool educationalists’ opinions are about the time they spend outdoors, and how they use the outdoor environment as a place for learning and development. The focus is primarily on learning about animals and plants. The method used was semi-structured interviews with six teachers from various preschools, in three municipalities. These educationalists have from 7 to 27 years of work experience from child care, and both nannies and preschool teachers were interviewed. The interviewees were asked to answer questions about their education and years of experience, the time they spend outdoors at preschool, their preschools yards, being outdoors in natural surroundings, what they have to say about the level of planning in the outdoors, and the abilities and/or obstacles they experience when working with animals and plants during the time they spend outdoors. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The educationalists' perceptions and opinions were structured in charts, and then categorized according to the different responses, and those were presented in the results. The results showed that the outdoor activities are more spontaneous than scheduled, and the children's free play and exploration are often the focus. It also showed that the educationalists' attitudes are very important, according to themselves, to challenge the children to develop their own explorations. The interaction between children and educationalists is essential, according to the interviewees. But they also express the importance of children spending time in different environments - both planned environments such as the preschool yard, as well as in natural environments. It gives children the opportunity to explore the environment surrounding them, and understand relations between us and nature through hands-on experiences. Obstacles that educationalists sometimes experience in their work are, for example, insufficient knowledge, organizational problems or having to adapt their time to routine situations. But all interviewees agreed that spending time outdoors is a big part of the children's day at preschool, and they saw many advantages with playing, learning and developing in an outdoor environment.

  • 17.
    Andersén, Annelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Identitetsframträdande och positionering i handledares berättelser2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 87-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning är en stor del av yrkesutbildning på olika nivåer. Den handledning som förekommer i en utbildning beskrivs som ett sätt att stödja och uppmuntra studenterna i deras lärande (Croninger & Lee, 2001), men även handledaren är lärande i handledningssituationen (Andersén, Berglund & Gustavsson, kommande). I artikeln beskriver vi handledningssituationer som berättas i tal eller skrift av handledare, och analyserar de lärar-/handledningsidentiteter som framträder i berättelserna. Vi utgår från ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv på berättande (Goodson, Biesta, Tedder, & Adair, 2010; Mishler, 1999) där handledarnas narrativa reflektioner kring sina berättelser (Freeman, 2010) har en avgörande roll i rekonstruktionen av handledningssituationen. Handledare i vår studie är lärarutbildare på gymnasiala yrkesprogram som handleder inom verksamhetsförlagd utbildning (VFU), högskolelärare som arbetar med handledningsmodellen Reflekterande Handledning i Omvårdnad (RHiO) inom sjuksköterskeprogrammet samt yrkeslärare som handleder elever inom de gymnasiala yrkesprogrammen. De som blir handledda är följaktligen universitetsstudenter (yrkeslärar- och sjuksköterskestudenter) och yrkeselever. Omgivningen varierar beroende på yrkesutbildning, men är exempelvis för yrkeslärarna gymnasieskolor och deras gymnasielever. Studien visar att de lärar-/handledaridentiteter som framträder ur lärarnas/handledarnas berättelser om deras handledningsarbete handlar om handledare som mentor och förebild, handledare som reflekterande samtalspartner samt handledare som bedömare och kontrollant. Dessutom visar studien att lärarna/handledarna främst positionerar sig gentemot de studenter de handleder, men också att den som bli handledd kan positionera sig i förhållande till sin egen handledare. 

  • 18.
    Andreasson, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Det är mycket pyssel: En studie av föräldrars syn på fritidshemsverksamheten2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fritidshemmet har till uppdrag att skapa en meningsfull fritid för eleven efter skoldagens slut. Fritidshemmet skall dessutom vara ett komplement till skolan så att föräldrarna kan yrkesarbeta eller studera på heltid. Föräldrar lämnar över ansvaret för sina barn till pedagoger under större delen av vardagen, men vet föräldrarna om vad deras barns vardag på fritids består av? Denna studie syftar till att skapa en uppfattning om vad föräldrar har för syn på fritidshemsverksamheten. Anser föräldrar att eleverna lär sig något på fritids? Har föräldrar en förståelse för vad fritids har för uppdrag och vad eleverna lär sig på fritids? För att få en insyn i hur föräldrar tänker kring dess frågor har en enkätundersökning samt en intervju gjorts. För att skapa en bredare samhällssyn återges även fritidshemmet och föräldrasamverkan i ett historiskt perspektiv genom litteraturstudie. Studien visade på samma resultat som många föregående studier gjort, att föräldrar har generellt en god syn på fritids men att de anser att förbättringar kan göras för att skapa en välfungerande fritid för eleverna.

  • 19.
    Ardström, Jan Pierre Kristian
    Karlstad University, Division for Educational Sciences.
    Elever med Dyslexi: Hur elever med dyslexi har upplevt sin skolgång och datorprogrammet ViTal2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Arnesen, Trine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Are they ready for this?: Experiences on implementing educational behavior-analytic interventions in Norwegian kindergartens2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes an investigation into experiences connected to the implementation of educational behavior-analytic interventions (ABA) for children with autism in kindergartens. The research questions and the methodological choices in this investigation evolved based on new experiences over the course of the research project. Three sub-studies were conducted: a single case study on the implementation of ABA teaching programs specifically targeting joint attention skills for children with autism in kindergartens (Study 1); a questionnaire survey on the experiences of ABA supervisors in implementing ABA in kindergartens (Study 2); and an interview study on the experiences of ABA teachers in implementing ABA in kindergartens (Study 3). During Study 1, it appeared that the teaching intensity of the targeted ABA teaching programs varied largely from what was initially planned for all four of the participating children. Under those conditions, the learning outcomes of the children also varied. With regard to Study 2, the survey data obtained from 29 ABA supervisors indicated that many children with autism who receive ABA in Norwegian kindergartens do not receive the number of teaching hours being planned for them. There also seems to be quite a large number of kindergartens that lack teaching teams and who receive supervision less than what is generally recommended to obtain the optimal outcome from ABA. With regard to Study 3, the interview data obtained from 10 ABA teachers illustrated how implementation factors such as compatibility, complexity, client responsiveness, and supervision can be manifested when ABA is implemented in the kindergarten. A main finding was that in some cases there seem to be conflicting opinions within the kindergarten about whether ABA is right for the child, something that was interpreted to reflect a conflict between the categorical and the relational perspectives of special education.

  • 21.
    Aronsson, Liselott
    Karlstad University.
    Som små astronauter: -En idrottslärares berättelse om specialgymnastik i skolan2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to examine methodologies at remedial lessons for children with weak mobility, in a common Swedish municipal school in an attempt to determine if a connection to theoretical learning exists.

    Kadesjö describes how difficulties in concentration can arise as a result of problems with mobility and perception, and according to Piaget very young children develop cogitation through physical movements. These connections are not news but always current.

    At the meeting with Lasse the question was born whether learning problems in school that are a result of concentration difficulties, could be countered with mobility training.

    By the selection of Life history as method, it’s possible to follow a physical educator's experiences through his 30 years of work, and to some extent even his private life. Experiences and results are notified from a historical perspective from 1976 until 2006.

    He is bringing us on a journey that shows the changes in methodology and results after his contact with Sensomotoriskt Centrum.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Lovisa
    Karlstad University.
    Datorn som pedagogiskt verktyg: Hur datorn har förändrat skolan2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The computers use and function in the school has increased a lot more in the late eighties and early nineties. There are few studies that are done in the first part of the compulsory school (for children aged 7-12). The researchers thought then that the form and function of the school would be changed dramatically. That is a cause for me to examine how the compulsory school and the teachers role has changed since the computer became a pedagogical teaching tool. I have interviewed five teachers from five different schools who are situated in the middle of Sweden. The interviewed teachers describe how the use of computers in the school today can be used for teaching purposes and how the computer has changed the schools since it became a pedagogical teaching tool. The interviews have been done individually and in separate rooms with open questions. The result of this examination is that the computer is a useful pedagogical teaching tool that benefits all the pupils, particular pupils with reading and writing difficulties. Since schools got access to the Internet it has become an important part of education. It is important to teach the pupils about ethics and critisism of sources. The computer has not revolutionized the school but it has helped the school to contribute to a more wide and varied teaching style, that benefits the pupils education.

  • 23.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Defining professional skills from teachers life stories2018In: Emergent issues in Vocational Education & Training: Voices from cross-national research / [ed] Lázaro Moreno Herrera, Marianne Teräs, Petros Gougoulakis, Premiss förlag, 2018, p. 23-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life and professional experiences of vocational teachers in Sweden are at the centre of this study. Vocational teachers are greatly influential in shaping their students into professionals. The specific life experiences of vocational teachers can play an important role in preparing vocational students for their future professional lives. This study investigates the different themes that emerge from the teachers’ professional life stories regarding the term professional skills. Through life story interviews with four vocational teachers I could see that professional skills do not only involve the tangible work done in the profession (for example, welding, turning or milling), but there are also other skills that vocational students should acquire to become successful professionals. In this article, I show what other skills the vocational teachers may emphasize and how these other skills can be understood in relation to vocational teachers’ previous experiences.

  • 24.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Från uppväxt till lärargärning: En livsberättelsestudie med åtta yrkeslärare på industritekniska programmet2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is based on eight vocational teachers’ life stories with the aim to provide knowledge about vocational teachers and their work with pupils in teaching in the industrial-technology programme, in the context of both a working life and a vocational education which is continuously changing. The thesis answers two research questions: 1) the themes that recur in vocational teachers’ life stories about how they meet and teach their pupils and 2) the teaching goals and strategies which emerge from vocational teachers’ life stories. All in all fifteen interviews were conducted from which life stories and teacher profiles were constructed.

    Results show five recurring themes in the teacher profiles.  The themes are; to be a caring adult for vocational pupils, to teach them basic knowledge considered important for the education, to teach them respect and discipline, to teach them the value of fighting and not giving up, and to show them the possibility of international employment. Moreover, the teacher goals and strategies emerging from the life stories show that the teachers can be said to educate different types of industrial workers. In line with these results, vocational education can be seen as more than a preparation for working life. Vocational teachers with different life experiences create different relationships with their pupils in order to create opportunities for them to manage school and to succeed in a life after school. In an industrial-technical education and in a working life which is constantly changing, vocational teachers have received various educations and worked in various industries during different time periods. They both educate their pupils and prepare them for a future working life based on these experiences.

  • 25.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Relationen mellan tidigare livs- och yrkeserfarenheter och undervisning på industriprogrammet i två yrkeslärares livsberättelser2012In: Livsberättelser Mening och identitet i tid och rum: Mening och identitet i tid och rum / [ed] Marie Karlsson och Héctor Pérez Prieto, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Folk kommer ju alltid behöva å skita": Identitetsframträdanden i teknisk gymnasial yrkesutbildning2018In: Berättelser: Vänbok till Héctor Pérez Prieto / [ed] Annica Löfdahl Hultman, Christina Olin-Scheller, Marie Tanner, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018, p. 95-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Två yrkeslärares berättelser om bedömningshandlingar på industritekniska programmet2018In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on two vocational teachers´ stories of grade assessment. The teachers are Leif and Johnny, who teach in the industrial technology programme in two different upper secondary schools in Sweden. The research method we use in the study is life stories. From the vocational teachers’ stories emerge different categories of assessment criteria that show different considerations, as compared to the national knowledge requirements, when grading students with one of the five pass grades. The categories for passing grades are: the grade awarded as a prize rating, the grade awarded as being an okay-guy, the grade awarded in advance, and the grade awarded as a last chance. The categories show that the vocational teachers Leif and Johnny, in their assessment documents, do not always comply with the requirements that the syllabus and steering documents put on the knowledge assessment. Leif and Johnny use different forms of knowledge measurements when grading their students with passing grades. The forms are based on their social relations with their students.

  • 28.
    Asif, Fahima
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Teaching in Overcrowded Classes: A Quantitative Study of Class Size Effect on Students’ Learning Achievements2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about Afghan teachers teaching strategies and ways for dealing with large sized classes and to see the connection between class size and students final exam result in two different grades. The total pupation of students is 739. Out of this 565 participants of the study are in overcrowded classes. The rest of them were from small sized classes. The data is analyzed by comparing the tests of two different sized classes, it means students’ achievement in large and small classes were compared. The research is also on finding about various teaching methods used by teachers in overcrowded classes and to see the effect of class size on learners achievement. The result of the study shows that teaching in an overcrowded classes is a challenging problem for teachers. The most serious issue in large sized classes is physical space limitation, teaching materials, text books and few furniture. They spend much of the time in arrangement of their classes, becauseof this teachers have less time for giving the actual lesson. It is difficult to motivate learners in large sized classes.

    The data indicates that the performance of the students in large sized classes is very low compared to the smaller classes. The study need more investigation about using effective strategies for dealing with work in large classes.

  • 29.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Läsning som identitetsskapande handling.: Gemenskapande och utbrytningsförsök i fordonspojkars litteratursamtal.2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation literature discussions which include students of Vehicle Engineering at a Swedish upper secondary school will be discussed. The students are all boys. The study is focused on these boys’ small-group literature discussions, and the aim of the study is to describe what happens when they discuss four of the novels that form an integral part in the context of their Swedish studies. Principal fields of interest are the readings and the reception that the boys give utterance to in the literature discussions, as well as the identity-constructing processes which set in when they interact in the light of what they have read.

    The empirical material consists of eleven video recorded small-group discussions, and a conversational analytic perspective is combined with a reception theory perspective in the dissertation.

    The study shows that a sense of community is vital to the core of the boys’ literature discussions, and this has an influence on the reception and the readings that come up in the discussions. The boys are anxious to come to an agreement and voices which threaten to shatter the sense of community that has been constructed in the discussions are opposed in different ways. The literature discussions are not only arenas where the boys construct themselves as readers but are also considered as a forum where various identity-constructing practices take place.

    As readers these boys are bound to what can be read, and what cannot be read, in literary texts, but it is possible to see a certain development in their readings towards a more complex attitude, such as they find expression in the discussions. The boys also carry out the literature discussions, and the constructed sense of community is based on the reading of the novel to be discussed in a small-group discussion. Thus the boys take on the responsibility for their own learning as well.

    Many of the processes in which the boys are involved during the literature discussions could be described as processes of social reproduction, but various dividing lines which could be identified in the study also show that there are openings for other directions of the discussions.

     

  • 30.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    När brytpunkter uppstår2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Platsens betydelse för pojkars och unga mäns läsning2018In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, no 1, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Towards a sense of community: When literature becomes a socialization instrument2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Visst läser pojkar också!2010In: Växtkraft: Om svenskämnets möjligheter / [ed] Madeleine Ellvin och Lena Manderstedt, Stockholm: Svensklärarföreningen , 2010, p. 11-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Learning How (and How Not) to Weld: Vocational Learning in Technical Vocational Education2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on vocational learning in technical vocational education in upper-secondary school, with a special focus on the object of learning to weld. A concrete teaching situation where the learning object to weld is the focus of the interaction between a vocational teacher and an upper-secondary student was documented by a video camera and then analysed from two different perspectives: a conversation analytical perspective and a variation theory perspective. The combination of the two perspectives allows a study of learning that deals with issues regarding both form and content, which may increase our understanding of vocational learning in technical vocational education in upper-secondary school

  • 35.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Man får lura hjärnan lite": Motsvets och yrkeslärande i teknisk gymnasial utbildning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Men röret svänger ju" - om yrkeslärande i svetsundervisning2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "En del är ju helt koko". En samlare berättar2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    På jakt efter en läsarhistoria2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    På jakt efter en läsarhistoria2014In: KAPET, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 38-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Intresset i den här artikeln riktas mot Niklas[1] - en ung, manlig grävmaskinist, boendes i en landsbygdsort i mellersta Sverige – och hans läsarhistoria. Utifrån en livsberättelseansats har Niklas berättelse och reflektioner över sina erfarenheter av läsning studerats. Utgångspunkten är ett förhållningssätt genom vilket vi lyfter fram Niklas läsarhistoria utifrån hans eget perspektiv och där vi försöker förstå hur de specifika lokala och kulturella kontexter mot vilka Niklas läsarhistoria samspelar och samverkar är verksamma.

     

  • 40.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    The Book and the Text: Expanding the definition of a male reader2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Book And The Text - Expanding The Definition Of A Male Reader

    Boys’ relation to reading has been debated for a long time. Numerous international studies bear witness to an existing gender gap in children’s reading; boys read worse and to a smaller extent than before, and they read less than girls and lag behind in literacy skills (Clark & Burke, 2012; Gambell & Hunter, 2000). If one considers the situation from a class perspective the situation of boys with working-class background is described as particularly problematic, since extensive research indicates that there exists a particularly poor reading proficiency among socio-economically disadvantaged boys. In many of the studies there are also often expressed a concern for these boys’ future, since without the ability to read well, they are risking to lose access to higher education and future careers.

    Despite the extensive research that exists on boys’ relationship to reading, we have currently still rather limited knowledge about the role and importance reading has in the lives of young men and what experiences they carry out from the reading they have been taught as students in school.

    In our presentation, and, from a longitudinal perspective with the aim of focusing our attention on one of the many working-class boys who has walked through the school system as a student, our intention is to be conducive to new knowledge in the field, and also to modulate the negative image of young working-class boys’ future opportunities that is conveyed.

    At the center of our presentation is Niklas - a young male excavator, who lives in a rural village in the central parts of Sweden, and our purpose is to present a picture of his reader history, i.e. the journey he has made in his life as a reader of various kinds of texts. Niklas’s reader history is part of a larger research project where we are using a combination of different methodological and theoretical perspectives in the study of young men’s reader histories.

    Through a life story approach (Mishler, 1999; Goodson & Sikes 2001), we will in our presentation let Niklas’s story form the basis of our understanding of the phenomena he chooses to talk about, which among other things means that we will use a broader concept of text in our analysis of Niklas’s reader history.

    The narrative reflections (Freeman, 2010) that are expressed in Niklas’s narrative of his journey through life as a reader, and the different reader identities that emerge through his own narrative, forms to us his reader history. This reader history has obviously not occurred in a vacuum, but it has been shaped by, and has shaped, the social and cultural environments in which it took place, which is why we also have the intention of highlighting the specific contexts against which Niklas’s reader history interact. Given that social categories, such as gender, class and place are important for students’ school careers, we believe that it is important to study how these categories interact and cooperate in Niklas’s story about his experience of reading. Here, Massey’s work (2005) on place as a social construction, and her emphasis on the mutual relationship between place and identity, Connell’s work (2005) on the construction of masculinity, and the class perspective developed by Bourdieu (1984) are important points of departure in our analysis.

    Method

    We will tell Niklas’s story by using an approach through which the narrator is at the center of attraction. Thusly, our study has a longitudinal research design (Goodson & Sikes, 2001). The longitudinal design can help us get sight of how Niklas’s relationship to and experience of reading has been shaped, changed and evolved over time. This approach means that it is Niklas’s story that will be brought into focus. At the same time, this personal story shall be put into perspective by relating it to the specific social, cultural and historical circumstances in which what is told takes place (Goodson & Sikes, 2001; Mishler, 1999) why even such empirical data in the form of, for example, documents, theories, texts and physical locations and buildings will be used in our analysis. The reader history to which our interest is directed during our presentation is based on two life story interviews (see Goodson & Sikes, 2001) conducted with Niklas, today a 25-year-old young man, in the summer of 2013. The interviews took place in Niklas’s home and lasted for a total of three hours. Niklas’s story is based on empirical data gathered from a previous research project about a group of vehicle engineering boys’ encounter with the teaching of Swedish at an upper secondary school in a rural place in central Sweden, a project in which Niklas attended as a vehicle engineering student (Asplund & Pérez Prieto, 2013). These extensive empirical data, which consist of videotaped lessons, interviews, surveys and documentation of the boys’ self-produced written texts related to their Swedish classes, among other things, combined with life story interviews, allow us to deepen and modulate our analysis and presentation of Niklas’s reader history.

    Expected Outcomes

    In the reader history that emerges through Niklas’s narrative, there are more ways to interact with books and texts than the more conventional ways. For instance, Niklas tells us how he helped his father to collect, sort out and sell old books, which to Niklas becomes a way to interact with books, and the interaction that Niklas is talking about has its meaning and significance in the specific context in which it takes place. This concrete and embodied interaction is also significant of Niklas’s relation to reading and books, and it is therefore also an important part of his reader history. Thus, the approach used in our study makes it possible to identify and highlight other, less common ways to interact with books, which also allows a more complex and nuanced story about a young man’s relation to reading.

    References

    Asplund, S-B.and Pérez Prieto, H. (2013). ‘Ellie is the coolest’: Class, masculinity and place in vehicle engineering students’ talk about literature in a Swedish rural town school. Children’s Geographies Issue 1, 2013. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction.A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Clark, C. with Burke, D. (2012). Boys’ Reading Commission.A review of existing research to underpin the Commission.London: NationalLiteracy Trust. Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original workpublished 1995). Freeman, M. (2010). Hindsight.The Promise and Peril of Looking Backward. New York: Oxford University Press. Gambell, T., & Hunter, D. (2000).Surveying gender differences in Canadian school literacy. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32, 689–719. Goodson, I. & Sikes, P. (2001). Life History Research in Educational Settings.Learning from lives. Buckingham: Open University Press. Massey, D. (2005). For Space. London: Sage. Gambell, T., & Hunter, D. (2000). Surveying gender differences in Canadian school literacy. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32, 689–719. Mishler, E. G. (1999). Storylines: Craftartists’ narratives of identity. Cambridge,Mass.; London: Harvard University Press.

  • 41.
    Avenius, Greta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Så använder jag boken: Fyra SO-lärares syn på - och användning av läroboken2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This degree project focuses on the questions how teachers´ within the four socially oriented subjects’ history, geography, religion and social science use the textbook, and their attitudes towards textbooks. The method used in this project was interviews with teachers. Previous research shows that teachers use the textbook to a great extent. Studies also show that teachers’ way of educating depends upon their individual educational attitudes. Further more studies show that students find difficulty in understanding the texts in educational books in a wider context. The answer to how the teachers in this study use the textbooks is that they use it to a great extent, but that they use it in different ways. The majority of the interviewed teachers use the textbook as their main teaching aid. The teachers’ views on the textbook are mainly positive, with the exception that they often find the text hard to understand. Positive opinions about textbooks given by the interviewed teachers were that the books are an important support for the students, and that they are written to suit their age group.

    Keywords: social studies’ teachers’, textbooks, attitudes, understanding texts

  • 42.
    Axeland, Terése
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Syfte och tema - avgörande för bearbetning av högläst litteratur: En studie om hur förskollärare resonerar kring bearbetning av högläst litteratur2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to compare the approach of preschool teachers of older and younger groups with regards to the processing of literature from read-alouds. In the study it is therefore investigated whether literature from read-alouds is processed, how it is processed, what purpose preschool teachers have with the reading, and teachers opinions about processing of literature related to the age of the children. In order to fulfil this purpose I have made qualitative interviews at three preschools with a total of six preschool teachers who work with different ages of children. The underlying perspective of the study as well as the tools of analysis are based on a sociocultural theory where learning is seen as a cooperative activity with the teacher playing a central role. The results show that with all age groups, preschool teachers process literature in read-alouds using conversation, creativity, drama and exploratory working methods regardless of some opinions that such processing is primarily suited to older children. However, the degree of processing varies according to the purpose the teacher intended for the reading activity and whether the reading is part of a bigger project such as theme-work.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Anna-Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Asperger syndrom: Praktiskt arbete i klassrummet2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    När musiken talar - på barnets nivå: En studie om musikens betydelse för barns språkliga utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     This is a study that wants to investigate whether music can contribute to linguistic development through interviews. In the literature review, researchers and educators clarify the connection between music and languages. The study is based on the sociocultural perspective. The six educators interviewed for the study suggest that music has a contributing effect on children's language development. Furthermore, it is explained that music brings joy and fellowship that becomes an interaction between the children in preschool. By interaction and learning of other people's previous experiences, the children can develop their language. In the discussion it appears that the music gathering for children gives a sense of safety, which makes them comfortable to express feelings and thoughts, which in turn leads them to communicate and interact with others to develop their language.

  • 45. Bakker, Nienke
    Kooperativt lärande: Ett verktyg i klassrummet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to examine the commonalities and differences between the existing forms of cooperation in specific subjects at The Business and Administration Program and cooperative learning. Cooperative learning has become the subject area for this thesis after the preliminary work that has been implemented in the Netherlands where the author has her roots.

     

    Cooperative learning is characterized by that those who are participating in the collaborative process for specific tasks are completely interdependent on each other. The collaborative process should give students an understanding, even if the students are different in comparison to each other, a self-esteem, social skills and study skills. Differences in prior knowledge and skills considered being a benefit of cooperative learning, and thus it should be much easier to form groups.

     

    Both participant observation and interviews have been conducted to investigate the commonalities of the existing forms of cooperation in comparison the cooperative learning. It can be concluded that the existing forms of cooperation already have been influenced by the characteristics of cooperative learning. The students at The Business and Administration Program who has been object for the data collection instruments are working in an office simulation with most of the specific subjects on the program. Students with different condition are working together. In addition the teacher had a supervising role. Unfortunately the majority of students have a somewhat negative attitude towards cooperation. This often depends on the poor prior knowledge about cooperation as a tool in the classroom. Much work remains for achieving a functioning co-operative learning in every classroom.

     

    Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Collaboration, Co-Learning, Group Work

  • 46.
    Barse, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lärplattan som verktyg för att främja språkutvecklingen för flerspråkiga barn.: En studie om vilka strategier pedagoger i förskolan använder för att främja språkutvecklingen för flerspråkiga barn med hjälp av lärplattan.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the strategies that pedagogues in pre-school use to promote language development for multilingual children using the digital notepad. My two questions I have assumed are: 1 - What attitude does the pedagogues have for the digital notepad as a tool in language development? 2 - How do the pedagogues use the digital notepad as language development tools for multilingual children? Are different apps used in comparison with children who have Swedish as a native language? To my help to gather material, I have used the methods of unstructured non-participation observation as well as qualitative semistructured interviews. I have made an observation and interviewed three educators at two different pre-schools in a city in central Sweden. In the result, differences arise in such a good attitude towards language development for multilingual children and how the learning board is used for this purpose. All the pedagogues are positive to the digital notepad as tools and take advantage of the opportunities for interaction and communication that it offers. The involvement and strategies of the digital notepad as language development tools for the multilingual children in preschool are influenced partly by previous experiences and competencies regarding the subject, but also by the different values ​​and norms in the pre-school.

  • 47.
    Baser, Abdul Jabar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    THE ROLE OF VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING: A study of visual aids used by TTC teachers in two provinces of Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research is about the usage of visual aids in education which takes place in teacher training colleges (TTCs) of Afghanistan. The data is collected from two TTCs, Kabul and Wardak provinces. It covers a specific area, which is the use of visual aids during teaching and learning. The views of 100 teachers regarding usage of visual aids, providing visual aids, as well as male and female differences are considered and views of experienced and less experienced teachers are investigated. The necessary data is collected by using questionnaires.

    The responses of teachers’ show, that all of them use visual aids. Some teachers use less and some of them use more visual aids during teaching and learning. All respondents believe on the importance of using visual aids. Also the result shows that male and female teachers use the visual aids but, with some differences, as it is clearly shown in the findings some use one type, but some use other types. Kabul TTC teachers use more visual aids than Wardak province TTC teachers. In addition to that the important finding is the differences between experienced and less experienced teachers, the junior teachers use more visual aids than senior or experienced ones.

    These findings would not be generalized for the whole country. But it could be considered for the central region of Afghanistan, because the two TTCs are located in the central region of Afghanistan.

  • 48.
    Baser Nazar, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    GENDER BIASES IN DARI TEXTBOOKS: - An analysis of Dari textbooks grade 4-6 from gender perspective in Afghanistan.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As mentioned the discussion about gender equality in education is often concerned with how gender roles are promoted and encouraged through teaching and learning materials in schools, where textbooks are one of the most important tools, so the objective by this study is to look and discuss the gender issue in term of equality in Dari textbooks of grades 4 to 6. The intention is to find out to what extent gender equality - the issue that has been very much in policy documents - has been reflected in the textbooks.

    The method used to achieve the objectives was to look at the Dari language textbooks for grades 4 to 6 during various political regimes in Afghanistan in order to trace back the changes and progress. Textbooks of different periods have been scrutinized to find out the feature and nature of gender biases. The textbooks were selected from different political regimes in Afghanistan in five past decades.

    Although gender equality and equity  have been addressed in the policy documents of the Ministry of Education, but as found by this study, gender biases still to a large extent are there in textbooks e.g. in one of the new textbooks out of 136 pages only one page was talking about gender equality. Also disparity in terms of role between male and female has been found to some extent in the entire textbook for Dari language.

    A considerable difference between male and female depiction regarding frequency of names, occupations/roles outside home and in public sphere have been observed in the textbooks developed and used during all the political periods, but some improvement noticed in the new textbooks developed based on Curriculum Framework 2003. Only 5 percent of all names used in texts and examples were feminine in pre-Soviet period, while the depiction has increased during Soviet era i.e. after 1978. In Taliban and Mujahedeen period, the female depiction has experienced a backlash but after Taliban period there had been an improvement, although still far from full materialization of gender equality in different aspects. Interestingly, it was observed that on the cover pages of all of the new Dari languages textbooks for these grades   pictures of girls classes where female teacher stands in front of them, are printed, which may indicate that at least an awareness exist. On the other hand, little improvement has been made in the content of the textbooks.

  • 49.
    Behre, Annie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Högläsning i förskolan: En fokusgruppstudie av pedagogers förhållningssätt till högläsning2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several scientists agree that a base for literacy learning forms as soon as small children hear verses, songs and conversations. Reading aloud is a common occurrence in preschool activities and can result in early development of speech at a young age. Children will learn new words and begin the process of learning how to read. Reading aloud can also teach the children other things for example how the voice changes when someone expresses emotions. Studies have shown that through conversation and play during the process of reading aloud stimulates children’s thinking ability as they take part in a teaching process.

    This study is conducted with a help of two focus groups which consists of educationalists from preschool activities. The result from this study shows that the educationalists deliberately work with reading aloud to stimulate children’s language development. The educationalists expressed that they experience some difficulties with reading aloud. For example interruptions during the reading, other tasks that takes time away from the activity as well as a too large group of children at the same time. Despite the difficulties the educationalists read aloud to the children in their care several times a day. They expressed that this is a chance for a quiet time when the children can relax and rest from the otherwise loud and busy day. Together with the children the educationalists explore the world of books and conquer new knowledge.

  • 50.
    Behzad, Allah Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lesson planning in Afghan school: A quantitative study on the use of lesson plans in primary schools of Parwan, Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a quantitative study which explores the use of Lesson Plans (LPs) in Afghan primary schools. The main objectives of this study were to find out the implementation method of LPs, reasons of applying LPs and teachers’ views on LPs.

    This study was conducted in three districts (Shekh Ali, Siah Gerd and Shinwari) and Charikar city of Parwan Province and data was collected by questionnaires filled in by 200 language and math teachers (100 male and 100 female).

    The main findings of the research show that all teachers regardless of sex, education level and teaching experiences claimed that they used LPs in their teaching. A majority of teachers, regardless of sex, education background and years of teaching experience elaborated LPs of their own and did not use the format instructed by Teacher Training Colleges (TTC). Most teachers prepared their LPs one day before and at home. To consider the importance of LP stages the findings show that the majority of both male and female teachers responded to all stages. Through a short glance on reasons of applying LPs we see that 50% of both male and female teachers used LPs to achieve the goal. More experienced teachers didn’t use LPs because of having enough experiences. Important parts of LPs include motivation of students and student activities. The study found that teachers often motivated their students by telling a story or poem. Group work was a common activity.

    One implication of this study is that the TTC should revise their teaching on LPs since hardly any teacher seems to use these formats.

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