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  • 1.
    Ahtinen, Aino
    et al.
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Mattila, Elina
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Ermes, Miikka
    VTT, Tampere, Finland.
    Sairanen, Essi
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myllymäki, Tero
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Oiva – A mobile phone intervention for psychological flexibility and wellbeing2012In: Designing for Wellness and Behavior Change workshop, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide a scalable solution to mental health problems caused by stress, we developed Oiva, a mobile phone intervention for improving mental and physical wellbeing. Oiva is based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and its aim is to teach the users skills to increase their psychological flexibility. The application contains 45 text, audio, and video exercises. Two user studies demonstrated the usability and acceptability of the application and concept. The evaluations also revealed that the users expected guidance on the application for performing the intervention program. They also wanted to have possibilities to individualize the application by saving their own reflections about the exercises as notes. The preliminary evaluation results indicate that Oiva is a good starting point for the further design and research of mobile applications for reducing stress and improving wellness.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns behov och föräldrars omsorgsförmåga2013In: Familjehemsboken: Frågor, fakta och personliga berättelser / [ed] Pipping, Lisbeth, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2013, 2, p. 46-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Feasibility of Evidence Based Interventions  for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in the Health and Welfare System in Sweden.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Project Support: En genomförbarhetsstudie av ett individuellt föräldrastöd i socialtjänsten för våldsutsatta föräldrar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genomförbarheten av Project Support (PS), ett individuellt föräldrastöd för våldsutsatta mammor utvecklat i USA, utvärderas inom ramen för svensk socialtjänst i denna studie. Sammanlagt trettio behandlare har utbildats i metoden, som anpassats till svenska förhållanden i samarbete med upphovsmännen. Tjugonio familjer hade inkluderats i behandling vid sttudiens avslut. Såväl behandlare som mammor uppskattade metoden och bedömde att den var en lämplig insats som förbättrade föräldrarnas samspel med sina barn. Mammornas självskattade föräldraförmåga förbättrades signifikant, och barnens symtomnivåer sänktes. Vissa svårigheter för implementering identifierades, dels metodspecifika, dels relaterade till omständigheter i socialtjänsten.

  • 5.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Georgsson, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt att mamma utsätts för våld: Erfarenheter från en studie av barn som deltagit i Bojens grupprogram2012Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Promising but not good enough: Evaluation of communitybased interventions for children in Sweden exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against their mother2012In: Children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence, 2012, p. 151-151Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred new synthetic drugs, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or “legal highs” have in recent years appeared on the drug market. These can effortlessly be obtained from on-line vendors, offering an easy access to a plethora of new and untested substances, often with unknown or dangerous effects. Several different attempts to reduce the availability of NPS and to prevent accidents and fatalities have been applied by governments around the world. Nonetheless this complex and constantly evolving situation provides palpable dilemmas and challenges to legislators and prevention strategists. One unintended consequence from prohibition and current drug policies occurs when possibly more precarious substances are used to substitute older and more well-known illicit drugs; so called “substance displacement”. We have performed extensive research on the use of NPS, by analyzing Internet resources (drug discussion forum, on-line questionnaires), and published several NPS studies. During our research we observed how substance displacement is a common issue, with implications for both clinical practices, drug prevention strategies, as well as for legislators. In the present review we discuss two common themes of substance displacement: 1) Synthetic cannabinoids replace herbal cannabis, and 2) Different attempts for self-medication using NPS. Incitements for substance displacement, that exposes the user to possibly more harmful substances, are founded both in legislation (availability of substances and fear of legal repercussions) as well as from certain policies or cultural perceptions of various medical conditions. We offer no obvious solutions to these complications, but would like to contribute to awareness of how these factors effects drug users and how measures intended to reduce harm in many cases have the opposite effects. Further studies on the divergent motivations and different groups of NPS users are highlighted as imperative to find new and realistic solutions going forward. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the effects experienced by users of a novel psychoactive substance, the benzodiazepine flubromazolam, by analysing users' own accounts on the Swedish forum Flashback.org. Method: A thematic analysis of anonymous self-reports published on the forum was performed and generated five general themes describing effects and experiences by flubromazolam users. Results: The themes which emerged were: Onset and duration, Desired effects, Adverse effects and addiction, Loss of control, General estimations and evaluations. The main reported characteristics of flubromazolam were heavy hypnotic and sedative effects, long-lasting amnesiac effects and the rapid development of tolerance. Flubromazolam was also anxiolytic and acted as a muscle relaxant for many users. Some users experienced euphoria or intense wellbeing. Other prominent characteristics were loss of control (leading to poor choices and actions, with unpleasant consequences) and long-lasting, often severe withdrawals. There were also serious incidents where users had been admitted to hospital, acute psychiatric treatment or taken into custody by the police. Conclusion: Flubromazolam appears to be a highly addictive and precarious benzodiazepine with many, possibly severe, side effects. The substance is generally described as very potent and with long-lasting effects. Memory loss and loss of control are common adverse effects, and withdrawals appear to be severe for many users

  • 9.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Sundequist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Effects of Flotation REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on Stress Related Muscle Pain: Are 33 flotation sessions more effective as compared to 12 sessions?2007In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not 33 flotation sessions were more effective for stress-related ailments than 12 sessions. Participants were 37 patients, 29 women and 8 men, all diagnosed as having stress-related pain of a muscle tension type. The patients were randomized to one of two conditions: 12 flotation-REST treatments or 33 flotation-REST treatments. Analyses for subjective pain typically indicated that 12 sessions were enough to get considerable improvements and no further improvements were noticed after 33 sessions. A similar pattern was observed concerning the stress-related psychological variables: experienced stress, anxiety, depression, negative affectivity, dispositional optimism, and sleep quality. For blood pressure no effects were observed after 12 sessions, but there was a significant lower level for diastolic blood pressure after 33 sessions. The present study highlighted the importance of finding suitable complementary treatments in order to make further progress after the initial 12 sessions.

  • 10. Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Kjerstin.Almqvist@liv.se.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Tjus, Tomas
    Klinisk Barnpsykologi: Utveckling på avvägar2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Institutionen för psykologi, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Almqvist, Linnea
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Cater, Åsa
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Örebro Universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Institutionen för sociologi, Uppsala Universitet.
    Stöd till barn som bevittnat våld mot mamma: Resultat från en nationell utvärdering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Linnea
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Cater, Åsa
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Institutionen för sociologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Forssell, Anna
    Örebro universitet.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sharifi, Karin
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt våld mot mamma: Preliminära resultat från en nationell utvärdering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Socialt stöd: En explorativ faktoranalys av ett frågeformulär för urvalet till Försvarsmakten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study presents an exploratory factor analysis of a questionnaire regar­ding military recruits’ social support from friends and family (i.e., Social support) for their voluntary enlistment, and participation in the basic military training. The participants consisted of the 1290 (1133 men and 157 women) who had been accepted to and started the first rounds of basic military training in the new Swedish Armed Forces All-volunteer Force in 2011. The exploratory factor analysis (Principal Component Analysis, with Oblique-rotation) yielded a simple structure where 11 of the original 13 statements loaded on four related factors. Two of the fac­tors consisted of the statements which were common to all participants, that is, all participants were able to answer them. These two factors re­garded an articulated support for family and friend, and an unspoken dis­approval, respectively. The remaining two factors where specific for the participants who had either been deployed on international operations previously, or were in (or had recently ended) a relationship. The study also explores the relationships between the emerging four factors and two questions regarding the participants’ rating of the importance of social support for their well-being (i.e., Importance of social support), and the prevalence of previous relationship problems (i.e., Relationship problems). However, the structure, and in particular the two latter factors need to be evaluated further, and the results should therefore be interpreted with caution. In addition, the introduction to this study presents a theoretical background to the field of social support, and its importance for military populations.

  • 14.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Military capacity and Civil adjustment: Assessments of the "re-usable" peacekeeping soldier for development of a selection system2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether “re-usable” soldiers, that is, those who performed well during operations (Military capacity), and were able to readjust post-deployment (Civil adjustment), could be identified pre-deployment. Participants were 364 UN peacekeeping soldiers. Three hypotheses were posed: (a) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with low Military capacity, (b) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with poor Civil adjustment after deployment, and (c) the two aspects of “re-usability” (Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment) would be intertwined. Results showed that the selection system for conscripts was unable to identify soldiers’ Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment. Results also showed that these two aspects were unrelated, and did not interact. Indications on possible consequences, and improvements were discussed.

  • 15.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad.
    A construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ) versus the SIMP and the FFPI2010In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a construct validation of a profession-focussed personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modelled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the FFPI (A. A. J. Hendricks, K. B. W. Hofstee, & B. de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the SIMP (S. A. Woods & S. E. Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ - 41 items and seven aspects - showed good internal consistency, and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only non-convergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely due to the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.

  • 16.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Examining the impact of personality and situational factors on decision making among military staffs2014In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1700-3350, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the frequency of faulty decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.

  • 17.
    Edlund, Sara M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Carlsson, Maria L.
    Örebro universitet.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet.
    Fruzzetti, Alan E.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    I see you're in pain: The effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Edlund, Sara M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Carlsson, Maria L.
    Örebro University.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet.
    Fruzzetti, Alan E.
    University of Nevada, USA.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    I see you're in pain: the effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 6, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Chronic pain not only affects the person in pain, but can also have a negative impact on relationships with loved ones. Research shows that chronic pain is associated with difficulties in marital relationships, which in turn is related to a variety of negative outcomes such as psychological distress and conflict within the family. This suggests that couples where chronic physical pain is present also struggle with emotional pain and relationship problems, and thus targeting relationship skills and interpersonal functioning might be helpful for these couples. Although studies in this area are promising, their numbers are few. In the present study, validation as a way of communicating is suggested for handling emotional expression in interpersonal interactions. Validation communicates understanding and acceptance of the other person's experience, and it has been shown to have a down-regulating effect on negative emotions. It has previously been demonstrated to be important for these couples. However, the feasibility and effects of increasing partner validation in these couples are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if a brief training session in validation for spouses would result in more validating and fewer invalidating responses towards their partners with pain, and to investigate if changes in these behavioural responses were associated with changes in emotion and pain level in the partner with pain.

    Methods

    Participants were 20 couples where at least one partner reported chronic pain. The study employed a within-groups design in which spouses of people with pain received validation training (without their partner's knowledge), and their validating and invalidating responses were rated pre- and post-intervention using a reliable observational scale. Also, positive and negative affect and subjective pain level in the persons with pain were rated pre- and post-intervention.

    Results

    Results showed that the validation training was associated with increased validating and decreased invalidating responses in the partners. Their spouses with chronic pain reported a decrease in negative affect from pre- to post-training.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the partner or closest family member, after brief validation training, increased validating responses and decreased invalidating responses towards the person with pain, which had an immediate positive impact on emotions in the other person.

    Implications

    This study suggests that using validation in interpersonal interactions is a promising tool for couples where chronic pain is present.

  • 19.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior: A quasi-experimental open pilot study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Motivationsklimatets betydelse vid undervisning av lagbollsport2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Team ball games in physical education have been criticized for resembling association’s ego-oriented way of conducting it. Something I noticed when I did my PE internship was that many students were not involved in class when team ball game was exercised. Can you as a PE teacher by influencing the motivational climate get most of the students to experience more enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things in team ball games?

    Aim: The aim of the field experiment is to create two different motivational climates, task-oriented / ego-oriented, and conduct them to four PE lessons in football (European).This to demonstrate any advantages or disadvantages between the two motivational climates by using the results of students' experiences in enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things.

    Method: The study used a quantitative method in the form of questionnaires. A total of 45 grade 7 students participated in the study.

     Result: The results showed that students experienced both experimental situations task-oriented and no major differences were noticed regarding to enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things. Overall, both genders correlated stronger against all background variables (enjoyment, participation, variety, time to learn new things) in an experienced task-oriented motivational climate compared to an experienced ego-oriented. In gender comparison you can find strong correlations that especially girls who have experienced the motivational climate ego-oriented felt less enjoyment, participation, variety and time to learn new things compared to boys.

    Discussion:

    PE lessons are different compared to association’s sports in overall when it includes girls and boys playing sports together. This is an important part of education in social and life-long skills of cooperation and physical activity. As a task-orientated motivational climate proves to be more effective in learning strategies and the belief that physical education is to develop social and life-long skills every PE teacher should be aware of  the consequences both motivational climates (task-orientate/ego-orientated) influences a group. 

     

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Swedish National Rd & Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    The time-saving bias: Judgements, cognition and perception2013In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 492-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in people's judgments of time saved by increasing the speed of an activity have been studied mainly with hypothetical scenarios (Svenson, 2008). The present study asked whether the classic time-saving bias persists as a perceptual bias when we control the speed of an activity and assess the perceived time elapsed at different speeds. Specifically, we investigated the time-saving bias in a driving simulator. Each participant was asked to first drive a distance at a given speed and then drive the same distance again at the speed she or he judged necessary to gain exactly three minutes in travel time compared to the first trip. We found that that the time-saving bias applies to active driving and that it affects the choice of driving speed. The drivers' time-saving judgements show that the perception of the time elapsed while driving does not eliminate the time-saving bias.

  • 22.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherland.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses. The results reveal main effects of weather (temperature and precipitation) on mood and travel satisfaction (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed). The effects of weather on mood and travel satisfaction differ depending on travel mode. Temperature leads to a more positive mood, wind leads to higher activation for public transport users, and sunshine leads to a more negative mood for cyclists and pedestrians. Sunshine and higher temperatures make travel more relaxed although not for cycling and walking, and rain and snow lead to a higher cognitive assessed quality of travel.

  • 23. Folkesson, Per
    Haren och Måsen: två daghemsavdelnignar "med behov av särskilt stöd"1988Book (Other academic)
  • 24. Folkesson, Per
    "Haren og Måken": to barnehageavdelinger med behov for spesiell støtte1990Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Folkesson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Psykologkonsultation inom barnomsorgen - teori och praktik.1987Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Folkesson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), FoU Välfärd Värmland.
    Lindgren, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En studie av verkan av samtalen vid Samtalsakuten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten presenteras resultaten av en studie av verkan av samtalen vid Samtalsakuten i Karlstad. Samtalsakuten är en öppen verksamhet som erbjuder stödsamtal för personer som befinner sig i kritiska livssituationer, är över 18 år och bor i Forshaga, Hammarö, Karlstad eller Kil. De kan ta direkt kontakt med Samtalsakuten. Alla som tar kontakt tas emot och det krävs ingen remiss för att få en tid. ”Samtalsstöd i kris” är den arbetsmodell som tillämpas. Den anknyter till såväl rådgivning som korttidsterapi och psykoterapi.

    Två frågeställningar utgjorde utgångspunkt för studien: Gör samtalen vid Samtalsakuten skillnad för klienterna? Får man hjälp med det man sökte för? Studien har genomgått en etisk prövning och godkänts av Regionala Etikprövningsnämnden i Uppsala.

    Mellan september 2011 och juli 2013 samlades data in från 106 personer som deltog i studien, 77 kvinnor (72,6 %) och 29 män (27,4 %). Data rörande deltagarnas bakgrund och sökorsaker och om deras självupplevda känsla av sammanhang, ångest, depressivitet och sömnsvårigheter samlades in. När samtalsserien avslutades ifylldes ett utvärderingsformulär och sex månader senare sändes samtliga självskattnings- och ett utvärderingsinstrument ut på nytt till deltagarna för att få uppföljningsdata.

    De personer som söker kontakt med Samtalsakuten gör det i en situation som upplevs som ohållbar. Studien visar att ”samtalsstöd i kris” gör skillnad för deltagarna vad avser ångest, nedstämdhet/depression, sömn och känsla av sammanhang. Skillnaden uttrycks av deltagarna som ett nytt sätt att se, begripa och hantera sin vardag och sitt livssammanhang. Deltagarna anser sig ha fått god hjälp, är nöjda med sina samtalsterapeuter och deras arbetssätt och anser att de blivit väl mottagna.

    Samtalsakuten är en verksamhet som genom studien visar sig genomföra goda insatser. För kommuninvånarna i Forshaga, Hammarö, Karlstad och Kil är det en lätt tillgänglig resurs och verksamhet väl värd att bevara men det finns även goda skäl att utveckla modellen och sprida den till fler län och kommuner.

  • 27.
    Folkesson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), FoU Välfärd Värmland.
    Lindgren, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. the Psychiatry Division, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    The Effectiveness of Counseling at a Local Crisis Center2014In: International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, ISSN 1475-7192, E-ISSN 1475-7192, ISSN 1475-7192, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 121-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samtalsakuten (the Counseling Emergency) is an open crisis center operated in collaboration between the municipalities of Forshaga, Hammarö, Karlstad, and Kil; the Church of Sweden; and the County Council of Värmland. Its mandate is to offer crisis counseling to adults who contact the center when they are in an acute life crisis. Samtalsakuten uses a working model influenced by the various tradi-tions and approaches of several talk therapies. The aim of the study was to examine counseling effec-tiveness at Samtalsakuten. The study was based on a replicated single-case design, and quantitative and qualitative data were collected prior to each counseling session as well as six months after the completion of the session series. Our main finding is that counseling made a significant difference and had a positive effect on anxiety, depression, insomnia, and sense of coherence for clients who com-pleted their sessions in mutual agreement with their therapist.

  • 28.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A happy work commute2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012In: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 30.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Richter, J
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Review of Implementations of Soft Transport Policy Measures2010In: Transportation: Theory and Application, ISSN 1946-3111, E-ISSN 1946-3111, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Gehlert, Tina
    et al.
    German Insurers Accid Res, Traff Behav Traff Psychol, Berlin, Germany.
    Dziekan, Katrin
    Fed Environm Agcy, Sect Environm & Transport, Dessau Rosslau, Germany.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Psychology of sustainable travel behavior2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 19-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizing the way people travel in a more sustainable way is a key challenge. This changes the definition of transportation problems, the influencing factors as well as the types of solutions that need to be considered. It also influences the transport research agenda. The new challenge furthermore places in focus the psychology of the transport user who is now perceived as an active agent in the transport system. Thus, transport policy measures will be more successful if taking into account users’ capabilities and perceived constraints.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service innovation: a literature review2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Working with perfectionism in elite sport: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy perspective2016In: The psychology of perfectionism in sport, dance, and exercise / [ed] Andrew Hill, Routledge, 2016, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars2018In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

  • 35.
    Helldin, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Department of Psychiatry, NU Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Department of Psychiatry, NU Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Schizophrenia and Short Lifetime Expectancy: The Importance of Identifying Risk Factors Early in the Illness.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Henriksson, Sophie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism.

  • 37.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

  • 38.
    Jansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Individer, grupper och ledarskap i projekt2011 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta i projektform har i många organisationer blivit ett vanligt arbetssätt. Att kunna samarbeta med människor från andra delar av organisationen, med olika kompetenser, mål och förutsättningar har därför blivit en viktig framgångsfaktor.Litteratur om hur människor i samarbete fungerar brukar inte ha projekt och tillfälliga arbetsgrupper som utgångspunkt. Detsamma gäller också för en stor del av forskningen om individer, grupper och ledarskap. Den här boken ändrar på det.Med projektet som utgångspunkt beskrivs vad som händer i det första mötet med andra och hur samarbetsnormer och lärstilar skapar en gruppdynamik som leder gruppen framåt. Boken skapar förståelse för hur konflikter uppstår och hanteras samt ger perspektiv på spelet i mötet mellan olika människor. Vidare behandlas hur samarbete i arbetsgrupper förändras över tid, hur man gör för att kunna ta upp och reagera på varandras beteende och hur man leder andra. Texten illustreras med många exempelsituationer från verkligheten.På bokens webbplats www.studentlitteratur.se/janssonochljung finns ett omfattande digitalt material med bland annat övningar, lästips och bildmaterial från boken.

  • 39.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Harvey, Allison G.
    University of California.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Associations between psychological factors and nighttime/daytime symptomatology in insomnia2012In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 273-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors in insomnia and the association between psychological mechanisms and nighttime and daytime symptoms.

    Methods: A cross-sectional examination in the general population was used. The study sample consisted of 1890 participants from the general population. The participants completed a survey on nighttime and daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological factors.

    Results: Relative to poor and normal sleepers, the insomnia group had higher scores on worry, beliefs, physiologic arousal, monitoring/attentional bias, and safety behaviors than the other two groups, and the poor sleepers exhibited a similar pattern relative to the normal sleepers. High total wake time was associated with more worry, physiologic arousal, and safety behaviors (26.3% variance), low sleep restoration with more worry, unhelpful beliefs, and monitoring/attentional bias (28.2% variance), and low sleep quality with higher scores on all the psychological mechanisms (35.8% variance). Elevated daytime symptoms were related to more unhelpful beliefs and monitoring/attentional bias (44.3% variance).

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that psychological factors are linked to nighttime and daytime symptomatology in insomnia.

  • 40.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Flink, Ida K.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Granberg, Sarah
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment: a randomized controlled trial2012In: Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, ISSN 1068-9583, E-ISSN 1573-3572, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 224-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I) for insomnia on patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment. A randomized controlled design was used with a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-two patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment were randomized to either CBT-I or a waitlist condition (WLC). The primary outcome was insomnia severity. Secondary outcomes were sleep diary parameters, dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in lower insomnia severity at post-treatment and at follow-up (d = 1.18–1.56). Relative to WLC, CBT-I also led, at both assessment points, to reduced total wake time (d = 1.39) and increased sleep restoration (d = 1.03–1.07) and sleep quality (d = 0.91–1.16). Both groups increased their total sleep time, but no significant group difference emerged. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in higher function (d = 0.81–0.96) and lower anxiety (d = 1.29–1.30) at both assessment points. Neither CBT-I nor WLC led to improvement on depression. Based on the Insomnia Severity Index, more CBT-I (53–77%) than WLC participants (0–7%) were treatment responders. Also, more CBT-I (24%) than WLC participants (0%) remitted. In patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment, CBT-I was effective in decreasing insomnia severity, subjective sleep parameters, dysfunction, and anxiety. These findings are in line with previous results on the effects of CBT-I in other medical conditions.

  • 41.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Psychometric properties of the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale in a large community sample2012In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale.

    Methods: From a randomly selected sample of the general population (N = 5000), 2327 participants completed a survey on nighttime symptoms, daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological processes. The study sample consisted of 1890 participants who did not fulfill criteria for a sleep disorder other than insomnia.

    Results: Findings indicated that the PSAS did not produce an adequate factorial solution. When three problematic items were removed, the solution, accounting for 48.5% of the variance, improved (PSAS-13). One subscale, cognitive arousal (alpha = .88), consisted of five items (37.1%), and one subscale, somatic arousal (alpha = .72), of eight items (11.4%). The two factors were significantly inter-correlated (rho = .51) and associated with the PSAS-13 (rho = .91, rho = .80). Among those with insomnia, a shortened PSAS (PSAS-14) was established, which consisted of a cognitive and a somatic subscale (48.6% of the variance). The PSAS-13 and the two subscales showed discriminant validity between three sleep groups (normal sleep, poor sleep, and insomnia disorder) (R-2 = .24-.34). The PSAS-13 and the subscales demonstrated convergent validity with measures on sleep-related worry, sleep-related beliefs, anxiety, and depression. The PSAS-13 and the two subscales were significantly correlated with sleep parameters and daytime impairment.

    Conclusion: Though acceptable psychometric properties were established for the PSAS, the cognitive sub-scale's focus upon general pre-sleep arousal and the relatively low variance accounted for calls for further work on and a possible re-conceptualization of the PSAS.

  • 42.
    Joakim, Karlsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Motivationsklimaten i undervisning av Idrott & Hälsa2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background

    As future physical education teachers there is an interest in creating lessons that makes the pupils committed to the subject. The National Agency for Education describes in its curriculum for PE that the subject aim to ensure that pupils develop a long term interest in physical activity (Skolverket, 2011). As a teacher in PE there is different ways to achieve the National Agency goals. Interesting is how the motivation climate that the teacher creates affects the student's perceived- joy and competence, which in turn can contribute to a long term interest in the subject.

    Purpose

    This study aims to investigate the impact various motivational climates have on the student perceived- competence and joy. The study is targeted against the high school education of physical education.

    Method

    The method used to examining the issues was quantitative in the form of polls. A total of 55 persons participated in the survey. The participants were high school students in the grades 7, 8 and 9.

    Result

    The results showed that a motivational climate that was perceived as highly task-orientated was the motivational climate that got students to feel the most joy and competence. Overall, the results show that boys felt more competent and joyous than girls.

    Discussion

    The results from this study are similar to what previous researches had already concluded. But whether the perceived joy is a result of the perceived competence or the perceived motivational climate must be examined more closely. Nevertheless, it is the highly perceived task-oriented motivational climate that have the greatest effect on perceived- joy and competence.

  • 43.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wallin, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    IKT-stress finns det? Tre förstudier2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudfrågeställningen i denna studie var: Upplever människor i organisationer en informations- och kommunikationsteknikrelaterad stress? Informations- och kommunikationsstress studerades genom en undersökning av användande och upplevelse av olika IKT, t ex stationär telefon, mobiltelefon, e-post, Internet, Intranet, hos ledare och administrativa assistenter i 3 organisationer. Generellt kännetecknas upplevelsen av IKT-användningen av ambivalens. Deltagarna rapporterade i lika hög grad fördelar som nackdelar med teknologin. Generellt fanns ingen IKT-stress. De 3 främsta stresskällorna i koppling till tekniken var: att bli avbruten i arbetet, tidsbrist och teknik som krånglar.

  • 44.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wreder, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Kommunikation och politiska beslut i säkerhetsarbete utifrån LSO: En studie av IDA-pilot och jämförelsekommuner -Slutrapport inom KOBS-projektet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Kommunikation och beslut i kommunalt säkerhetsarbete (KOBS) har bedrivits under åren 2007-2009 och består av två delstudier riktade mot olika forskningsområden. Den ena delstudien behandlar frågor om kommunikativa processer i kommunalt säkerhetsarbetet. Den andra delstudien följer forskningsmässigt hur idéer om säkerhetsarbete sprids till politiska beslutsprocesser på kommunal nivå.

    Rapporten redovisar resultatet av studierna och belyser teoretisk och empiriskt betydelsen av kommunikationens organisering och meningskapandet i den kommunala organisationen. Resultaten belyser även hur det webbaserade informationssystemet IDA (indikatorer, data och analys för skydd mot olyckor) och lagen ”Lag om skydd mot olyckor” påverkat institutionaliseringen och diffusionen av idéer om skydds- och säkerhetsarbete i kommunerna.

    Studien är genomförd på uppdrag av dåvarande Statens Räddningsverk, numera Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap. Vår ambition har varit att belysa hur kunskap och idéer används och sprids inom de organisationer som hanterar kommunalt säkerhetsarbete inom ramen för Lagen om skydd mot olyckor.

  • 45.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Grim, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Do highly sensitive persons experience more non-ordinary states of consciousness during sensory isolation?2014In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1495-1506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to investigate whether or not highly sensitive persons experienced more nonordinary/altered states of consciousness (ASC) during 45 minutes of sensory isolation in a flotation tank, than did less sensitive persons. Psychology students (N = 57) were allocated to 1 of 2 groups (high and low levels of sensitivity) depending on their score on the Highly Sensitive Person Scale. Prior to the flotation session participants completed questionnaires to assess their degree of depression, anxiety, optimism, absorption, and how often they had experienced a mystical state. After the flotation session we assessed degree of ASC. The main finding was that the highly sensitive individuals experienced significantly more ASC during flotation than did the individuals in the low sensitivity group. Further, the highly sensitive participants had significantly more absorption and anxiety, and had experienced mystical states more frequently prior to flotation, in comparison to individuals with low-level sensitivity.

  • 46.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A randomized controlled pilot trial2016In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 16, article id 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During Flotation-REST a person is floating inside a quiet and dark tank, filled with heated salt saturated water. Deep relaxation and beneficial effects on e.g. stress, sleep difficulties, anxiety and depression have been documented in earlier research. Despite that treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are effective; it is till the least successfully treated anxiety disorder, indicating that treatment protocols can be enhanced. The use of Flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has not been researched. The aim of the present study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the effects in a self-diagnosed GAD sample.

    Methods: This study was a randomized, parallel group, non-blinded trial with 1:1 allocation ratio to waiting list control group (n = 25) or to a twelve session treatment with flotation-REST (n = 25). Inclusion criteria’s were: 18–65 years and GAD (as defined by self-report measures). The primary outcome was GAD-symptomatology, and secondary outcomes were depression, sleep difficulties, emotion regulation difficulties and mindfulness. Assessments were made at three time points (baseline, four weeks in treatment, post-treatment), and at six-month follow-up. The main data analyses were conducted with a two-way MANOVA and additional t-tests. Forty-six participants (treatment, n = 24; control, n = 22) were included in the analyses.

    Results: A significant Time x Group interaction effect for GAD-symptomatology [F(2,88) = 2.93, p < .001, η2p = .062] was found. Further analyses showed that the GAD-symptomatology was significantly reduced for the treatment group (t(23) = 4.47, p < .001), but not for the waiting list control group (t(21) = 0.98, p > .05), when comparing baseline to post-treatment scoring. Regarding clinical significant change, 37 % in the treatment group reached full remission at post-treatment. Significant beneficial effects were also found for sleep difficulties, difficulties in emotional regulation, and depression, while the treatment had ambiguous or non-existent effects on pathological worry and mindfulness. All improved outcome variables at post-treatment, except for depression, were maintained at 6-months follow. No negative effects were found.

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that the method has potential as a complementary treatment alongside existing treatment for GAD. More studies are warranted to further evaluate the treatments efficacy. 

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Osynliggörandets effekt på känslor, idéskapande, självcensurering och oro2014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to investigate if the social exclusion that follows techniques of suppression had any emotional effects, self-reported anxiety, self-rated self-censorship, self-reported frequency of ideas and self-assessment ability of originality. The participants of this study were students at Karlstad University. The students were randomized into two groups: one control group and one experiment group. The study was to manipulate the participants based on the scenario, The experimental group participants were asked to read the scenario, which what about the participants where became invisible. The control group was to read a scenario that did not describe any release of invisibility

    . Then the participants would all complete a questionnaire based on the scenario that they got. The Creative Self-efficacy and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, (BFNE) tests were used as background questions. BFNE was the study covariate in the analysis with ANCOVA. The analysis showed that the PANAS and "self worth on ideas originality" who had the question; " Come up with an idea that evokes surprise in others", had a significant difference between the control group and the experiment group. However the results did not show any difference between the groups when measuring the participants’ anxiety of presenting their ideas, keeping their ideas to themselves and the amount of ideas. It was shown that people that are made invisible get more negative feelings in comparison to those that are not exposed to techniques of suppression, and even the quality of their ideas lowers in comparison to people that are not exposed to the techniques of suppression and the positive emotions declined for the experimental group.

  • 48.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Relaxation and Wellness through Yoga Practice2015In: Journal of Yoga & Physical therapy, ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Experiences during shamanic-like monotonous drumming: A phenomenological study2011In: The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, ISSN 1942-3241, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the experiences gained from a 20-minute shamanic-like drumming session. Twenty-two persons participated and made written descriptions afterwards about their experiences. A phenomenological analysis was applied which generated 31 categories, that were organized into six themes: 1) The undertaking of the drumming journey, 2) Perceptual phenomena: visual, auditory and somatic, 3) Encounters, 4) Active vs. Passive role, 5) Inner wisdom and guidance, and 6) Reflections on the drumming journey. A multitude of detailed experiences were described such as visual imagery, hearing sounds, encountering animals, as well as gaining insights. Participants generally appreciated the drumming session and few negative effects were noted. The conclusion made is that shamanic-like drumming can be a valuable supplement to other psychotherapeutic techniques.

  • 50.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Jacobsson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Soussan, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The quest for well-being and pleasure: experiences of the novel synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45, as reported by anonymous users online.2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two novel synthetic opioids, MT-45 and AH-7921, with mostly undocumented effects and risks, have emerged on the expanding market for recreational drugs on the Internet. The aim of the present study was to characterize the experiences of AH-7921 and MT-45 as described by the users on international drug discussion forums.

    Methods: A systematic data search resulted in 96 self-reports which were collected from the leading edge resources of drug related information online. The data were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis.

    Results: The experiences of MT-45 and AH-7921 were characterized by the following themes: (1) Administration of the substances, (2) Well-being and energy, (3) Sedation and reduced here-and-now awareness, (4) Tolerance and withdrawal effects, (5) Side effects, (6) Evaluation of the effects, (7) Increased appreciation, sociableness and intimacy and (8) Self-medication. The experiences appeared to include not only the general and expected opioid effects like withdrawal, analgesia, euphoria, cough suppression, fatigue, constipation, itching, involuntary muscle spasm, nausea and pupillary constriction but also a noteworthy increase in energy. Furthermore, the users also experienced reduced inhibition and a facilitation of social situations. The results also showed that users engaged in different forms of self-medicating behaviour aimed at reducing pain or withdrawal symptoms from traditional opioid use.

    Conclusion: The spread of unpredictable, potent and novel opioids constitutes a public health concern which needs to be further monitored in order to minimize potential harm. 

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