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  • 1.
    Ahlzen, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Illness as unhomelike being-in-the-world?: Phenomenology and medical practice2011In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific medicine has been successful by ways of an ever more detailed understanding and mastering of bodily functions and dysfunctions. Biomedical research promises new triumphs, but discontent with medical practice is all around. Since several decades this has been acknowledged and discussed. The philosophical traditions of phenomenology and hermeneutics have been proposed as promising ways to approach medical practice, by ways of a richer understanding of the meaning structures of health and illness. In 2000, Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus published a book where he proposes that the phenomenological hermeneutics of Martin Heidegger and also the reflections on health and illness of Hans-Georg Gadamer offer important ways to approach the nature of medicine. In particular, Svenaeus argues that the goal of medicine is to promote and restore health, and that health ought to be seen as "homelike being-in-the-world". Unhealth, illness, consequently should be understood as a situation where a person's "being-in-the-world" in characterized by that lack of the rhythm, balance and "tune" of everyday living that characterizes not "being at home". In this article, Svenaeus' position is briefly outlined. Questions are raised whether "unhomelikeness" is to be seen as a metaphor, and, if so, if it is a fruitful such. Furthermore, I discuss whether or not a discourse on health and illness in these terms may be misleading in a situation where the ontological presuppositions of Heidegger are lost out of sight and the popular understanding of health psychology predominates. I also approach the question whether Svenaeus' assumptions may inadvertently lead us to an unjustifiably broad understanding of the tasks of medicine. It is finally concluded that Svenaeus phenomenological and hermeneutical approach is both interesting and promising. There are, however, several questions that ought to be pursued further, and the step from philosophical analysis to everyday clinical discourse may be unexpectedly long and risky.

  • 2.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Medical humanities: arts and humanistic science2007In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 385-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature and scope of medical humanities are under debate. Some regard this field as consisting of those parts of the humanistic sciences that enhance our understanding of clinical practice and of medicine as historical phenomenon. In this article it is argued that aesthetic experience is as crucial to this project as are humanistic studies. To rightly understand what medicine is about we need to acknowledge the equal importance of two modes of understanding, intertwined and mutually reinforcing: the mode of aesthetic imagination and the mode of analytical reflection.

  • 3.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Not at home but healthy: Some second thoughts on health as "home-like being-in-the-world2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    The arts and the humanistic sciences in medicine: a case of synergism2006In: Medicine, philosophy and the humanities, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Why should physicians read?: Understanding clinical judgement and its relation to literary experience2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is literary experience of any practical relevance to the clinician? This is the overall question addressed by this investigation, which starts by tracing the historical roots of scientific medicine. These are found to be intimately linked to a form of rationality associated with the scientific revolution of the 17th century and with “modernity”. Medical practice, however, is dependent also on another form of rationality associated with what Stephen Toulmin calls “the epistemology of the biographical”. The very core of clinical medicine is shown to be the clinical encounter, an interpretive meeting where the illness experience is at the centre of attention. The physician can reach the goals of medicine only by developing clinical judgement. Clinical judgement is subjected to close analysis and is assumed to be intimately connected to the form of knowledge Aristotle called phronesis.

    In order to explore how literature – drama, novels, poetry – may be related to clinical judgement, a view of literature is presented that emphasizes literature as an invitation to the reader, to be met responsibly and responsively. Literature carries a potential for a widened experience, for a more nuanced perception of reality – and this potential is suggested to be ethically relevant to the practice of medicine. The “narrative rationality” of a literary text constitutes a complement to the rationality pervading scientific medicine.

    The final step in my analysis is a closer exploration of the potential of the literary text to contribute to the growth of clinical judgement, in relation to the challenges of everyday clinical work. Some of the conditions that may facilitate such growth are outlined, but it is also shown that full empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of reading on the clinician reader is beyond reach.

  • 6.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Evans, MartynHeath, IonaMacNaughton, Jane
    Medical Humanities Companion: Volume One: Symptom2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Schepner, Ylva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Omvårdnadspersonalens upplevelser av att utföra munvård på äldre vid ett särskilt boende: En kvalitativ studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Enligt Tandvårdslagen har alla rätt till tillgänglig omsorg med god kvalitet, men av olika anledningar kan munvården bli lågt prioriterad. Genom att undersöka personalens inställning till att utföra munvård identifieras vilka eventuella resurser som uppsökande verksamhet bör sätta in.

    Syfte: Beskriva omvårdnadspersonalens upplevelser av att utföra munvård på personer, boende på ett äldreboende.

    Frågeställningar: Hur beskriver omvårdnadspersonalen utförandet av munvård samt hur känner de inför uppgiften?

    Metod: En explorativ design utgående från en kvalitativ ansats. Fyra undersköterskor på ett särskilt boende intervjuades. För att sammanställa materialet utfördes en innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att personalen beskriver sina upplevelser kring att utföra munvård på äldre som svårt men betydelsefullt. Integritetskränkning återkommer i de hinder som identifierats i munvårdssituationer. Personalen upplever att munhälsan är en så pass betydelsefull handling att de hittar olika lösningar för att kunna hjälpa den äldre.

    Konklusion: Samtliga hinder som identifierades bottnade i känslan av integritetskränkning. Personalens empatiska och positiva inställning och en trygghet från tandhygienisten, gav en drivkraft till att finna lösningar till att munvård blev utförd.

  • 8.
    Axengren, Lisette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Ifver, Emma
    Patienters upplevda effekter av akupunktur som en komplementär behandling vid cancerrelaterad smärta.: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bruhn, Linnea
    Karlstad University.
    Motiverande samtal -En dynamisk process i arbetet med barn och ungdomar med övervikt: - En kvalitativ studie om professionella inom hälso- och sjukvårdens upplevelser av att använda MI tillsammans med överviktiga barn och ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The unhealthy lifestyles such as poor diets and lack of physical activity can lead to overweight and obesity for children and adolescents today. To not have the unhealthy lifestyles lead to future complications it’s important to give them the help and support they need to get motivated to change theirs behavior. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a method to help people change their behavior, this study will focus on a healthy lifestyle changes. A profession in healthcare uses the MI as a method to support the lifestyle change for children and adolescents with obesity. The purpose of this study is to examine what the professions experiences is concerning how the method works with children and adolescents with overweight. This study has used a qualitative method with six interviews. The interviews were recorded and analyzed. The result of this study showed that professions experiences MI as a very positive and useful method, also that the professions needed to use the method continuity to maintain the knowledge. The potential of MI as a method was that the professions often could see a positive change in the patient and the respondent had a positive view in using MI in the future. The author of this study believes that it’s incredibly important to keep working with MI as it probably can "save" money both for society and the work hours for professions in healthcare.

  • 10.
    Bååth, Carina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hommel, Ami
    Lund University.
    Pressure reducing intervention among persons with pressure ulcers: results from the first three national pressure ulcer prevalence surveys in Sweden2014In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aims and objectivesThe overall aim of this study was to describe preventive interventions among persons with pressure ulcer (PU) in three nationwide PU prevalence surveys in Sweden.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional research design was used; more than 70 000 persons from different hospitals and nursing homes participated in the three prevalence surveys conducted in March 2011, October 2011 and March 2012.

    The methodology used was that recommended by the European Pressure Ulcers Advisory Panel.

    Results

    The overall prevalence of PU categories I–IV in hospitals was 16.6%, 14.4% and 16.1%, respectively. Corresponding figures for nursing homes were 14.5%, 14.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PU category I.

    Conclusions

    Despite the three prevalence studies that have showed high prevalence of PU the use of preventing interventions is still not on an acceptable level. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PUs, and individual-planned repositioning also increased. However, when persons already have a PU they should all have pressure-reducing preventive interventions to prevent the development of more PUs. Preventing PUs presents a challenge even when facilities have prevention programmes. A PU prevention programme requires an enthusiastic leader who will maintain the team's focus and direction for all staff involved in patient care.

  • 11.
    Eckerblad, J
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekdahl, A
    Linköping University, Karolinska Institutet.
    Jaarsma, T
    Linköping University.
    Hellstrom, I
    Linköping University, Ersta Sköndal University College.
    To adjust and endure: a qualitative study of symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity.2015In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 322-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Older people with multimorbidity are vulnerable and often suffer from conditions that produce a multiplicity of symptoms and a reduced health-related quality of life.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the experience of living with a high symptom burden from the perspective of older community-dwelling people with multi-morbidity.

    METHOD: A qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews, including 20 community-dwelling older people with multi-morbidity and a high symptom burden. The participants were 79-89 years old with a mean of 12 symptoms per person. Data were analyzed using content analyses.

    RESULTS: The experience of living with a high symptom burden revealed the overall theme, "To adjust and endure" and three sub-themes. The first sub-theme was "To feel inadequate and limited". Participants reported that they no longer had the capacity or the ability to manage, and they felt limited and isolated from friends or family. The second sub-theme was "To feel dependent". This was a new and inconvenient experience; the burden they put on others caused a feeling of guilt. The final sub-theme was "To feel dejected". The strength to manage and control their conditions was gone; the only thing left to do was to sit or lie down and wait for it all to pass.

    CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of a holistic approach when taking care of older people with multi-morbidity. This approach should employ a broad symptom assessment to reveal diseases and conditions that are possible to treat or improve.

  • 12.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing. Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

    Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder. Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms). Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with diconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms. In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

    The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

     

     

  • 13.
    Engelbrektson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Larsson, KarinMalin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sjuksköterskans främjande till egenvård hos patienter med kronisk hjärtsvikt- en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtsvikt är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukhusinläggningar för personer över 65 år. Hjärtsvikt är ett allvarligt tillstånd med hög dödlighet. Prognosen är dålig och kan bidra till en försämrad livskvalité. Den största anledningen till sjukhusinläggningar för patienter med hjärtsvikt är att egenvården inte följs. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att främja egenvård vid kronisk hjärtsvikt. Metoden grundade sig på Polit & Becks niostegsmodell för hur en litteraturstudie kan genomföras. Databassökningar genomfördes i CHINAL och PubMed och de artiklar som identifierades bearbetades i en urvalsprocess bestående av tre steg. I steg tre granskades artiklarna i olika granskningsmallar och efter urvalsprocessen kvarstod nio stycken artiklar. Resultatet presenterades i fyra teman: utbildning, individanpassa, socialt stöd och övervakning som alla visat sig vara viktiga komponenter för att uppnå en god egenvård. Slutsatsen var att utbildning är en viktig del i främjandet av egenvård. Sjuksköterskan bör individanpassa informationen och framförallt försäkra sig om att informationen som ges förstås av patienten. Ett sätt att försäkra sig om att informationen förstås är att inkludera anhöriga. Med hjälp av övervakande åtgärder ökar följsamheten till egenvården.

  • 14.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Arnberg, Filip K
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Survivors’ experiences of journalists and media exposure: A retrospective qualitative study 15 years after a ferry disaster2018In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 573-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The media is an important part of disaster management, yet little is understood about their interplay with the disaster survivors. The purpose of this paper is to examine disaster survivors' long-term retrospective views of their experiences with journalists and the media coverage.Design/methodology/approachIn total, 22 Swedish adult survivors (of 49 eligible) from a ferry disaster in the Baltic Sea, in which only 137 of the 989 people onboard survived, were interviewed after 15 years about their experiences of meeting journalists in the immediate aftermath and the media coverage in a long-term perspective. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings

    Survivors from the Estonia ferry disaster described a wide array of experiences from their contacts with the disaster journalists and being exposed in the media. From their experiences, four categories were extracted. The categories were common for both their media contacts and their media exposure: strain, support, rationality and evasion. The survivors' experiences were both negative and positive.

    Research limitations/implications

    These accounts of disaster survivors' experiences from an event 15 years ago provide an interesting comparison for future studies of contemporary disasters.

    Originality/value

    This study provides important perspectives on the role of disaster coverage in the media and documents how disaster survivors retrospect on the media as both a burden and a resource.

  • 15.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri, Uppsala universitet.
    Riddez, Louis
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Örtenwall, Per
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Bombattentatet i Oslo och skjutningarna på Utøya 2011: Kamedo-rapport 972012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fredagen den 22 juli 2011 kl. 15.25 detonerade en sprängladdning i regeringskvarteret i centrala Oslo. Bomben var mycket kraftig – åtta personer dödades, minst 90 skadades och kringliggande byggnader fick omfattande skador. Senare samma eftermiddag klev en man som utgav sig för att vara polis iland på ön Utøya, där det norska Arbeiderpartiets ungdomsförbund höll ett sommarläger. Väl iland på ön började mannen skjuta omkring sig. När han senare greps av polis hade 69 personer dödats och 65 skadats. De flesta var barn eller ungdomar. Händelserna den 22 juli involverade stora delar av det norska samhället. De många skadade krävde stora insatser från hälso- och sjukvården och det fanns ett stort behov av psykosocialt stöd till de många överlevande och deras anhöriga, samt till de avlidnas anhöriga. Vidare väckte händelserna ett mycket stort medialt intresse som de berörda aktörerna var tvungna att förhålla sig till.

    Rapporten omfattar en diskussion kring den norska hanteringen av 22 juli 2011,  samt hur det svenska samhället hade kunnat hantera en motsvarande händelse.Tre huvudområden belyses: hälso- och sjkukvård, psykosocialt stöd samt kommunikation och mediehantering.

  • 16.
    Grahn Vera Gajardo, Jannette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. 6406282787.
    ”Man vill ha bekräftelse på att allt rullar åt rätt håll” - En intervjustudie om föräldrars upplevelse av 3-års teambesöket på BVC i Värmland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrarnas levnadsvanor kan vara avgörande för hur barnets framtida levnadsvanor kommer att se ut och är därför väsentliga ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv.

     

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka de värmländska föräldrarnas upplevelse av 3-års teambesök på barnavårdscentralerna (BVC) i Värmland. Teambesöket, där både barnhälsovårdsläkare och barnhälsovårdssjuksköterska träffar föräldrarna tillsammans har som syfte att prata om levnadsvanor med alla föräldrar ur ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv som innebär att utgå från faktorer som bidrar till att främja och bevara hälsan.

     

     

    För att svara på syftet användes kvalitativ induktiv metod. Urvalet, tio föräldrar, var strategiskt och kompletterades med ett bekvämlighetsurval. Datainsamlingen skedde genom intervjuer som spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys metod. Resultatet från denna studie visar att upplevelsen av 3-års teambesöket på BVC i Värmland skiljer sig åt avseende personalens bemötande. Faktorer som avgjorde upplevelse av ”det goda mötet” berodde inte endast på BVC-personalens tidsbrist utan upplevelsen påverkades också av förhållningssättet, innefattande struktur och arbetssätt på teambesöket. Det var viktigt för en positiv upplevelse att känna att alla blev delaktiga i ett samtal som inte är utpekande och som kan ge möjlighet till reflektion samt bekräftelse på att man som förälder gör rätt.  Det är dessa aspekter som leder till att föräldrarna känner sig stärkta i sitt föräldraskap. Föräldrarna upplevde levnadsvanefrågor som viktiga likaså uppföljningen av BVC samt att tilliten till BVC:s arbete med att övervaka och följa upp barns hälsa var stark.

     

    Mot bakgrund av studiens resultat föreslås åtgärder för att förbättra struktur, samarbete och roller på teambesöket på BVC i Värmland.

  • 17.
    Grim, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå universitet.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Schon, Ulla-Karin
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Development and Usability Testing of a Web-Based Decision Support for Users and Health Professionals in Psychiatric Services2017In: Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, ISSN 1095-158X, E-ISSN 1559-3126, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Shared decision making (SMD) related to treatment and rehabilitation is considered a central component in recovery-oriented practice. Although decision aids are regarded as an essential component for successfully implementing SDM, these aids are often lacking within psychiatric services. The aim of this study was to use a participatory design to facilitate the development of a user-generated, web-based decision aid for individuals receiving psychiatric services. The results of this effort as well as the lessons learned during the development and usability processes are reported. Method: The participatory design included 4 iterative cycles of development. Various qualitative methods for data collection were used with potential end users participating as informants in focus group and individual interviews and as usability and pilot testers. Results: Interviewing and testing identified usability problems that then led to refinements and making the subsequent prototypes increasingly user-friendly and relevant. In each phase of the process, feedback from potential end-users provided guidance in developing the formation of the web-based decision aid that strengthens the position of users by integrating access to information regarding alternative supports, interactivity between staff and users, and user preferences as a continual focus in the tool. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: This web-based decision aid has the potential to strengthen service users' experience of self-efficacy and control as well as provide staff access to user knowledge and preferences. Studies employing participatory models focusing on usability have potential to significantly contribute to the development and implementation of tools that reflect user perspectives.

  • 18.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Mårtensson, Gunnila
    University of Gävle.
    Mamhaidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University.
    Munthlin Athlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University.
    Bååth, Carina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Pressure ulcer knowledge of registered nurses, assistant nurses and student nurses: a descriptive, comparative multicentre study2015In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 462-468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Hassan, Nasra
    et al.
    Kocher, Kajin
    Registreringsmetoder för initial och avancerad dental erosion: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Dental erosion definieras som förlust av tandens hårdvävnad genom en kemisk process som inte involverar bakterier. Dagens förändrade livsstil och kosthållning medför att våra tänder oftare utsätts för kemisk påverkan som kan leda till erosion. Det är flera faktorer som samverkar och dental erosion har en multifaktoriell etiologi.

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva olika registreringsmetoder för dental erosion.

    Frågeställningar: Vilka metoder kan användas för registrering av initial erosion? Vilka metoder kan användas för registrering av avancerad erosionsskada? Vilka metoder är kliniskt beprövade på patient?

    Metod: Litteraturstudie

    Resultat: Ett flertal registreringsmetoder fanns beskrivna i litteraturen, merparten var inte applicerbara kliniskt. Registeringsmetoderna som framgick i den beskrivande litteraturstudien var: 3D scanning microscope (IFM), Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Digital photography (DP), Focus-variation 3D microscopy (FVM), Longitudinal microradiography (LMR), Non-contact confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Optical assessment, Optical profilometry (OP), Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Stylus profilometry (SP), Ultrasound, White light interferometry (WLI) och X-ray diffraction (XRD).

    Konklusion: Vid registrering av initial erosion krävs analys av tandytans mineralinnehåll samt optiska analyser med hjälp av instrument. För analysering av progredierande erosion används yt-råhetsanalyser. Röntgenbildtagning och mikroradiografi används för en analys av avancerad erosion. För kliniskt bruk finns QLF metoden, digital bildtagning och optisk analys.

  • 20.
    Hidén, Joe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    FMT: Hjälp för förskolebarn med olika funktionsnedsättningar: FMT-metoden, Funktionsinriktad musikterapi2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study is investigating whether the FMT-method (Functionally Oriented Music Therapy)

    can be of considerable use as a tool for the Grey Area Children and how pedagogues are using it. The Grey Area Children are the children that struggle with various difficulties - physically or mentally. Some of the Grey Area Children have some kind of physical or mental diagnose, and some have not been diagnosed. Thus, they are clearly in need of help from the pedagogues working with them, and my goal is to find out if the FMT-method can make a vital change for these children.

    The method I have been using to investigate this is partly based on knowledge from books

    and essays. However, I have mainly based my work through quality based scientific

    interviews with experienced and professional FMT-therapists.

    The main result of my investigation is that the FMT-method is a neuro muscular method

    which aims to raise the total function of an individual – by raising the individual functions.

    This particular method works by developing the nerve paths between body and brain and also the nerve-ends of the brain.

    The efficiency of the FMT-method is measurable through its own system of diagnosis.

    However, the efficiency of the FMT-method can also be measured with scientifically proven

    systems such as Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).

    Furthermore I have discovered that it is possible that the FMT-method can help a

    preschool child with difficulties by raising the basic functions of the child, the functions that

    enables the total development of the child. A child can be stimulated into acquiring subconscious self-acting/automatic physical body movement – where a positive progress has occurred.

    I was able to conclude that the FMT-method is a powerful method I would gladly suggest

    for children with various disabilities – the Gray Area Children. As pedagogues we are

    cooperating with child psychologists and special pedagogues, and in consultation with these

    parts, we want to have a powerful method to offer the parents and the child in need. I think the FMT-method is a method which will help the child.

    Key words: FMT-method, Functionally oriented music therapy,MABC, fyschical disabilities,

    pre-school children,” Gray Area children”

  • 21.
    Holter, Herborg
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Gejervall, Ann-Louise
    Sahlgrenska academy Gothenburg University.
    Wikland, Matts
    Fertil Ctr Scandinavia.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bergh, Christina
    Sahlgrenska Akademin. Göteborgs universitet.
    Patient-centred quality of care in an IVF programme evaluted by men and women2014In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 2695-2703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hommel, Ami
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bååth, CarinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ortopedisk vård och rehabilitering2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rörelseorganens sjukdomar och skador spänner över ett brett fält och för att vården ska fungera behövs hela teamet runt patienten: läkare, sjuksköterska, undersköterska, sjukgymnast, arbetsterapeut och ortopedingenjör. Detta är den första boken som beskriver samtliga professioners perspektiv och kompetens i den ortopediska vården. Författarna representerar hela vårdteamet och i avslutningen speglas patientperspektivet i form av Carolines berättelse om att få en allvarlig sjukdom.

    Boken bygger på den senaste forskningen och det kvalitetsarbete som pågår. Relevanta nationella kvalitetsregister presenteras, men framför allt beskriver författarna hur dessa register kan och bör användas i det dagliga vårdarbetet, samt hur vårdens kvalitet kan mätas utifrån kvalitetsindikatorer.

    Bokens målgrupp är företrädelsevis sjuksköterske-, arbetsterapeut- och sjukgymnaststudenter på grundläggande nivå. Men alla yrkesverksamma som arbetar med patienter inom ortopedisk vård kan ha nytta av boken.

  • 23.
    Kane, Bridget
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Luz, Saturnino
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Clinical Training and Teamwork: Learning and Feedback2015In: 2015 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, 2015, p. 280-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MDTMs are now a feature of routine hospital work and provide a valuable learning opportunity for education and practice development. The popularity of the forum as a patient management mechanism has had a negative counter effect on the educational function of the forum. Behavioural interventions and technical supports are identified based on long term ethnographic studies to restore the educational benefits of the forum. The potential for re-developing the MDTM into a rich educational resource that will assist in clinical education, professional development, provide an evidence base for guideline development by integrating clinical outcome feedback into the meeting record is proposed.

  • 24.
    Lexomboon, Duangjai
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Trulsson, Mats
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute.
    Wårdh, Inger
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute.
    Parker, Marti G.
    Aging Research Center, Stockholm University/Karolinska Insititute.
    Chewing ability and tooth loss: association with cognitive impairment in an elderly population study2012In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 1951-1956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an association between tooth loss, chewing ability, and cognitive function in a general elderly population.

    DESIGN: Data from the Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old in 2002 were analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between cognitive function and tooth loss and chewing ability.

    PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred fifty-seven persons who were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77 and older.

    MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive function was measured using the abridged version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Information on dental status and chewing difficulty was obtained according to self-assessment.

    RESULTS: Persons with multiple tooth loss and persons with difficulty chewing hard food had significantly higher odds of cognitive impairment. When adjusted for sex, age, and education, the odds of cognitive impairment were not significantly different between persons with natural teeth and with multiple tooth loss, but the odds of impairment remained significantly higher for persons with chewing difficulty even when adjusted for sex, age, education, depression, and mental illness.

    CONCLUSION: Sex, age, education, and certain illnesses do not explain the association between cognition and chewing ability. Whether elderly persons chew with natural teeth or prostheses may not contribute significantly to cognitive impairment as long as they have no chewing difficulty. The results add to the evidence of the association between chewing ability and cognitive impairment in elderly persons.

  • 25. Liebiedieva, Svitlana
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Geospatial support2017In: Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Management / [ed] Amir Khorram-Manesh, Göteborg: Amir Khorram-Manesh , 2017, p. 92-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lindqvist, Christine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lundström, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Den upplevda munhälsan hos personer som strålbehandlats i huvud- halsregionen: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Malesevic, Dajana
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Tagner, Olga
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Tandvårdsrädsla hos vuxna: Orsaker och konsekvenser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Uppskattningsvis lider 4-20% av världens vuxna befolkning av tandvårdsrädsla. Rädsla är individens normala emotionella reaktion inför hot eller fara. Rädslan uppväcker en fysiologisk spänning i kroppen som skapar ett kamp- och flyktbeteende hos individen vilket kallas akut stress. Det finns olika metoder för att förebygga och behandla tandvårdsrädsla.

    Syfte: Att beskriva bakomliggande orsaker till varför tandvårdsrädsla uppstår hos vuxna samt att undersöka om tandvårdsrädsla kan få konsekvenser för den orala hälsan och i så fall vilka konsekvenserna är.

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: Orsaker: Det har konstaterats att patienter som har upplevt en obehaglig tandvårdssituation uppvisar högre grad av tandvårdsrädsla. Tandvårdsrädsla är multifaktoriell men rädsla för smärta har visat sig vara en central orsak till att tandvårdsrädsla uppstår hos individer. Konsekvenser: Patienter som lider av tandvårdsrädsla besöker tandvården mindre regelbundet och har mindre goda ,vilket påverkar den orala hälsan.

  • 28. McLoughlin, Paul
    et al.
    Mulcahy, Fiona
    O Briain, D Sean
    Kane, Bridget
    St. James's Hospital Dublin, Ireland.
    Mulvihill, E
    Prichard, John S
    Lung pathology in HIV positive patients1990In: Irish Medical Journal, ISSN 0332-3102, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 109-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the results of 43 bronchoscopic examinations carried out on 35 patients who were HIV positive.  Of these, 13 were intravenous drug abusers, 13 were homosexual or bisexual, six were haemophiliacs, two were homosexual intravenous drug abusers and one was a heteroexual contact of a drug abuser.  All underwent investigation because of respiratory symptoms.  Aetiological diagnosis could not be made from physical examination, x-ray or routine laboratory tests but, was usually made using bronchoscopy and its associated investigations.  Using these techniques, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the commonest diagnosis (19 cases) followed by bacterial infection.  Mycobacterial infection accounted for two cases and non-specific interstitial pneumonitis accounted for three.  Kaposi's sarcoma was found in one instance and eight investigations were non-diagnostic.

  • 29.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Divergent trends in emergency department visits for poisonings by intent in Värmland, Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palm, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundgren, Linnea
    Ersta Skondal.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Khorram-Manesh, Amir
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Carlström, Eric
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Testing a novel method for identifying where serious medical encounters occur at marathons in order to improve medical preparedness and runners’ safety2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. A29-A29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Olsson, Helén
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Att minska risken för våld och att främja återhämtning i den rättspsykiatriska vården: Patienters och personalens erfarenheter av vägen mot återhämtning2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written in a forensic nursing context. It reflects both the patients’ and the nursing staff´s experiences associated with turning points in reduced violence risk and recovery. The overall aim of the thesis was to examine factors related to the turning points associated with reduced risk for violence and factors which contribute to recovery, based on the salutogenic approach in forensic mental health nursing.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Helén
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mittuniversitetet; Rättspsykiatriska regionkliniken i Sundsvall.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Turning towards recovery in forensic psychiatric inpatients: A study based on staff experience2014In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many individuals sentenced to forensic psychiatric care fail in the rehabilitation process, resulting in long-term inpatient hospital care. The concepts of turning points and treatment readiness in forensic settings should therefore be afforded more attention. Much can be learned from the features that characterize trajectories of recovery and processes related to turning points. The aim of this study was to explore forensic nursing staff’s experiences of forensic psychiatric patients’ turning towards recovery. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interviews with 13 forensic psychiatric nursing staff. Analysis of the data revealed two main themes with implications for clinical practice: promoting a turning point and recognizing a turning point. In the first of these, the emphasis was on actions and conditions that must exist to promote a turning. In the second, the main experiences related to recognizing a turning point were stories about visible and perceptible changes in the patient. The experiences that stood out most distinctly were those of being able to wait out the patient, and having patience when there was a lack of progression. The composition of staff and patients contributed to whether or not the environment was perceived as salutary.

  • 33.
    Ostberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden.;Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden..
    Wikstrand, I.
    Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden.;Hlth Care Ctr Centrum, Skovde, Sweden..
    Bostrom, K. Bengtsson
    Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden..
    Group treatment of obesity in primary care practice: A qualitative study of patients' perspectives2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To explore patients' experiences of very low calorie diet (VLCD) and subsequent corset treatment of obesity in a primary care setting, and to explore their perceptions of factors influencing weight control. Methods: In western Sweden, five focus group sessions were carried out. The main themes for the discussions were the informants' perceptions of the treatment they had received and their experiences of living with obesity. The analysis was based on the Grounded Theory methodology. Results: The outcomes reflect obese individuals' struggle to handle the demands of their life situation and to recognize their own resources. The core category generated was labelled "Achieving a balance in life and adjusting one's identity". Three categories related to the process of weight reduction were identified: living with obesity, reducing weight and developing self-management. The group treatment with VLCD was positively perceived by the participants, but the corset treatment was considered to be of less value. Conclusions: Maintenance after weight reduction was demanding and the findings indicate a need for extended support. For some individuals the corset treatment could be a psychological support. Follow-up after weight reduction programmes should focus on long-term self-help strategies.

  • 34.
    Sipila, Sarianna
    et al.
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Tirkkonen, Anna
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Hanninen, Tuomo
    Kuopio Univ Hospital, Finland.
    Laukkanen, Pia
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Alen, Markku
    Oulu Univ Hospital, Finland.
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Tufts University, Boston USA .
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth Solut, Chron Dis Prevent Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kokko, Katja
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Kulmala, Jenni
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth Solut, Chron Dis Prevent Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rantanen, Taina
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Sihvonen, Antti
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sillanpaa, Elina
    Umeå Universitet.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Tormakangas, Timo
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Promoting safe walking among older people: the effects of a physical and cognitive training intervention vs. physical training alone on mobility and falls among older community-dwelling men and women (the PASSWORD study): design and methods of a randomized controlled trial2018In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Safe and stable walking is a complex process involving the interaction of neuromuscular, sensory and cognitive functions. As physical and cognitive functions deteriorate with ageing, training of both functions may have more beneficial effects on walking and falls prevention than either alone. This article describes the study design, recruitment strategies and interventions of the PASSWORD study investigating whether a combination of physical and cognitive training (PTCT) has greater effects on walking speed, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive functions compared to physical training (PT) alone among 70-85-year-old community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active men and women. Methods: Community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active, men and women living in the city of Jyvaskyla will be recruited and randomized into physical training (PT) and physical and cognitive training (PTCT). The 12-month interventions include supervised training sessions and home exercises. Both groups attend physical training intervention, which follows the current physical activity guidelines. The PTCT group performes also a web-based computer program targeting executive functions. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Falls data are collected during the interventions and the subsequent one-year follow-up. The primary outcome is 10-m walking speed. Secondary outcomes include 6-min walking distance, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive function assessed with color Stroop and Trail Making A and B tests. Explanatory outcomes include e.g. body composition and bone characteristics, physical performance, physical activity, life-space mobility, fall-related self-efficacy, emotional well-being and personality characteristics. Discussion: The study is designed to capture the additive and possible synergistic effects of physical and cognitive training. When completed, the study will provide new knowledge on the effects of physical and cognitive training on the prevention of walking limitations and rate of falls in older people. The expected results will be of value in informing strategies designed to promote safe walking among older people and may have a significant health and socio-economic impact.

  • 35.
    Vikstrom, Pernilla
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bjorkman, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Ingela K.
    Lunds universitet.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). NU Hlth Care, Dept Psychiat, Trollhattan.
    Rosen, Birgitta
    Lunds universitet.
    Atypical sensory processing pattern following median or ulnar nerve injury: a case-control study2018In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 18, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to brain plasticity a transection of a median or ulnar nerve results in profound changes in the somatosensory areas in the brain. The permanent sensory deprivation after a peripheral nerve injury might influence the interaction between all senses. The aim of the study was to investigate if a median and/or ulnar nerve injury gives rise to a changed sensory processing pattern. In addition we examined if age at injury, injured nerve or time since injury influence the sensory processing pattern. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women, median age 43) operated due to a median and/or ulnar nerve injury were included. The patients completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile questionnaire, which includes a comprehensive characterization on how sensory information is processed and how an individual responds to multiple sensory modalities. AASP categorizes the results into four possible Quadrants of behavioral profiles (Q1-low registration, Q2-sensory seeking, Q3-sensory sensitivity and Q4-sensory avoiding). The results were compared to 209 healthy age and gender matched controls. Anova Matched Design was used for evaluation of differences between the patient group and the control group. Atypical sensory processing behavior was determined in relation to the normative distribution of the control group. Results: Significant difference was seen in Q1, low registration. 40% in the patient group scored atypically in this Quadrant compared to 16% of the controls. No correlation between atypical sensory processing pattern and age or time since injury was seen. Conclusion: A peripheral nerve injury entails altered sensory processing pattern with increased proportion of patients with low registration to sensory stimulus overall. Our results can guide us into more client centered rehabilitation strategies.

  • 36.
    Werling, Agneta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Ibrus, Katre-Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Patienter med fetma – sjuksköterskans preventiva åtgärder- en litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Antalet patienter med fetma ökar i världen. Sjuksköterskan möter de här patienterna i den somatiska vården, i äldrevården och primärvården. Det preventivt arbeta med denna patientgrupp är av stor vikt då det kan förebygga följdsjukdomar som diabetes, hypertoni, hjärtkärlsjukdomar och cancer. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskans preventiva åtgärder till patienter med fetma. Metod: En litteraturstudie med induktiv resultatbearbetning som utförts enligt Polit och Beck (2017) nio steg. Artiklarna söktes i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsykINFO. Artiklarna granskades utifrån Polit och Beck (2017) granskningsmall och tio vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Resultat: Sammanställningen av artiklarna resulterade i fyra kategorier - motivera patienten till livsstilsförändring, ge råd om kost, ge råd om fysisk aktivitet och uppföljning av patienten. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor arbetar med olika preventiva åtgärder till sina patienter, det verkar inte finnas några riktlinjer om vilka råd som ges utan många gånger arbetar sjuksköterskor utifrån egna erfarenheter och eget tycke.

  • 37.
    Westerberg, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Simning- en livsviktig kunksap: En studie om icke simkunniga elevers känslor för simning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
1 - 37 of 37
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