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  • 1.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Global DMPK, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Fac Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS): A tutorial2011Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 701, nr 2, s. 119-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial provides an overview on a new technique for sample preparation, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). Not only the automation process by MEPS is the advantage but also the much smaller volumes of the samples, solvents and dead volumes in the system. Other significant advantages such as the speed and the simplicity of the sample preparation process are provided. In this tutorial the main concepts of MEPS will be elucidated. Different practical aspects in MEPS are addressed. The factors affecting MEPS performance will be discussed. The application of MEPS in clinical and pre-clinical studies for quantification of drugs and metabolites in blood, plasma and urine will be provided. A comparison between MEPS and other extraction techniques such as SPE, LLE, SPME and SBSE will be discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Global DMPK, Sodertalje, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Fac Sci & Technol, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    On-Line Whole Blood Analysis Using Microextraction by Packed Sorbent and LC-MS-MS2011Ingår i: LC GC North America, ISSN 1527-5949, E-ISSN 1939-1889, Vol. 29, nr 7, s. 612-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line with liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) systems without any modifications. This article describes the use of MEPS in clinical and preclinical studies to quantify different drugs in whole blood samples. MEPS was used to determine cyclophosphamide in mouse blood from preclinical g studies using 20 mu L of blood samples. The interday accuracies and 0 precisions ranged from 107-109% and from 2.0-7.0%, respectively. The determination of four immunosuppressive drugs in human blood by MEPS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is described. The method showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. The calibration curves for everolimus, sirolimus, and tacrolimus ranged from 0.5 to 50 ng/mL and for cyclosporine from 3.0 to 1500 ng/mL. Intraday precisions for the studied immunosuppressive drugs were 2.0-11.7% and interday precision ranged from 5.1 to 13.7% (CV).

  • 3.
    Ashri, Nadia Y.
    et al.
    Najd Consulting Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Clin Pharmacol, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, DMPK, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sample treatment based on extraction techniques in biological matrices2011Ingår i: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 3, nr 17, s. 2003-2018Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of sample preparation methods as the first stage in bioanalysis is described. In this article, the sample preparation concept and strategies will be discussed, along with the requirements for good sample preparation. The most widely used sample preparation methods in the pharmaceutical industry are presented; for example, the need for same-day rotation of results from large numbers of biological samples in pharmaceutical industry makes high throughput bioanalysis more essential. In this article, high-throughput sample preparation techniques are presented; examples are given of the extraction and concentration of analytes from biological matrices, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction and microextraction-related techniques. Finally, the potential role of selective extraction methods, including molecular imprinted phases, is considered.

  • 4.
    Brkic, Adisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Litteraturstudie av senaste forskningsresultaten kring inhibition av makrofager via CSF - 1R & CCR2: - Kan det vara en möjlig väg att hämma makrofager vid cancer och därmed ge en förbättrad prognos?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 5.
    Cavallini, Nicola
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Delbro, Dick
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Karlstad, Sch Pure & Appl Nat Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Tobin, Gunnar
    Gothenburg University.
    Braide, Magnus
    Gothenburg University.
    Neuropeptide release augments serum albumin loss and reduces ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis2012Ingår i: Peritoneal Dialysis International, ISSN 0896-8608, E-ISSN 1718-4304, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 168-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The triggers of the acute local inflammatory response to peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid exposure remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation on water and solute transport in experimental PD. Methods: Single 2-hour dwells in rats with PD catheters were studied. Histamine and the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured in PD fluid samples by ELISA. Radiolabeled albumin (I-125 and I-131 respectively) was used as an intraperitoneal (IP) and intravascular tracer. Glucose and urea concentrations were measured in plasma and PD fluid. The effects of varying the volume and osmolarity of a lactate-buffered PD fluid were compared and related to the effects of pharmacologic intervention. Results: Application of 20 mL 3.9% glucose PD fluid induced an IP histamine release during the first 30 minutes, blockable by the mast cell stabilizer doxantrazole and the substance P neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-blocker spantide. Histamine release was also inhibited at a reduced PD volume (14 mL), but was not affected by normalizing the PD fluid osmolarity. Blockade of NK1R also reduced plasma albumin leakage to the peritoneal cavity. Inhibition of CGRP receptors by CGRP8-37 improved osmotic (transcapillary) and net ultrafiltration and reduced the dialysate urea concentration. Neuropeptide release was not clearly related to activation of the TrpV1 receptor, the classic trigger of neurogenic inflammation. Conclusions: Neuropeptide release exaggerated albumin loss and reduced ultrafiltration in this rat PD model. Intervention aimed at the neuropeptide action substantially improved PD efficiency.

  • 6.
    Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kemi.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kemi.
    Portelius, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kemi.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kemi.
    Cloning, characterisation, and expression of a novel gene encoding chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans2002Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Gene Structure and Expression, ISSN 0167-4781, E-ISSN 1879-2634, Vol. 1577, nr 1, s. 445-451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Delbro, Dick S.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Surg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Hallsberg, Lena
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Surg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wallin, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Surg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Bengt I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Surg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sahlgrenska Transplant Inst, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Friman, Styrbjorn
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Surg, Inst Clin Sci, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sahlgrenska Transplant Inst, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Expression of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in rat liver2011Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 119, nr 3, s. 227-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Esguerra, Maricris
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Vasc Engn Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fink, Helen
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Vasc Engn Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Laschke, Matthias W.
    Univ Saarland, Inst Clin & Expt Surg, D-6650 Homburg, Saarland, Germany..
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Delbro, Dick
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Karlstad, Sch Pure & Appl Nat Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers, Dept Biol & Chem Engn, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Menger, Michael D.
    Univ Saarland, Inst Clin & Expt Surg, D-6650 Homburg, Saarland, Germany..
    Risberg, Bo
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Vasc Engn Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Intravital fluorescent microscopic evaluation of bacterial cellulose as scaffold for vascular grafts2010Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965, Vol. 93A, nr 1, s. 140-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although commonly used synthetic vascular grafts perform satisfactorily in large caliber blood vessels, they are prone to thrombosis in small diameter vessels. Therefore, small vessels might benefit from tissue engineered vascular grafts. This study evaluated bacterial cellulose (BC) as a potential biomaterial for biosynthetic blood vessels. We implanted the dorsal skinfold chambers in three groups of Syrian golden hamsters with BC (experimental group), polyglycolic acid, or expanded polytetrafluorethylane (control groups). Following implantation, we used intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunochemistry to analyze the biocompatibility, neovascularization, and incorporation of each material over a time period of 2 weeks. Biocompatibility was good in all groups, as indicated by the absence of leukocyte acti-vation upon implantation. All groups displayed angiogenic response in the host tissue, but that response was highest in the polyglycolic acid group. Histology revealed vascularized granulation tissue Surrounding all three biomaterials, with many proliferating cells and a lack of apoptotic cell death 2 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, BC offers good biocompatibility and material incorporation compared with commonly used materials in vascular surgery. Thus, BC represents a promising new biomaterial for tissue engineering of vascular grafts. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 93A: 140-149, 2010

  • 9.
    Karlsson, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Appelgren, Jari
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Solterbeck, A.
    Central Hospital Karlstad, Sweden.
    Bergenheim, M.
    Central Hospital Karlstad, Sweden.
    Alvariza, V.
    Central Hospital Karlstad, Sweden.
    Bergh, J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Population based study investigating biopsy verifications of "breast cancer recurrences" and biomarker changes2013Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 49, s. S399-S400Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Karlsson, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol & Pathol, Cent Hosp Karlstad, Dept Oncol Karlstad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sandelin, K.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Appelgren, Jari
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Wenjing, Z.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Surg, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jirstrom, K.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergh, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Warnberg, F.
    University Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Receptor conversion between primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and corresponding local relapse2013Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 49, s. S403-S403Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Said, Rana
    et al.
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Pharmacol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kamel, Mohamed
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Pharmacol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    El-Beqqali, Aziza
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Pharmacol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap. Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Fac Sci & Technol, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;AstraZeneca R&D, Dept Clin Pharmacol, S-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;AstraZeneca R&D, DMPK, S-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Microextraction by packed sorbent for LC-MS/MS determination of drugs in whole blood samples2010Ingår i: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 197-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is used as an online sample-preparation method. The determination of local anesthetics lidocaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine directly in human blood was performed using MEPS online with LC-MS/MS. Results: The range of the calibration curves in whole blood was 10-10000 nmol/l. The lower limit of quantification was set to 10.0 nmol/l. The accuracy of the quality control samples ranged from 85 to 97%. The interday precision of the studied analytes was within the range 1-5%. The regression correlation coefficient (r(2)) was over 0.995 for all runs. The present method is rapid, reliable and robust and may be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of studied analytes in whole blood. Conclusion: This assay allows the analysis of drugs in human blood directly. Sample preparation is simple and automated. The assay reduced the handling time and the cost, and could handle small volumes of whole blood samples (25 mu l).

  • 12.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Chemical characterization in the biorefinery of lignocellulose: Formation and management of oxalic acid and analysis of feedstocks for bioethanol production2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is entering a new era. Pulp mills will be transformed to biorefineries that produce not only pulp, but also biofuels and novel products from lignocellulose. This thesis addresses problems connected with the industrial transition to environmental-friendly technologies and the implementation of the biorefinery concept.

    Peroxide bleaching and enhanced recirculation of process water may lead to increased problems with oxalate scaling. Enzymatic elimination of the oxalate problem could be the ultimate industrial solution. The activities of oxalate oxidase, oxalate decarboxylase and a novel oxalate-degrading enzyme provided by Novozymes have been tested in industrial bleaching filtrates. Chemical characterization of the filtrates was used in combination with multivariate data analysis to identify potential enzyme inhibitors. A method based on oxalate oxidase was developed to determine the levels of oxalic acid in process water.

    The precursors of oxalic acid formed during bleaching of pulp have been reassessed. New experimental data indicate that alkaline oxidative degradation of dissolved carbohydrates is the main source of oxalic acid. These findings are contradictory to previous hypotheses, which have been focused on lignin. Xylan was more important than lignin as precursor of oxalic acid under peroxide-bleaching conditions. Hot-water extraction of hemicelluloses from softwood mechanical pulp prior to the peroxide-bleaching stage reduced the formation of oxalic acid by one third.

    Lignocellulosic materials were characterized chemically with regard to their suitability as feedstocks in biorefineries producing bioethanol. Four agricultural and agro-industrial residues were investigated; cassava stalks, peanut shells, rice hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. Pretreated sugarcane bagasse was the material that was most susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes. Waste fiber sludges from three pulp mills were characterized. The waste fiber sludge with the lowest content of lignin was hydrolyzed most efficiently by the enzymes. Oligomeric xylan fragments were isolated as by-products from a waste fiber sludge. Hydrolysis of the waste fiber sludges resulted in solid residues with improved fuel properties. The waste fibers were found to be suitable as a feedstock for the production of biofuels in a pulp mill-based biorefinery.

  • 13.
    Sjöde, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Enzyme-based control of oxalic acid in the pulp and paper industry2008Ingår i: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 43, s. 78-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Smedja Bäcklund, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Electron transport in microbial chlorate respiration2009Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Several bacterial species are capable to use perchlorate and/or chlorate as an alternative electron acceptor in absence of oxygen. Microbial respiration of oxochlorates is important for biotreatment of effluent from industries where oxochlorates are produced or handled. One of these species, the Gram-negative Ideonella dechloratans, is able to reduce chlorate but not perchlorate. Two soluble enzymes, chlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, participate in the conversion of chlorate into chloride and molecular oxygen. The present study deals with the electron transport from the membrane-bound components to the periplasmic chlorate reductase. Soluble c cytochromes were investigated for their ability to serve as electron donors to chlorate reductase. The results show that a 6 kDa c cytochrome serves as electron donor for chlorate reductase. This cytochrome also serves as electron donor for a terminal oxidase in the reduction of oxygen that is produced in the course of chlorate respiration. A gene encoding a soluble c cytochrome was found in close proximity to the gene cluster for chlorate reduction. This gene was cloned and expressed heterologously, and the resulting protein was investigated as a candidate electron donor for chlorate reductase. Electron transfer from this protein could not be demonstrated, suggesting that the gene product does not serve as immediate electron donor for chlorate reductase.

     

1 - 14 av 14
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