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  • 1. Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Bergvall, Ulrika
    Seniorers motivation till gruppträning: En kvantitativ studie om fysiska, psykiska och sociala motivationsfaktorer2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur vi tränar och hur vi motiveras till att träna är mycket individuellt. Vissa är lagindivider och trivs bäst i grupp där man kan hålla motivationen uppe emellan sig, andra är ensamvargar och tränar helst utan sällskap. Vad vi än väljer att göra är det viktigaste att vi rör på oss, detta även när vi når en högre ålder. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka motivationsfaktorer som är mest betydelsefulla för seniorer  till att delta i gruppträning. Vi utförde en kvantitativ undersökning på ett träningscenter där vår enkät innehöll frågor kring motivation av fysiska, psykiska och sociala faktorer samt vad som leder till att seniorer oftare deltar i gruppträning. Genom studien kunde vi konstatera att de psykiska faktorerna främst motiverar till deltagandet i gruppträning och att det är regelbunden träning som leder till hög motivation. Ett samband mellan ett tidigare fysiskt aktivt liv och hur mycket seniorer är aktiva idag kunde påvisas, därmed vikten av regelbunden träning. Vi vill med detta examensarbete öka förståelsen för hur viktigt det är för äldre att de tränar och behåller god kondition samt lyfta fram vad som kan öka seniorers motivation och vilja till att utföra fysisk aktivitet.

  • 2.
    Andersson, P.
    et al.
    Kristianstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Soc, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Hakeberg, M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Behav & Community Dent, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden..
    Karlberg, G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Östberg, A-L
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Clinical correlates of oral impacts on daily performances2010In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between oral health measures and oral health-related quality of life as captured by OIDP (oral impacts on daily performances). Methods: The study was performed in three dental clinics in Sweden and included 204 patients, 43.8% men and 56.2% women (aged 20-86 years), consecutively recruited in connection with their routine dental examination. The patients were interviewed using the OIDP followed by a clinical examination. Four bite-wing radiographs were taken in two of the clinics (n = 154). A self-administered questionnaire provided information about socio-economic data. Results: Subjects 60 years had significantly more missing teeth, lesser maximal jaw opening, higher number of sites with alveolar bone loss and proportionally more filled teeth than younger individuals. Impacts related to the oral health that affected their daily life were reported in 39.7%. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that missing teeth (>= 10) and a limited jaw opening (<40 mm) were significantly associated with having one or more impact as measured with the OIDP [odds ratio (OR) 6.50, 95% CI 1.48-28.43 and OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.03-7.96, respectively]. Conclusions: Individuals with diminished functional oral health status (missing teeth and limited jaw opening) had significantly more often one or more oral impacts on daily life than those with fewer than 10 missing teeth and a jaw opening >= 40 mm. The OIDP instrument may be valuable for use in routine dental check-ups in patients with related problems to determine possible oral impacts on daily life.

  • 3.
    Brandin, Kristina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hallberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Muntorrhet – Oral hälsa och Livskvalitet: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Brinck, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tre förskolors förutsättningar och möjligheter till inköp av ekologisk mat2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Bruhn, Linnea
    Karlstad University.
    Motiverande samtal -En dynamisk process i arbetet med barn och ungdomar med övervikt: - En kvalitativ studie om professionella inom hälso- och sjukvårdens upplevelser av att använda MI tillsammans med överviktiga barn och ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The unhealthy lifestyles such as poor diets and lack of physical activity can lead to overweight and obesity for children and adolescents today. To not have the unhealthy lifestyles lead to future complications it’s important to give them the help and support they need to get motivated to change theirs behavior. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a method to help people change their behavior, this study will focus on a healthy lifestyle changes. A profession in healthcare uses the MI as a method to support the lifestyle change for children and adolescents with obesity. The purpose of this study is to examine what the professions experiences is concerning how the method works with children and adolescents with overweight. This study has used a qualitative method with six interviews. The interviews were recorded and analyzed. The result of this study showed that professions experiences MI as a very positive and useful method, also that the professions needed to use the method continuity to maintain the knowledge. The potential of MI as a method was that the professions often could see a positive change in the patient and the respondent had a positive view in using MI in the future. The author of this study believes that it’s incredibly important to keep working with MI as it probably can "save" money both for society and the work hours for professions in healthcare.

  • 6.
    Demirel, Juliana
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Jäderkvist, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar upplevelsen av svensk tandvård hos individer med utländsk bakgrund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Sverige är idag ett mångkulturellt land där en stor del av befolkningen har utländsk bakgrund. Flera av dem skattar sin munhälsa sämre än personer födda i Sverige och besöker tandvården mer sällan, trots att tandvårdsbehov finns. Genom att beskriva vilka faktorer som påverkar upplevelsen av svensk tandvård hos individer med utländsk bakgrund kan förståelsen för hur den upplevs öka.

    Syfte: Att beskriva faktorer som påverkar upplevelsen av svensk tandvård hos individer med utländsk bakgrund.

    Metod: Kvalitativ studie med enskilda intervjuer i en stad i Mellansverige. Urvalet bestod av fyra vuxna informanter i åldrarna 25-50 år med utländsk bakgrund. Intervjuerna analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Fyra huvudkategorier framkom vilka var bemötande, kommunikation, tandvårdsorganisation och vårdkvalitet. Bemötandet upplevs som professionellt, dock förekommer vissa motsättningar i patientmötet. Kommunikationen mellan personal och patient upplevs som god men information på andra språk än svenska efterfrågas. Gällande tandvårdsorganisation anses svensk tandvård som dyr och tidskrävande. Den svenska tandvården håller dock en god vårdkvalitet.

    Konklusion: Bemötande, ekonomi, kommunikation och vårdkvalitet är faktorer som påverkar upplevelsen av svensk tandvård hos individer med utländsk bakgrund. I de flesta fall var upplevelsen positiv men informanterna framförde vissa brister. 

  • 7.
    Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Department of Women's and Children's Health and Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Parents' Self-Reported Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Humiliating Upbringing Practices in Finland and Sweden: A Comparative Study2017In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Finland were the first countries to ban corporal punishment 30years ago. Since then, the prevalence of attitudes supporting the use of corporal punishment and the practice itself have decreased. This study examines the current frequencies of corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices in Finnish and Swedish families. The analysis is based on survey data among 3170 Finnish and 1358 Swedish parents with children from newborn to 12years of age. Data were analysed using univariate tests (chi-square) and logistic regression. According to the analysis, a larger proportion of Finnish parents, and especially mothers, use humiliating upbringing practices compared to Swedish parents. This difference is not found with regard to corporal punishment. A larger proportion of Finnish parents push their children compared to Swedish parents, while a larger proportion of Swedish parents shake their children. In both countries, corporal punishment is more frequently used by fathers, boys are more often victimised than girls, toddlers are more often exposed to corporal punishment and school-age children are more often subjected to psychologically abusive practices. Corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices are strongly correlated in both countries. The differences found between countries were not explained by socio-demographic factors.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Josefine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kost- och munhygienvanor hos en grupp 15-åringar i ett mångkulturellt område: En enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Femtonåringar experimenterar mycket med sin livsstil vilket kan påverka den orala hälsan negativt. Studier har även visat att 15-åriga ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund har en ökad kariesförekomst vilket gör det viktigt att få en inblick i ungdomars munhygienvanor och kostvanor.

    Syfte: Att undersöka kost- och munhygienvanor hos en grupp 15-åringar i ett mångkulturellt område.

    Frågeställningar: Hur såg 15-åringars kost- och munhygienvanor ut? Fanns det skillnader i 15-åringars kost och munhygienvanor i förhållande till etnisk bakgrund? Fanns det några könsskillnader gällande 15-åringarnas kost- och munhygienvanor?

    Metod: Kvantitativ enkätstudie där 70 stycken 15-åringar i Mellansverige har deltagit i studien.

    Resultat: Majoriteten av ungdomarna hade en intagsfrekvens på 1-3 mål utöver huvudmålen. De flesta respondenterna uppgav att de åt/drack godis/läsk några gånger i veckan. Den största törstsläckaren bland respondenterna var vatten. Av populationen borstade 21,5 % endast tänderna en gång per dag. De flesta respondenterna använde approximala hjälpmedel mer sällan än några gånger i månaden. Det kunde inte ses någon stor procentuell skillnad överlag på vanorna gällande kön eller bakgrund.

    Konklusion: Ungdomarna angav goda tandborstvanor och relativt goda kostvanor. Användande av approximala hjälpmedel var bristfällig och användning av fluorpreparat förekom inte i så hög grad. Frekvensen av godis- och läskintag var högre än rekommenderat.

  • 9.
    Gillstam, My
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Syversen, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    En grupp gymnasieungdomars kunskaper om oral hälsa och munhälsovanor.: En tvärsnittsstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Kunskapsnivån hos ungdomar gällande den orala hälsan har i flertalet studier undersökts, dessa studier pekar på mer eller mindre skilda resultat. Tidigare studier tyder på att tandborstning med fluortandkräm är den munhälsovana ungdomar utför mest samt att sockerkonsumtionen är hög och att kvinnor har bättre kunskaper om oral hälsa än män.

     

    Syfte: Att undersöka munhälsovanor och kunskaper om oral hälsa bland en grupp ungdomar på gymnasiet.

     

    Frågeställningar: Vilka kunskaper har ungdomarna om oral hälsa?

    Vilka munhälsovanor har ungdomarna?

    Metod: En tvärsnittsstudie. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med hjälp av en enkät i årskurs 1-3 på gymnasiet i en mellanstor kommun i Sverige.

     

    Resultat: Majoriteten av ungdomarna uppgav användning av manuell tandborste, tandtråd eller plackers i sin munvård. Tandborstning skedde främst 2 gånger/dag, approximal rengöring tycks dock vara en låg prioriterad vana. Fluorskölj används i högst grad bland de tillfrågade ungdomarna. Godis, chips och söt dryck konsumerades minst 1 gång/vecka bland majoriteten av ungdomarna. Kunskapsnivån bland ungdomarna var ojämn.

     

    Konklusion: Studiens resultat liknar föregående studier gjorda på ungdomar. Goda egenvårdsvanor och kostvanor finns hos majoriteten av ungdomarna. Information om oral hälsa, kosten och munvårdsvanornas påverkan på den orala hälsan kan behöva ges i framtiden. Detta för att förbättra förutsättningarna för god munhälsa bland alla ungdomar och unga vuxna.

  • 10.
    Hagglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Fac Med, Dept Odontol, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Family Med & Prevent Med Sect, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Stahlnacke, Katri
    Publ Dent Hlth Serv, Orebro Cty Reg, Orebro, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Fac Hlth & Med, Orebro, Sweden..
    Wentzel Persenius, Mona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Hagg, Mary
    Cty Council Gavleborg, Hudiksvall Hosp, Speech & Swallowing Ctr, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Hudiksvall, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Res & Dev, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Koistinen, Susanne
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Fac Hlth & Med, Sch Hlth Sci, Orebro, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Eva
    Rebro Univ, Fac Hlth & Med, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Orebro, Sweden..
    Study protocol for the SOFIA project: Swallowing function, Oral health, and Food Intake in old Age: a descriptive study with a cluster randomized trial2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extensive studies have shown that older people are negatively impacted by impaired eating and nutrition. The abilities to eat, enjoy food, and participate in social activities associated with meals are important aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after illness. This project aims to (i) describe and analyze relationships between oral health and oral HRQoL, swallowing ability, eating ability, and nutritional risk among older individuals admitted to short-term care; (ii) compare the perceptions that older individuals and staff report on care quality related to oral hygiene and eating; and (iii) study the feasibility and effects of a training program for people with impaired swallowing (i.e., dysphagia). Methods/Design: This project consists of two parts, which will be performed in five Swedish counties. It will include approximately 400 older individuals and 200 healthcare professionals. Part 1 is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of older people admitted to short-term care. Subjects will be assessed by trained professionals regarding oral health status, oral HRQoL, eating and nutritional risk, and swallowing ability. Swallowing ability will be measured with a teaspoon test and a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Furthermore, subjects and staff will complete a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of care quality. Part 2 is a cluster randomized intervention trial with controls. Older participants with dysphagia (i.e., SCT < 10 ml/s, measured in part 1) will be recruited consecutively to either the intervention or control group, depending on where they were admitted for short-term care. At baseline, all subjects will be assessed for oral health status, oral HRQoL, eating and nutritional risk, swallowing ability, and swallowing-related QoL. Then, the intervention group will receive 5 weeks of training with an oral screen for neuromuscular training focused on orofacial and pharyngeal muscles. After completing the intervention, and at six months post-intervention, all assessments will be repeated in both study groups. Discussion: The results will make important contributions to rehabilitation knowledge, including approaches for improving swallowing function, oral health, and food intake and for improving the quality of oral care for older people.

  • 11.
    Hanisch, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors möjligheter till kompetensutveckling i relation till patientsäkerhet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With their expertise knowledge the Intensive care nurse identify, act and prevent risks for critical ill patients. Research indicate the importance of continuous professional development to make the Intensive care nurse feel confident in their profession and to improve patient safety. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe Intensive care nurses possibilities for competence development related to patient safety. Method: In order to answer the purpose in best possible way, the study was conducted with a qualitative approach. Six interviews were used as data collecting method in two separate Intensive care units. The interviews were analysed with Krippendorff’s (2004) qualitative content analysis. Result: The result revealed three main categories. The first main category illustrates the already existing possibilities and describes improvements, collegiate competence development but also demands individual responsibility. The second category deals with the existing limitations of possibilities such as financial issues, lack of time, attitudes and prestige among colleagues. The third category deals with the lack of possibilities where the Intensivecare nurse felt a need of individualized competence development and a holistic approach. Conclusion: Intensive care nurses described good possibilities of competence development related to patient safety in some areas. Improvements can be made by a holistic approach, individual and professional adaptation. To improve the collegial learning the Patientsafety culture have to be acknowledged and highlighted.

  • 12.
    Hansson Pohlmann, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Den orala hälsan hos barn och ungdomar med läpp-käk-gomspalt: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Läpp-käk-gomspalt (LKG) är en av de vanligaste medfödda defekterna. Det beräknas att det i Sverige föds cirka 200 barn per år med olika typer av läpp-käk-gomspalt, drygt 2/1000 födslar varje år. Defekten medför ett stort behandlingsbehov, vanligtvis utfört av ett specialiserat LKG-team. Teamet består av flera specialister inom olika områden, till exempel plastik- och käkkirurger, ortodontister, logopeder med flera då defekten bland annat medför påverkan av ansiktets utseende, talsvårigheter samt bett- och tandavvikelser. Läpp-käk-gomspalt kan påverka livskvaliteten hos barn och ungdomar och behandling och hjälp från olika vårdgivare kan hjälpa till att höja livskvaliteten. Även tandhygienisten, som arbetar förebyggande och hälsofrämjande inom tandvården, utgör en nyckelroll i vårdmötet med dessa patienter då denne kan hjälpa till att främja den orala hälsan hos barnen och ungdomarna och på så sätt höja livskvaliteten.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva den orala hälsan hos barn och ungdomar med läpp-käk-gomspalt.

    Frågeställning: Skiljer sig den orala hälsan hos barn och ungdomar med läpp-käk-gomspalt från barn och ungdomar utan läpp-käk-gomspalt?

    Metod: Litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: Hos barn och ungdomar med läpp-käk-gomspalt påverkas både bettfysiologi och tandutveckling samt den orala hälsan. Orala hälsoproblem som exempelvis karies är vanligt förekommande hos dessa individer och då i större utsträckning än hos individer utan läpp-käk-gomspalt. Faktorer av betydelse var kön, ålder samt spalttyp.

    Konklusion: I de flesta fall skiljer sig den orala hälsan hos barn och ungdomar med läpp-käk-gomspalt från barn och ungdomar utan läpp-käk-gomspalt. I och med en högre förekomst av orala hälsoproblem hos dessa individer är det viktigt att personal inom tandvården är medvetna om detta för att kunna ge bra och individuellt bemötande. Hos dessa individer kan det finnas ett större behov av stöd och preventiv behandling från tandvårdens sida.

  • 13.
    Hansson, Rickard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Werner, Patrik
    Kan vi jogga oss igenom skolan?: En kvantitativ studie om fysisk aktivitets betydelse för studieresultat2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Hellqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Boström, Anita
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Lingström, Peter
    Odontologi, avd för Cariologi, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Rolandsson, Margot
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Odontologi, avd för Cariologi, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Effect of nicotine-free and nicotine-containing snus on plaque pH in vivo2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate pH changes in plaque in vivo during the use of nicotine-free and nicotine-containing snus. The carbohydrate content of the products was also analysed. Ten subjects, all regular snus users, participated in an experimental cross-over study, on eleven occasions with an interval of one week. Six nicotine-free and four nicotine-containing products, which are sold on the Swedish market, were included and a sucrose solution was used as a control. The subjects did not brush their teeth for three days before coming to the laboratory, without eating, drinking or using snus/smoking for two hours prior to the test. pH was measured at three approximal sites up to 45 min with the test product placed under the upper lip. The carbohydrate analysis showed that the nicotine-containing products contained only traces of glucose, fructose and sucrose (0.5-1%) and starch (approximate to 1.5%). Some of the nicotine-free products contained up to 6.5% low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and 26.0% starch. The intraoral pH measurements showed that four nicotine-containing products increased the plaque pH, in contrast to three of the six nicotine-free products, which lowered the pH. These pH changes may have an effect on the caries risk, both positively and negatively, depending on which product is used.

  • 15.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hedberg, Kim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Fysisk aktivitet, ålder och självupplevd stress: Faktorer som kan ha ett samband med självupplevd stress2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Jansson, Josefine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Berglöf, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Ungdomars upplevelse av energidryck: Hur ungdomar upplever energidryck2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Försäljningen av energidrycken har ökat markant under 2000-talet och många av märkena marknadsför sig intensivt och riktar in sig på en yngre målgrupp. Den innehåller taurin, glukuronolakton, höga halter av koffein, vilket kan vara farligt för barn och ungdomar som är speciellt känsliga för hög halt av koffein. Enligt Livsmedelsverket finns det inget i dagsläget som tyder på att energidryck är en fara för hälsan vid måttlig konsumtion (observera att ”måttlig” konsumtion varierar mellan individer). Däremot görs fler efterfrågade forskningar kring ämnet och myndigheter/forskare varnar för att dricka energidryck om man är barn, ungdom, känslig för koffein eller gravid.        

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka ungdomars upplevelse av energidryck. Urvalet skedde bland elever på en gymnasieskola som dricker energidryck varje vecka samt druckit i minst sex månader. Underlaget är baserat på hälften killar och hälften tjejer mellan åldrarna 16-18 år. Datainsamlingsmetoden var kvalitativa intervjuer. Dessa analyserades med hjälp av ”kvalitativ innehållsanalys”.

    De viktigaste fynden var framför allt att de positiva upplevelserna av energidryck överspeglade de negativa och att de upplever lika många positiva effekter som negativa effekter. Resultatet visar även att de hade dåliga kunskaper kring dryckens innehåll samt de eventuella konsekvenserna. De upplever även att de inte påverkas av varken media, vetenskap eller anhörigas åsikt om ämnet.

  • 17.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hur danslärare arbetar med mental träning i dansundervisningen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Legendi, Linnea
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Marklund, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kartläggning av tandhygienisters användande av anestesi vid parodontal behandling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Parodontit diagnostiseras och behandlas av tandhygienister. Behandlingen kan vara smärtsam och kräva anestesi.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga tandhygienisters användande av anestesi vid scaling och debridering av tandköttsfickor i underkäkens molar- och premolarområde, samt deras anledning till vald anestesimetod.

    Frågeställningar: I samband med scaling och debridering i underkäkens molar- och premolarområde, hur ofta använder tandhygienister: enbart ytanestesi/ parodontalgel (exempelvis Oraqix), infiltrationsanestesi samt mandibularblockad? Av vilken anledning väljer tandhygienisten en viss anestesimetod?

    Metod: Empirisk kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie där 249 webb-baserade enkäter skickades ut till legitimerade tandhygienister varav 118 besvarade enkäter låg till grund för analys.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat visar att subgingival scaling och/eller debridering i underkäkens molar- och premolarområde tillsammans med någon form av anestesi är ett för tandhygienister vanligt behandlingsmoment. Det råder ingen entydighet kring användandet av anestesi vid utförandet av detta behandlingsmoment. Den vanligaste anledningen till att injektionsanestesi helt väljs bort är att patienten avböjer.

    Konklusion: Många tandhygienister lägger inte mandibularblockad tillräckligt ofta för att känna sig säkra på det, detta samt patientens vilja är faktorer som påverkar valet av anestesimetod. Mer forskning inom ämnet behövs för att bättre förstå ämnets komplexitet.

  • 19. Malmberg Gavelin, H.
    et al.
    Eskilsson, T.
    Boraxbekk, C. -J
    Josefsson, M.
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Slunga Järvholm, L.
    Rehabilitation for improved cognition in patients with stress-related exhaustion disorder: RECO – a randomized clinical trial2018In: Stress, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health, and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED). One-hundred-and-thirty-two patients (111 women) participating in multimodal stress rehabilitation were randomized to receive additional cognitive training (n = 44), additional aerobic training (n = 47), or no additional training (n = 41). Treatment effects were assessed before, immediately after and one-year post intervention. The primary outcome was global cognitive function. Secondary outcomes included domain-specific cognition, self-reported burnout, depression, anxiety, fatigue and work ability, aerobic capacity, and sick-leave levels. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a small but lasting improvement in global cognitive functioning for the cognitive training group, paralleled by a large improvement on a trained updating task. The aerobic training group showed improvements in aerobic capacity and episodic memory immediately after training, but no long-term benefits. General improvements in psychological health and work ability were observed, with no difference between interventional groups. Our findings suggest that cognitive training may be a viable method to address cognitive impairments for patients with ED, whereas the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition may be more limited when performed during a restricted time period. The implications for clinical practice in supporting patients with ED to adhere to treatment are discussed

  • 20. Männimägi, Karen
    Möten med patienten under den perioperativa vårdprocessen: Operationssjuksköterskans perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Operating theatre nurses have limited opportunities to meet the patient and studies focuses mainly on the intraoperative care. Operating theatre nurse meets the patient briefly just before the surgery together with other members of the surgical team. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe operating theatre nurse´s experiences of meeting with the patient during the perioperative nursing process.Method: The study was a qualitative interview study. In total six interviews with operating theatre nurses with at least three years of professional experience and were working at a hospital in central Sweden. The data was analysed through a content analysis. Results: The analysis revealed three categories with associated subcategories that described the operating theatre nurses´ meeting with the patient in the perioperative care: To establish a first contactto make themselves known, to create a care relationship, making the patient involved in care; To ensure patient care – to prevent patient exposure to injuries, having the opportunity to evaluate the implemented care measures; To preserve patient privacy – wanting to do good. Conclusion: In the meeting with the patient a care relationship is created, which makes the patient involved in the care and the operating theatre nurse is given the opportunity to plan, to implement and to evaluate the implemented care measures, which contributes to the development of the patient´s care and the operating theatre nurse´s competence.

  • 21.
    Nilman, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Eliminationsundersökning av FITC-märkta antikroppsfragment ScFv Di-HE1Q från MCF7 sfäroider2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Ouyang, Sia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Rönnlund, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förskolepersonals kunskaper och attityder om barns kost- och munhygienvanor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Persson, Mattias
    et al.
    School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Linn
    Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Salmivalli, Christina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Health Metrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Cost-Effectiveness of the Kiva Antibullying Program: Results from a Decision-Analytic Model2018In: Prevention Science, ISSN 1389-4986, E-ISSN 1573-6695, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 728-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying causes substantial suffering for children and adolescents. A number of bullying prevention programs have been advocated as effective methods for counteracting school bullying. However, there is a lack of economic evaluations of bullying prevention programs assessing the “value for money.” The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the Finnish bullying prevention program KiVa in comparison to “status quo” (treatment as usual) in a Swedish elementary school setting (grades 1 to 9). The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out using a payer perspective based on a Markov cohort model. The costs of the program were measured in Swedish kronor and Euros, and the benefits were measured using two different metrics: (1) the number of victim-free years and (2) the number of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on costs, probability transitions, and health-related quality of life measures were retrieved from published literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out to establish the uncertainty of the cost-effectiveness results. The base-case analysis indicated that KiVa leads to an increased cost of €829 for a gain of 0.47 victim-free years per student. In terms of the cost per gained QALY, the results indicated a base-case estimate of €13,823, which may be seen as cost-effective given that it is lower than the typically accepted threshold value in Swedish health policy of around €50,000. Further research is needed to confirm the conclusions of this study, especially regarding the treatment effects of KiVa in different school contexts

  • 24.
    Rahm, GullBritt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Strandmark K, Margaretha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Workplace bullying in the health and social caresystems in Sweden: A descriptive study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    Workplace bullying in the health and social care systems in Sweden. A descriptive study.

    Aims

    This study aims to map and describe the problem of bullying within the health and social care systems as a foundation for an intervention. In this presentation we will present the study and preliminary results concerning negative acts and work-place health in Sweden.   

    Methods

    Baseline data for this quantitative study was collected at nursing wards at five hospitals and five wards for eldercare in municipalities. Questionnaires were sent by post to 2810 employees.  Response-rate was 55% (n=1550).

    Bullying was measured both with an operationalized and a self-labelling method. The instrument used in the former were The Negative Acts Questionnaire, NAQ-R, and bullying was assessed according to the operational criterion suggested  by Leyman (1996) “exposure to at least one negative act/week during six months” and a stricter criterion by Mikkelsen & Einarsen, (2001)  suggesting 2 negative acts/week during six months.  

    As for the self-labelling of bullying a definition of bullying was presented and questions were asked whether the person had been bullied or had witnessed bullying the last 6 months. A further question was asked regarding previous life-time experiences of bullying.

    To assess work-place environment the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at work, QPSNordic34+ was utilized. In addition a questionnaire made for this study concerning demographic information and specific workplace related questions were included.

    Primarily descriptive statistics was used.

    Results

    Bullying measured by NAQ-R, using the operational criterion, reported results of bullying at 18,5 % (Leyman) and for the stricter criterion 6.8% (Mikkelsen & Einarsen). Four percent (4 %) reported bullying relating to the self-labelling question. A higher proportion, 22%, had witnessed bullying and an even higher proportion, 38%, reported having experienced bullying earlier in life.

     An association was shown between having been bullied earlier in life and experiencing bullying at the work-place at the present time. Also work-place environment, age, where you were born, living in a relationship, education and length of employment were, respectively, associated to more negative acts in the workplace.

    Conclusion

    The operationalized method yields a higher percent of bullying compared to the self-labelling method. This is also shown in earlier studies and might be due to bullying being stigmatizing and shameful and therefore difficult to express in a straight-forward way.

    A significant relationship was observed between being bullied earlier in life-time and current exposure. As far as we know this represents new knowledge and should be further investigated.

  • 25. Sandelin, Elin
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Sociala medier, på gott eller ont?: En kvantitativ studie bland Facebook-användare avseende användandet av sociala medier och psykisk hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med en ökande psykisk ohälsa i samhället samtidigt som att användandet av sociala medier bara ökar är dessa ämnen relevanta att studera. Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan användandet av sociala medier och psykisk hälsa och eventuella skillnader avseende män och kvinnor i olika åldrar. Studien var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie med en enkätundersökning. Enkäten delades på Facebook och var tillgänglig för respondenterna i sju dygn. Sammanlagt ingick 108 respondenter i studien.

    Analysen i studien resulterade inte i något signifikant samband mellan användandet av sociala medier och psykisk hälsa. Däremot var sambanden signifikanta mellan psykisk hälsa och kön och ålder. Likaså sambanden mellan användandet av sociala medier och kön och ålder. Kvinnor i åldern 20-25 var de som upplever sig ha mest symtom på psykisk ohälsa jämfört med män i samma ålder och män och kvinnor över 25. Det var även kvinnor i åldern 20-25 som uppger sig använda sig av sociala medier i störst utsträckning jämfört med män i samma ålder och män och kvinnor över 25.

  • 26.
    Spennare Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nedéus, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Seniorers motivation till fysisk aktivitet: En kvalitativ studie om motivation hos fysiskt aktiva äldre2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Sundberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Oral alterations and assessment of Oral health status in oncology care2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Svensson, Siri
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Stenholm, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Omsorgspersonalens inställning och kunskap beträffande munvård hos individer med demenssjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Toivanen, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Munhygiensvanor och kunskap om oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund: En enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att undersöka munhygiensvanor och kunskaper kring oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund. Frågeställning: Finns det någon skillnad mellan män och kvinnors egenvårdsvanor samt kunskaper kring oral hälsa? Metod: Kvantitativ studie. Empirisk enkätstudie. Enkäten omfattar frågor om munhygienvanor, kunskap om karies och kunskap om parodontit. Urvalet bestod av vuxna män och kvinnor som har en utländsk bakgrund och är över 18 års ålder. Med utländsk bakgrund menas att individerna är födda utomlands och har utländska föräldrar. Studiedeltagarna befann sig på en SFI skola i Mellansverige. Resultat: Antal studiedeltagare som deltog i studien var 78, (n=36 män), (n=29 kvinnor), (n=13 som inte angav kön). Majoriteten av studiedeltagarna visade sig ha goda vanor med antalet gånger de borstar tänderna per dag, hur ofta de använder fluor och användning av orala munhygiensprodukter utöver tandborste. Studien visar även att en mindre del av studiedeltagarna känner de största riskfaktorerna för att få orala sjukdomar. Konklusion: De flesta individer med utländsk bakgrund har bra munhygiensvanor men har saknar tillräcklig kunskap kring varför man får orala sjukdomar som karies och parodontit.

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