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  • 1. Asp, M.
    et al.
    Simonsson, B.
    Larm, P.
    Molarius, Anu
    Physical mobility, physical activity, and obesity among elderly: findings from a large population-based Swedish survey2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine how physical activity and physical mobility are related to obesity in the elderly. Study design: A cross-sectional study of 2558 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a population survey in 2012 was conducted in mid-Sweden with an overall response rate of 67%. Methods: Obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height, and physical activity and physical mobility on questionnaire data. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regressions were used as statistical analyses. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 19% in women and 15% in men and decreased after the age of 75 years. A strong association between both physical activity and obesity, and physical mobility and obesity was found. The odds for obesity were higher for impaired physical mobility (odds ratio [OR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.14-3.75) than for physical inactivity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.28-2.08) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and fruit and vegetable intake. However, physical activity was associated with obesity only among elderly with physical mobility but not among those with impaired physical mobility. Conclusion: It is important to focus on making it easier for elderly with physical mobility to become or stay physically active, whereas elderly with impaired physical mobility have a higher prevalence of obesity irrespective of physical activity. (C) 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Can the provision of a home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, no Suppl.2, p. A181-A181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. In this study, the effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention, which involves home hazards reduction by providing a minor home help service, is provided in the majority of Swedish municipalities.

    Methods Intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using quasi-experimental time series intervention (ITS) analysis for immediate effects and a difference-in-discontinuity (RD) design for long term effects, and community-level estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the ITS (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98–1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97–1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions It is unclear whether absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the home hazards modifications provided, or a result of low utilisation. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help services

  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Stötabsorberande golv som fallskadepreventiv åtgärd – resultat efter ett år2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2011 lades ett stötabsorberande golv, framtaget för att förhindra skador vid fall, in på ett särskilt boende i Sunne kommun. Sedan 1 oktober 2011 har data om fallhändelser samlats in för att följa upp effekter av golvet. Det som undersöks är konsekvenser av fall på olika golvunderlag samt om risken att ramla påverkas.

    Under den tid som studien pågått (12 mån) har 21 fall registrerats på det stötabsorberande golvet, ingen har skadats sig allvarligt och en har skadats lindrigt som en följd av dessa fall. På övriga golvytor med fler boende har 156 fall registrerats, varav fem lett till fraktur och 30 till lindrig skada. Resultaten hittills tyder på att golvet kan ha den eftersträvade effekten.

    Det stötabsorberande golvet bidrar också till en dämpad ljudnivå vilket personalen upplever som positivt.

  • 4.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Finland.
    Rusanen, Minna
    Karolinska institutet.
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Finland.
    Backman, Lars
    Karolinska institutet.
    Havulinna, Satu
    Finland.
    Hanninen, Tuomo
    Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Finland.
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Finland.
    Levalahti, Esko
    Finland.
    Lindstrom, Jaana
    Finland.
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Finland.
    Peltonen, Markku
    Finland.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Finland.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Strandberg, Timo
    Finland.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Finland.
    Solomon, Alina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: The FINGER trial2018In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition. Methods: The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1: 1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Results: Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). Conclusions: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia.

  • 5.
    Tan, Edwin
    et al.
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Australia and Academic Center for Geriatric Dentistry, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lexomboon, Duangjai
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Academic Center for Geriatric Dentistry, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Academic Center for Geriatric Dentistry, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Haasum, Ylva
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Medications That Cause Dry Mouth As an Adverse Effect in Older People: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis2018In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and quantify the risk of drug-induced dry mouth as a side effect in older people. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta analysis. SETTING: A search of the literature was undertaken using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PubMed from 1990 to 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Older people (aged ≥60) who participated in intervention or observational studies investigating drug use as an exposure and xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction as adverse drug outcomes. MEASUREMENTS: Two pairs of authors screened titles and abstracts of studies for relevance. Two authors independently extracted data, including study characteristics, definitions of exposure and outcome, and methodological quality. For the metaanalyses, random-effects models were used for pooling the data and I2 statistics for exploring heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of 1,544 potentially relevant studies, 52 were deemed eligible for inclusion in the final review and 26 in meta analyses. The majority of studies were of moderate methodological quality. In the intervention studies, urological medications (odds ratio (OR) = 5.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.04–8.63; I2 = 62%), antidepressants (OR = 4.74, 95% CI = 2.69–8.32, I2 = 21%), and psycholeptics (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.79–3.95, I2 = 0%) were significantly associated with dry mouth. In the observational studies, numbers of medications and several medication classes were significantly associated with xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

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