Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 18 av 18
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Aldaron, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Anaerob rening vid StoraEnso Skoghalls Bruk2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a specific application of anaerobic wastewater treatment at a pulp and board mill, Stora Enso Skoghall, was carried out. A literature study was done and effluent wastewater from CTMP pulp production was analyzed. The analysis consisted of a broad constituent analysis and an anaerobic treatment trial. Results from these test where used to calculate the treatment effectiveness and resulting energy potential at the mill.

    The literature study and constituent analysis showed that toxicity of the water to be treated, due to wood extractives and sulphur content, was of concern. Detoxification chemicals targeting these constituents where used in the anaerobic treatment trial. The trial consisted of a two chamber upflow reactor and aerobic post treatment. The result of the trial is that the water of concern has about 50% anaerobically degradable content. A full scale implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment would result in a methane production of 3,76 to 7,76 GWh/yr. An application of anaerobic wastewater treatment will also result in electricity savings, in aerated pond, and increase the capacity margin on current sludge handling techniques.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Simon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Pellet production of Sicklebush, Pigeon Pea, and Pine in Zambia: Pilot Study and Full Scale Tests to Evaluate Pellet Quality and Press Configurations2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    More deaths are caused every year by indoor air pollution than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Cooking with traditional fuels such as charcoal and fuelwood with poor ventilation causes the single most important environmental health risk factor worldwide. It also contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation as traditional biomass fuels and cooking stoves are inefficient and requires large quantities of wood. This is especially critical in Africa where the largest regional population growth in the world is expected to occur.

    A solution to these issues was realized through fuel pellets and modern cooking stoves by Emerging Cooking Solutions, a company started by two Swedes and based in Zambia. The production of fuel pellets in Zambia is dependent on pine sawdust from small sawmills and is a declining source of raw material. However, other sources of biomass are available in Zambia such as pigeon pea stalk, an agricultural waste product, and sicklebush, an invasive tree species. If these species are viable for pelletization, the production of pellets can increase while reducing issues with sicklebush and promoting cultivation of pigeon pea. The aim of this work is to evaluate if pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush are viable to pelletize in Zambia and how the press is affected by the different raw materials.

    A pilot study is done at Karlstad University with a single unit press, hardness tester and soxhlet extractor to evaluate how the material constituents correlate to friction in the press channel and hardness of the pellets. The results of the pilot study provide support for full scale tests done in a pellet plant in Zambia. The normal production of pellets from pine sawdust is used as quality and production reference for the tests with pigeon pea stalk, sicklebush, and different mixes of the raw materials. The properties used to evaluate the quality of the pellets are hardness, durability, moisture content, bulk density, and fines. The press configuration is evaluated by logging the electricity consumption by the press motor, calculating the power and specific energy consumption from the logs, and observations during the tests.

    The results show that sicklebush, and mixes of sicklebush with pigeon pea stalk can produce pellets with better quality than the reference pine pellets. An interesting composition is a mix of 80% pigeon pea and 20% sicklebush that produces pellets with the best quality of all the tests. However, pellets produced from sicklebush and pigeon pea show a larger variation in hardness as compared to the reference pellets from pine sawdust. Mixing pigeon pea with pine reduces these variations but reduces the hardness of the pellets below the reference. The press struggles to process sicklebush and pigeon pea stalk with fluctuating power consumption that causes the motor to trip. The inhomogeneity of the materials in sicklebush and pigeon pea are identified to cause the issues in the press. Production improvements are discussed to facilitate the production of pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush pellets.

  • 3.
    Bergeld, Linnéa
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för kemi.
    Trametes versicolor laccase: random mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Laccase is a blue multi-copper oxidase. It has a broad biotechnical potential which increases the interest to study the enzyme further. A laccase-encoding gene from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (lcc2) was mutated using two different methods for random mutagenesis: error-prone PCR and a method based on an E.coli strain (ES1301 mutS) that introduces random mutations. For the error-prone PCR reaction, the vector pPICZB with the lcc2 gene inserted was used as template. The E. coli strain ES1301 mutS was transformed with the vector pBluescript SKII with the lcc2 gene as insert. The mutagenesis products were cloned into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZB for transformation of P. pastoris SMD1168. The transformants were spread on agar plates containing zeocin. Laccase-secreting transformants were selected by their ability to oxidize the substrates ABTS [2,2´-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and syringaldazine [N,N´-bis(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazine], the products of which give green and purple colour, respectively. Around 20 transformants from each of the mutagenesis methods were transformed to plates containing 1 mM ABTS or 1 mM syringaldazine. None of the transformants produced any colour. Control transformants (pPICZB with unmutated lcc2) were also spread on plates with either ABTS or syringaldazine. The transformants gave rise to green colour after 24 hours on the ABTS plates and to purple colour after 72 hours on the syringaldazine plates. Experimets with different chromogenic substrates indicated that ABTS and syringaldazine were best suited for screening of mutants. Remazol Brilliant Blue and Phenol Red are two substrates that after optimisation can serve as alternatives for the selection of laccase-secreting transformants.

  • 4.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Kullendorff, Anders
    Biobränsletorkning - en lägesrapport projektet Fluidtork1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Effects of moisture content during densification of biomass pellets, focusing on polysaccharide substances2019Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 122, s. 322-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we pelletized four different pure polysaccharides represented cellulose - Avicel, hemicelluloses - locus bean gum mannan and beech xylan and other polysaccharides - apple pectin, and three woods - pine, spruce and beech. All were pelletized at 100° in a single pellet press unit with different level of moisture content from 0 to 15%. The maximal friction force and work required for compression and friction was analyzed together with the pellet density and hardness. The results showed that xylan pellets completely changed in color at 10% moisture content, and this also occurred to some extent with pectin pellets. The color of both Avicel and locus bean gum pellets were not affected at all. During compression, the results showed that water does not affect compression up to 5 kN, while above 5 kN water decreases the energy need for densification of Avicel, locus bean gum and woods. Above 5 kN the energy needs for compressing xylan and pectin increases with increased moisture content. The hardest pellets were produced from Avicel, while locus bean gum produced the weakest pellets. The study concludes that there is a significant difference in how water affects the two hemicelluloses, glucomannan and xylan, during densification.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Lisa
    Karlstads universitet.
    Utvärdering av potentiell biomassa från Zambia för tillverkning av bränslepellets: Pelletsproduktion i enpetarpress, friktions- och kompressionsstudier samt hårdhetstest och fuktupptag2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biomassa har använts som bränsle sedan urminnes tider. Användningen har ökat och olika tekniker för nyttjande har utvecklats avsevärt i stora delar av världen de senaste decennierna. I Afrika söder om Sahara utgör traditionellt använd biomassa, såsom ved eller träkol fortfarande den huvudsakliga källan till energi i hemmet. Zambia konsumerar träkol motsvarande 6 089 000 ton ved varje år. Användningen av biomassan är mycket ineffektiv och med en ökande befolkning och energibehov sätter detta Zambia på topp tio listan med högsta avskogningshastigheter i världen. 

    Emerging Cooking Solutions Zambia Ltd [ECS], startade 2012 med visionen att etablera en pelletsproduktion i Afrika. De tillhandahåller moderna pelletsbrännare och producerar bränslepellets för att motverka problemet med den ohållbara användningen av biomassa och hälsorisker i samband med detta. ECS har som mål att öka sin produktion och eftersträvar nu främst att hitta en spetsråvara som kan öka hårdheten på pellets. Syftet med denna rapport är att öka kunskapen om råvarors möjlighet att pelleteras för att bidra till att Emerging Cooking Solutions verksamhet ska kunna expandera på ett hållbart sätt. 

    I denna rapport utvärderades fjorton olika biomassor vid tre olika målfukthalter 5%, 7,5% och 10%. Jordnötsskal, Pigeon Pea, Pine och Sicklebush ansågs kunna användas som basdrift, resterande biomassor som spetsråvaror, Bambu, Cassavaskal, Cassavastam, Eucalyptus, Gliricidia, Lantana, Miombo, Olivträd och Tephrosia. Pelletsproduktion gjordes i en enpetare vid Karlstads universitet, avdelningen för miljö-, och energisystem. Kompressions- och friktionsenergi samt hårdhet och fuktupptag är några av de variabler som testades, dessutom pelleterades fyra blandningar av olika biomassor med syfte att öka hårdheten på pellets. 

    De basmaterial som resulterade i hårdast pellets var Pigeon Pea som klarade ett radiellt tryck på 46,3 kg, Pine medförde låg hårdhet, 17,7 kg. Av spetsråvarorna medförde följande högsta hårdhet på pellets, Tephrosia, 70 kg, Gliricidia 58,7 kg, Cassavaskal 48,6 kg och Miombo frökapslar, 48,3 kg. Vid kompressionsstudierna visade sig Pine kräva relativt hög energi vid komprimering, 183,0 J. Lägst Cassavastam 49,1 J. 

    Samtliga blandningar med Tephrosia, Cassavaskal eller Gliricidia som spetsråvaror medförde hårdare pellets. Mest fördelaktigt som spetsråvara var Tephrosia och Cassavaskal. Cassavaskal ökade hårdheten redan vid 10% inblandning i Pigeon Pea och minskade samtidigt energibehovet. Vid inblandning av 50% Tephrosia i Pigeon Pea ökade hårdheten mest av samtliga blandningar med 21,1 kg till 67,4kg. Logistikkedjan bedömdes dock bättre för Cassavaskal än för Tephrosia. 

    ECS skulle enligt resultaten i denna studie kunna använda sig av Pigeon Pea vid cirka 6% fukthalt för att bredda sin råvarubas. För att öka hårdheten på pellets bör de i första hand använda sig av Tephrosia cirka 7% och Cassavaskal cirka 8% fukthalt som spetsråvara. 

  • 7.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    Energy and Process Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre.
    The effects of coating structure and water-holding capacity on the oxygen-scavenging ability of enzymes embedded in the coating layer2013Ingår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 43-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes catalyzing oxygen scavenging were embedded in latex-based coatings with and without barrier kaolin clay to produce material for active packages. The clay was used to create a porous structure, and the closed-structure matrix consisted of a biopolymer comprising either starch or gelatin to increase the water uptake of the coating. The effects of the porous open structure and of the water uptake of the coated layer on the oxygen-scavenging ability of the embedded enzymes were examined at both 75% and 100% relative humidity. The results showed that the porous clay structure led to higher oxygen-scavenging capacity than that of a closed structure at both test conditions by enabling a high diffusion rate for oxygen and glucose to the active sites of the enzymes. The addition of a water-holding biopolymer did not always significantly affect the oxygen-scavenging capacity. However for a less-porous layer at 100% relative humidity, an increase in the amount of biopolymer resulted in an increase in oxygen-scavenging capacity. The results were treated statistically using multiple-factor analysis where the most important factor for the oxygen-scavenging ability was found to be the addition of clay. The coatings were also characterized with respect to water vapor uptake, overall migration, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy images.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Umeå Universitet.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Comparison of lignin derivatives as substrates for laccase-catalyzed scavenging of oxygen in coatings and filmsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lignin derivatives are phenylpropanoid biopolymers derived from pulping and biorefinery processes. The possibility to utilize lignin derivatives from different types of processes in advanced enzyme-catalyzed oxygen-scavenging systems intended for active packaging was explored. Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of alkali lignin (LA), hydrolytic lignin (LH), organosolv lignin (LO), and lignosulfonates (LS) was compared using oxygen-scavenging coatings and films in liquid and gas phase systems.

    Results: When coatings containing lignin derivatives and laccase were immersed in a buffered aqueous solution, the oxygen-scavenging capability increased in the order LO < LH < LA < LS. Experiments with coatings containing laccase and LO, LH or LA incubated in oxygen-containing gas in air-tight chambers and at a relative humidity (RH) of 100% showed that paperboard coated with LO and laccase reduced the oxygen content from 1.0% to 0.4% during a four-day period, which was far better than the results obtained with LA or LH. LO-containing coatings incubated at 92% RH also displayed activity, with a decrease in oxygen from 1.0% to 0.7% during a four-day period. The oxygen scavenging was not related to the content of free phenolic hydroxyl groups, which increased in the order LO < LS < LH < LA. LO and LS were selected for further studies and films containing starch, clay, glycerol, laccase and LO or LS were characterized using gel permeation chromatograpy, dynamic mechanical analysis, and wet stability.

    Conclusions: The investigation shows that different lignin derivatives exhibit widely different properties as a part of active coatings and films. Results indicate that LS and LO were most suitable for the application studied and differences between them were attributed to a higher degree of laccase-catalyzed cross-linking of LS than of LO. Inclusion in active-packaging systems offers a new way to utilize some types of lignin derivatives from biorefining processes.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Chatterjee, Robin
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Laccases as oxygen scavengers in active-packaging applications2011Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre.
    Oxygen scavenging enzymes in coatings: Effect of coating procedures on enzyme activity2011Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 197-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen content in food packaging may be reduced by attaching oxygen scavengers to the packaging material. The critical parameters that determine the oxygen-scavenging ability of an enzyme-based coating i.e. pH, heat and coating color formulation were evaluated. Glucose oxidase, catalase and glucose were added to latex dispersions in the preparation of the coating colors. The enzymes were entrapped in the coating layers after coating and drying. The clay concentration and drying conditions were varied and the enzymatic activity of the coated layer was evaluated. The need for a pH-buffered system was also studied and the results indicated that, when using a carboxylated latex of a standard coating grade, a buffered system was not needed. A rapid drying at a high temperature was preferred over a slow drying at a low temperature in order to prevent pre-oxidation of the substrate in the wet coating color. The scavenging capacity of the coating was dependent on the amount of substrate for the enzyme reaction left after complete drying. The concentration of clay in the coating formulation was shown to have a marked impact on the oxygen-scavenging ability of the coated layer. The enzyme activity was increased by the addition of clay up to a pigment volume concentration (PVC) of ca. 10%. At higher concentrations of clay, the enzyme activity decreased until the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC) was reached, probably due to the prevention of diffusion of oxygen and consumption of glucose in the coating process before the layer was completely dried. Further additions of clay above the CPVC resulted in an increased enzyme activity, probably due to the creation of a porous structure.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Kotkamo, Sami
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Rotabakk, Bjørn Tore
    Nofima.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Extruded polymer films for optimal enzyme-catalyzed oxygen scavenging2014Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 108, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of enzymes as oxygen scavengers has a great potential in the food packaging industry. Enzymes can be incorporated into a coating layer that can be applied directly onto the packaging material. For the system to be fully functional, there is however a need for the packaging to have some barrier properties, to be sealable through heat, and to ensure low or no migration of the active coating to the food. Various combinations of the polypropylene (PP), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were extruded onto board coated with the oxygen-scavenging enzyme. Properties such as oxygen-transmission rate, water-vapor transmission rate, heat-sealability, migration and oxygen scavenging capacity were evaluated. All combinations of extruded material resulted in a packaging material able to scavenge the oxygen at both 84% and 100% relative humidity. The greatest decrease in oxygen concentration of the head space of air-tight chambers was achieved with the material extruded with PLA on at least one side. It was found that the extruded plastic is necessary in order to meet the EU directives on migration from food packaging materials of not more than a total of 10 mg/dm2 material. All plastics were heat sealable against themselves but not against any of the other plastics and only LDPE adhered strongly to the enzyme-containing coating

  • 12.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013). Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yan, J.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden & Department of Chemical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, NUST, Pakistan.
    Nizami, A. S.
    Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Salman, C. A.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Danish, M.
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Farooq, U.
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Rehan, M.
    Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, Z.
    Systems Power and Energy, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 224, s. 636-646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the potential substitute natural gas (SNG) production by integrating black liquor gasification (BLG) island with a small wheat straw-based non-wood pulp mills (NPM), which do not employ the black liquor recovery cycle. For such integration, it is important to first build knowledge on expected improvements in an overall integrated non-wood pulp mill energy system using the key performance indicators. O2-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with a reference small NPM to evaluate the overall performance. A detailed economic analysis is performed together with a sensitivity analysis based on variations in the rate of return due to varying biomass price, total capital investment, and natural gas prices. The quantitive results showed considerable SNG production but significantly reduced electricity production. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential combining CO2 capture and CO2 mitigation from SNG use replacing compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline. The economic performance through sensitivity analysis reflects significant dependency on both substitute natural gas production and natural gas market price. Furthermore, the solutions to address the challenges and barriers for the successful commercial implementation of BLG based polygeneration system at small NPMs are discussed. The system performance and discussion on the real application of integrated system presented in this article form a vital literature source for future use by large number of small non-wood pulp industries.

  • 13.
    Persson, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av hur mekanisk avvattning påverkar termisk torkning av sågspån: Försök med olika partikelstorlekar och temperaturer i en konvektiv tork2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 14.
    Sandblad, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för fysikalisk och analytisk kemi.
    Arnell, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för fysikalisk och analytisk kemi.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    UDepartment of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, BMC Box 599, SE-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, BMC Box 599, SE-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Approach for reliable evaluation of drug proteins interactions using surface plasmon resonance technology2009Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 81, nr 9, s. 3551-3559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was recently introduced to the analytical biochemical society for measuring small drug-protein interactions. However, the technique has many times been used without specifying the type of enantiomeric form of the chiral drug measured and/or with using a too narrow drug concentration range resulting in biased values of binding coefficients and sometimes even assumptions about single-site bindings although the binding in reality comprises a multisite interaction. In this study we will give guidelines for reliable experimental and methodological approaches to avoid these pitfalls. For this purpose, we also introduce a new tool, based on physical chemistry, to the sensor community; the calculation of the adsorption energy distribution (AED). The AED-calculations reveal the degree of heterogeneity directly from the SPR raw data and thus guide us into a narrower selection of probable models before the rival model fitting procedure. We demonstrate how to measure reliable equilibrium data for the two typically different cases: drug binding to (i) transport (plasma) proteins and to (ii) a target protein. Both the binding of the chiral beta-blocker propranolol to alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and that of the anticoagulant warfarin to human serum albumin were heterogeneous, with a few strong enantioselective sites and many weak nonselective sites. We also demonstrate how the multisite binding rapidly falsely turns to single-site as the concentration range is narrowed and how adding dimethyl sulfoxide to the buffer affects multisite drug-protein data. The binding of the enantiomers of the thrombin inhibitor melagatran was investigated on both thrombin and the transport proteins, revealing clear enantioselectivity for thrombin in favor of the active enantiomer, but almost similar binding properties for both enantiomers to the transport protein AGP. The AED-calculations verified that both these system has a unimodal energy distribution and are best described with a homogeneous adsorption model.

  • 15.
    Schyllander, Josefin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Industriell symbios mellan algodling och industri för hållbar biomassaproduktion: Utvärdering av en industriellt integrerat algodling ur miljö-, energi- och kostnadssynpunkt2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna har medfört en ökad efterfrågan på biobaserade bränslen. Mikroalger har flera intressanta egenskaper som gör dem till en attraktiv och lovande bioråvara för bränsleproduktion. Algerna har en effektiv fotosyntes vilket bidrar till ett lägre landanspråk jämfört med terrestra energigrödor. Dessutom kan odlingarna placeras på oproduktiv mark vilket gör att produktionen inte konkurrerar med andra areella näringar. Genom att integrera algodlingar med industriell infrastruktur kan restflöden som spillvärme, koldioxid, närsalter och vatten från industri nyttiggöras och därmed bidra till en mer effektiv och hållbar biomassaproduktion.

    I detta arbete studeras en industriell symbios mellan en algodling, det lokala kraftvärmeverket (Hedenverket) och rötningsanläggningen vid Sjöstadsverket i Karlstads kommun. Symbiosen bygger på att rökgaser från Hedenverket används som kolkälla för algerna, spillvärme används för att upprätthålla en lämplig odlingstemperatur i bassängen, varma rökgaser används för att torka biomassan inför förbränning och algernas näringsbehov tillgodoses genom att cirkulera kväve- och fosforrikt rejektvatten från rötningsanläggningen på Sjöstad. Biomassan som produceras används sedan som bränsle i kraftvärmeverket. På så vis skapas nya kretslopp och ett lokalt biobränsle produceras samtidigt som spillflöden från industrin tas till vara.

    Två tänkbara scenarion för energiutvinning studerades; rötning (Scenario A) och direkt förbränning (Scenario B). För att belysa fördelarna med symbiosen analyserades även ett referensscenario, vilket bygger på att odlingen sker fristående i en så kallad Stand alone-anläggning.

    Målet med studien var att konstruera en beräkningsmodell för att simulera biomassaproduktionen utifrån platsspecifika förutsättningar samt utvärdera systemet ur miljö-, energi- och kostnadssynpunkt. Studien utformades som en förstudie med syfte att vara ett övergripande men ändå tydligt kunskaps- och beslutsunderlag för berörda aktörer. Arbetet ska belysa symbiosens styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och risker.

    Resultatet från studien visar att det genom industriell symbios går att odla alger över en lång säsong vid Hedenverket i Karlstad med det system som föreslås. Den industriella symbiosen förlänger odlingssäsongen med 75 % jämfört med en Stand alone-anläggning och den årliga produktiviteten ökar från 14 till 18 g m-2 d-1.

    Miljöanalysen visar att det utifrån de systemförslag som undersöks finns liten eller ingen miljönytta med den industriella symbiosen. Scenario A bidrar till att öka CO2-emsisionerna med 0,2 kg m-2 år-1 medan Scenario B bidrar till en reduktion motsvarande 0,2 kg m-2 år-1. En bidragande faktor till detta resultat är att Karlstad Energis el- och värmeproduktion idag i stort sett redan är fossilfri. Detta medför att det algbaserade bränslet ersätter en redan biobaserad process. En högre miljönytta kan åstadkommas genom att överväga alternativa energiutvinningsprocesser. För att tydliggöra miljöfördelarna med en integrerad algodling bör en fullskalig livscykelbedömning för systemet genomföras.

    Nettoenergi-ration (NER-värde) för Scenario A och Scenario B beräknades till 2,6 respektive 5,3. De höga NER-värdena pekar på att utvinningen av energi med god marginal överträffar energibehovet i produktionsledet för båda processvägarna.

    Lönsamhetsbedömningen visade att båda scenariona innebär en återbetalningstid som överstiger den tekniska livslängden för anläggningen, 44 och 56 år för respektive scenario.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att det finns goda möjligheter för att odla alger och framställa ett lokalproducerat biobränsle vid Hedenverket. Trots att det föreslagna systemet med industriell symbios uppvisar positiva resultat beträffande energiprestanda så finns det inte ekonomiska eller miljömässiga förutsättningar för en algodling vid Hedenverket baserat på den systemutformning som föreslagits. Genom att framställa produkter med högre värde från biomassan kan dock ekonomisk- och miljömässiga vinster uppnås, vilket är något som bör utredas vidare.

  • 16.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of wood-fuel pellets, preferably made from sawdust or shavings, have increased significantly worldwide in recent years. If wood-fuel pellets should continue to be a successful biofuel at the energy market there are several factors to take into consideration. The pellet production industry already tries to reduce the production cost, since it is a low margin business. Further, it tries to produce pellets from a broader raw material base and at the same time satisfy the customer requirements while producing a sustainable product. The wood fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet all these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements.

    This work focuses on energy efficiency, technical aspects and environmental factors, i.e., the electricity consumption, the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets, and the CO

    2 equivalent emitted during production, respectively. 20 various additives, with an admixture of up to 2 % (wt.), have been tested during wood fuel pellet production at Karlstad University. This work presents the benefits of using different additives in pellet production and the cost associated with different additives. The results shows that additive from the sea and from farmlands (algae, rape seed cake and grass) decrease the energy use in the pellet press but unfortunately also decrease the durability. Additives from wood (resins, lignin) and molasses increases the durability of the pellet but shows almost no or little change in electricity consumption. However, using starch grades, white sugar or spent sulphite liquor as an additive increases the mechanical properties while it decreases both the electricity consumption and the climate impact, hence a win-win-win situation. To justify the use of additives from a climate impact perspective in regions with an OECD European electricity mix or the Swedish electricity mix, the usage of additives from the rest products where the CO2 equivalent emissions are allocated to the main product are crucial.

    In conclusion, it is necessary to do research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives for wood fuel pellets to continuously be a successful biofuel at the energy market

  • 17.
    Vilardell, Anna M.
    et al.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cinca, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Concustell, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Dosta, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cano, I. G.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain.
    Guilemany, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Thermal Spray Ctr, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cold spray as an emerging technology for biocompatible and antibacterial coatings: State of art2015Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 50, nr 13, s. 4441-4462Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of coatings in biomaterials has been fundamental on the applicability of many medical devices and has helped improve mechanical properties such as wear and fatigue and biological properties such as biocompatibility and bioactivity of implant prosthesis, thus, in essence, ameliorating human quality life. The aim of the present paper is to give a review on cold spray (CS) coating systems that are emerging in orthopedics industry (internal fixation systems and prosthesis) as well as those for antibacterial purposes (in body and touch external surfaces). These studies are very new, the oldest dating from the half of last decade and most deal with the improvement of biocompatibility and bioactivity of hard tissue replacement; therefore, research on biocoatings is in constant development with the aim to produce implant surfaces that provide a balance between cell adhesion and low cytotoxicity, mechanical properties, and functionalization. CS offers many advantages over conventional high-temperature processes and seems to be able to become competitive in front of the low-temperature techniques. It is mainly cost effective, appropriate for oxygen-sensitive materials, and environmentally green. It basically involves the use of feedstock material in powder form, which is supersonically sprayed onto the appropriate substrate but without any melting as it occurs in conventional thermal spray processes. Biocompatible metallic materials and polymers have been successfully deposited by this method because it is based on the plasticity of the coating material; pure ceramic deposits, for example of hydroxyapatite, are still a challenge.

  • 18.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Johansson, Kristin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Kemiska institutionen, Department of Chemistry, Umeå Universitet.
    Co-immobilization of oxalate oxidase and catalase in films for scavenging of oxygen or oxalic acid2013Ingår i: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 72, s. 96-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxalate oxidase has potential to act as an oxygen scavenger in active packaging to increase the shelf-life of food and beverages, while simultaneously producing the protective packaging gas carbon dioxide. This study shows that oxalate oxidase from barley can be immobilized with retained catalytic activity through entrapment in a latex polymer matrix. Conditions for formation of film containing oxalate oxidase have been evaluated as well as effects of storage and latex on enzyme activity, migration of enzyme in films, and the ability of the latex films to resist higher temperatures. Drying of enzyme-containing latex films at 75 °C prior to conditioning at 30 °C resulted in higher activity than drying solely at 30 °C, or drying at 95 °C or 105 °C followed by conditioning at 30 °C. Storage of films in air at 4 °C for 14 days did not negatively affect the enzymatic activity. Inclusion of catalase in films with oxalate oxidase effectively prevented release of hydrogen peroxide. The results suggest that the immobilized enzyme can successfully be used both as an oxygen scavenger and as an oxalic-acid scavenger.

1 - 18 av 18
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf