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  • 1.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Norwegian University of Science & Technology.
    A critique of the European Green City Index2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Siemens (Germany) sponsored the research by the Economist Intelligence Unit (London), which resulted in the publication of the European Green City Index report, in which the environmental performance of 30 large cities in Europe was analysed. It provided city administrations with an idea of where they stood vis-a-vis their European counterparts. However, while adopting such performance evaluation methodologies, it is important to set targets and goals, and to be aware of pitfalls that may exist in the course of a blind pursuit of a higher Green Score. City administrations are usually segmented into different divisions and departments; often each division strives towards its own set of targets and goals, without being aware (or without being concerned, even if it is aware) of the overlaps, conflicts and synergies that may exist with the targets and goals of the others. The Green City Index needs to be considered together with an Urban Socio-Economic Index, which can be suitably structured with the inter-linkages with the indicators of the Green City Index explicitly described.

  • 2.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    ABC of Sustainable Development2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a field of thought, learning, research and endeavour, which has entrenched itself in the 21st century. This book is certainly very very far from being the be-all and end-all of knowledge about sustainability and sustainable development, as readers will appreciate. This modest effort is something which I hope provides some food for thought…and then hopefully, purposeful action. This book is about 90 pages long, and is split up into 9 chapters, and dwells on the different aspects of sustainable development and the challenges associated with integrating these so that development is truly and holistically sustainable….Chapters begin with Learning Objectives which at once tells the reader what to expect from it, and some Exercises at the end, which one may wish to attempt, en route.

    As Prof Genon Giuseppe from Turin, Italy, in the Foreword to the book, says, ‘This book is useful to university curricula, aimed at grooming professionals capable of considering all the aspects of sustainable development and of course, can very well be integrated into a host of academic disciplines, as the author has pointed out in one of the chapters.’

    As Dr Håvard Bergsdal from Trondheim, Norway, says, in his review comments, ‘The book makes for good reading and serves as a useful summary for readers who are new to the topic of sustainability.’

  • 3. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Analysis of stocks and flows in Indian households, associated with water consumption2013In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and environmental load-shifting in the wastewater treatment sector Part II: Case study of Norway2009In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1131-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a tool for sustainability studies: A complete learning experience.2019In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Problemy Ekorozwoju, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Environmental systems analysis of urban water systems - limited historical account of published work in scientific journals2015In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 209-222Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Future prospects of industrial ecology as a set of tools for sustainable development2012In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 77-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Triple bottom line approach to individual and global sustainability (Translated into Polish).2010In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 29-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is founded on analogies and lateral thinking, borrowing and adapting, and opening up the frontiers of imagination and innovativeness to make the road to sustainable development more tractable. Talking of the key role mankind needs to play to make sustainable development a reality, a wonderful analogy is uncovered – between holistic individual human development and the triple bottom line approach (economic, social and environmental) to sustainable progress of humanity as a whole on the surface of the earth. An individual starts off from gross materialism (body) but needs to aim for the right blend of physical, emotional and spiritual advancement in life. When all individuals do so, a lop-sided socio-economic techno-sphere will gradually metamorphose into a fully-evolved one. Paradoxically, individuals need to delve in and comprehend their spiritual selves, for the technosphere to fan out and embrace the earth of which it is just a small component.

  • 9. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Typifying cities to streamline the selection of relevant environmental sustainability indicators for urban water supply and sewage handling systems2013In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 765-782Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and shifting of environmental loads in the wastewater treatment sector.: Part I: Case study of the Netherlands2009In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1111-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The material that is separated from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants has to be transferred from the water phase to the atmosphere, lithosphere, and/or biosphere (and also the technosphere). After the initial discharges into the different environmental media (and the technosphere), there are further 'inter-sphere' leakages or redirections. However, these happen over protracted periods of time and have not been accounted for in this paper. The paper presents a case study on the wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands, examines how the degree of separation of COD (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from the wastewater have increased over time, and studies the changes in proportions separated out to the atmosphere and lithosphere. The hydrosphere has benefited from a decline in the degree of eutrophication and marine/fresh water toxicity, owing to the favourable combination of higher degrees of separation, over time, and source control, especially in the industrial sector. Global warming is a major concern owing to the increasing conversion of COD to carbon dioxide (and methane). Heavy metal and nitrogen emissions have been curbed thanks to source reduction within industries. Technologies have, of course, enabled some mitigation of the problems associated with atmospheric (global warming and toxicity) and lithospheric (toxicity) pollution, though these are beyond the scope of this paper, which assumes a hypothetical worst-case scenario in this regard for the study period 1993-2005.

  • 11.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Oslo, Norway2011In: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 1081-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    orwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Energy & Proc Engn Dept, Ind Ecol Programme, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Studying the demand-side vis-a-vis the supply-side of urban water systems - Case study of Oslo, Norway2014In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, no 18, p. 2322-2333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Chan, Arthur
    NTNU, Energy & Proc Engn Dept, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Understanding the water-energy-carbon nexus in urban water utilities: Comparison of four city case studies and the relevant influencing factors2014In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 153-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Dhakal, Shobhakar
    Natl Inst Environm Studies, Global Carbon Project, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    An international look at the water-energy nexus2012In: Journal of American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, Vol. 104, no 5, p. 93-96Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Elmi, Rashid Abdi
    Economic-environmental analysis of handling biogas from sewage sludge digesters in wastewater treatment plants for energy recovery: Case study of Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway2013In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 220-235Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hammervold, Johanne
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Combined MFA-LCA for analysis of wastewater pipeline networks: Case study of Oslo (Norway).2009In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 532-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oslo's wastewater pipeline network has an aging stock of concrete, steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipelines, which calls for a good portion of expenditures to be directed toward maintenance and investments in rehabilitation. The stock, as it is in 2008, is a direct consequence of the influx of pipelines of different sizes, lengths, and materials of construction into the system over the years. A material flow analysis (MFA) facilitates an analysis of the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and retirement of the pipelines. The forecast of the future flows of materials-which, again, is highly interlinked with the historic flows-provides insight into the likely future environmental impacts. This will enable decision makers keen on alleviating such impacts to think along the lines of eco-friendlier processes and technologies or simply different ways of doing business. Needless to say, the operation and maintenance phase accounts for the major bulk of emissions and calls for energy-efficient approaches to this phase of the life cycle, even as manufacturers strive to make their processes energy-efficient and attempt to include captive renewable energy in their total energy consumption. This article focuses on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the wastewater pipeline network in the city of Oslo.

  • 17.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Saegrov, Sveinung
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattbo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services - demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 19-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Measuring Productive Performance using Binary and Ordinal Output variables: The Case of the Swedish Fire and Rescue Services2018In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire protection is an example of a complex production process. This study measures efficiency by constructing binary and ordinal output variables from information on residential fires in Sweden about how a fire spreads from when the fire and rescue brigade arrives to when a fire is suppressed. The motivations behind this study are that there are only a few studies trying to estimate production efficiency for fire and rescue services, that data on a more detailed level is interesting for some public services, and there is a need to be able to measure efficiency differences even if only a binary or ordinal output variable is available. Using a logit random parameter model, the random effects are interpreted as efficiency differences. The conclusions are that fire and rescue services with a more flexible fire organisation with first response persons, working in collaboration with other municipalities and with larger populations are more efficient.

  • 19.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Divergent trends in emergency department visits for poisonings by intent in Varmland, Sweden2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A227-A227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Osorio, Andrea Diaz
    et al.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Integrated Management Spells Success for Medellin, Colombia's, Water and Wastewater Utility2013In: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Medellin is the second largest urban area in Colombia. The state-owned company, Empresas Publicas de Medellin E.S.P. (EPM), provides water supply and wastewater treatment services to more than 3.5 million people in the city and nine other smaller towns in the conurbation. EPM also provides public services other than water supply and wastewater treatment. Eduardo Cadavid Restrepo, director of the department of water management at EPM, described the current status, challenges, and future plans for the water supply and sanitation system in Medellin in this interview (conducted by e-mail in Spanish and later translated to English) with Andrea Diaz Osorio and Govindarajan Venkatesh.

  • 21.
    Vestblad, Jennifer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Cirkulerande återanvändning av sportartiklar: Resursflöden för framställning och avfallshantering av sportartiklar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A clear pattern shows that the amount of waste increases with the increasing consumption. The consumption leads to more manufactured products which later on must be disposed as waste. Except trying to prevent the amount of waste, reusing products is a great option for waste managements.

    Fritidsbanken started 2013 in Deje Värmland and works like an organized lending system with sporting goods. The operation is largely based on advocating reuse. Fritidsbanken works like a library with sporting goods where anyone can borrow equipment for free. By giving the chance to practice activities and sports, Fritidsbanken creates conditions for spontaneous sporting. The study is based on the business premises in Deje, where three different sporting goods were examined: downhill skis, cross country skis and ice skates.

    The study examined the resource flows, production- and waste processes with the business as a base. The submitted articles were compared with the corresponding number of articles submitted, reused and discarded. Also the waste disposal of that time was reviewed and alternative improvements were presented. 

    The study was based on a separate survey of how waste management of products were carried out at the study’s start. The survey emanated from the central parts of Värmland in Sweden. Additional a sensivity analysis was performed and based on the materials found in the articles, presenting an increased mass of 5, 10 or 15 %.  The method for the study consisted largely of contacts with producers, recyclers, authorities and recycling centres. Information about the articles and its content were collected from CES – Edu Pack and Fritidbanken in Deje.

    The result of the study shows that the reuse gives a positive impact on the production of materials, waste management and resource flows. A total amount of 1480 kg material, 9.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and 122 GJ amount of energy, were avoided in material production. The proposal regarding the waste disposal of articles can lead to 34 GJ energy derived from combustion and a recycled amount of 263 kg steel.

    The study was based on three different sporting goods which were collected from Fritidsbanken in Deje during autumn 2015. Similar products may contain other types of materials and should be examined accordingly. The sensitivity analysis shows that steel, epoxy-fiberglass and nylon were the materials that required the most energy in material production. It was also the material that produced the most carbon dioxide for the same process. The result from the sensitivity analysis also shows that epoxy-fiberglass may contain dangerous substances. Because of this the amount of epoxy-fiberglass should not increase or be used with a higher consumption. With that said, improved material selection can be considered from the article’s life cycle perspective.

  • 22.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karli, Verghese
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rafael, Auras
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lund University, Lund.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University.
    Grönman, Kaisa
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Kvalvåg Pettersen, Marit
    Nofima AS,Ås, Norway.
    Møller, Hanne
    Ostfold Research, Kråkeröy, Norway.
    Risto, Soukka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Packaging Strategies That Save Food: A Research Agenda for 20302018In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Thoroughly considering and optimizing packaging systems can avoid food loss and waste. We suggest a number of issues that must be explored and review the associated challenges. Five main issues were recognized through the extensive experience of the authors and engagement of multiple stakeholders. The issues promoted are classified as follows: (1) identify and obtain specific data of packaging functions that influence food waste; (2) understand the total environmental burden of product/package by considering the trade‐off between product protection and preservation and environmental footprint; (3) develop understanding of how these functions should be treated in environmental footprint evaluations; (4) improve packaging design processes to also consider reducing food waste; and (5) analyze stakeholder incentives to reduce food loss and waste. Packaging measures that save food will be important to fulfill the United Nations Sustainable Development goal to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and to reduce food losses along production and supply chains.

  • 23.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Williams, Helen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The influence of packaging attributes on recycling and food waste behaviour – An environmental comparison of two packaging alternatives2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 137, p. 895-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how user behaviour influences the environmental comparison of two different packages for minced meat - a lightweight tube and a tray. The direct and indirect environmental effects are evaluated using simplified LCA. A number of packaging attributes with regard to food waste and recycling behaviour are analysed for the packages, and then used for the scenario calculations. The results show that the tube is the superior environmental alternative when only the direct effects are considered. When indirect effects and user behaviour are included in the comparison, the tray is the better alternative due to higher recycling rates and, most importantly, less food waste during the process of emptying. However, the environmental impacts due to the food waste in the tube may be compensated for, if the longer shelf-life of the tube results in lower wastage in the households. It is concluded that indirect environmental effects and user behaviour should be included in environmental assessments of packaging to obtain meaningful results.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-20 09:00
  • 24.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential environmental gains from reducing food losses through development of new packaging – a life cycle model.2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmental impact from the whole food packaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmental impact of packaging in order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmental impact, even if there is an increase in impact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environ- mental impact of the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing food losses when pack- aging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packaging and packaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 25.
    Zappine, M
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Fiore, S
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Brattebö, L
    V.
    Meucci, L
    Research Center, Torino, Italy.
    Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions within the Turin Metropolitan Urban Water Cycle2014In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 1382-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 25 of 25
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