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  • 1.
    Abbas, Muhammad Tahir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Improving the Energy Efficiency of Cellular IoT Device2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular Internet of Things (CIoT) has emerged as a promising technology to support applications that generate infrequent data. One requirement on these applications, often battery-powered devices, is low energy consumption to enable extended battery life. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is a promising technology for IoT due to its low power consumption, which is essential for devices that need to run on battery power for extended periods. However, the current battery life of NB-IoT devices is only a few years, which is insufficient for many applications. This thesis investigates the impact of energy-saving mechanisms standardized by 3GPP on battery life of NB-IoT devices. The main research objective is to classify and analyze existing energy-saving solutions for CIoT and examine their limitations, to study the impact of standardized energy-saving mechanisms on the battery life of NB-IoT devices, both in isolation and combined, and to provide guidelines on how to configure NB-IoT devices to reduce energy consumption efficiently. The research aims to provide a deeper understanding of the effect of energy-saving mechanisms and best practices to balance energy efficiency and performance of NB-IoT devices. Applying the proposed solutions makes it possible to achieve a battery life of 10~years or more for CIoT devices.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Muhammad Tahir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Caso, Giuseppe
    Ericsson Research.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oslo, Norway.
    On the Energy-efficient Use of Discontinuous Reception and Release Assistance in NB-IoT2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular Internet of Things (CIoT) is a Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technology. It aims for cheap, lowcomplexity IoT devices that enable large-scale deployments and wide-area coverage. Moreover, to make large-scale deployments of CIoT devices in remote and hard-to-access locations possible, a long device battery life is one of the main objectives of these devices. To this end, 3GPP has defined several energysaving mechanisms for CIoT technologies, not least for the Narrow-Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) technology, one of the major CIoT technologies. Examples of mechanisms defined include CONNECTED-mode DRX (cDRX), Release Assistance Indicator (RAI), and Power Saving Mode (PSM). This paper considers the impact of the essential energy-saving mechanisms on minimizing the energy consumption of NB-IoT devices, especially the cDRX and RAI mechanisms. The paper uses a purpose-built NB-IoT simulator that has been tested in terms of its built-in energy-saving mechanisms and validated with realworld NB-IoT measurements. The simulated results show that it is possible to save 70%-90% in energy consumption by enabling the cDRX and RAI. In fact, the results suggest that a battery life of 10 years is only achievable provided the cDRX, RAI, and PSM energy-saving mechanisms are correctly configured and used

  • 3.
    Abbas, Muhammad Tahir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Impact of Tunable Parameters in NB-IoT Stack onthe Energy Consumption2019In: Proceedings of Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of tunable parametersin the NB-IoT stack on the energy consumption of a user equipment(UE), e.g., a wireless sensor. NB-IoT is designed to enablemassive machine-type communications for UE while providing abattery lifetime of up to 10 years. To save battery power, most oftime the UE is in dormant state and unreachable. Still, duringthe CONNECTED and IDLE state, correct tuning of criticalparameters, like Discontinuous reception (DRX), and extendedDiscontinuous reception (eDRX), respectively, are essential to savebattery power. Moreover, the DRX and eDRX actions relate tovarious parameters which are needed to be tuned in order toachieve a required UE battery lifetime. The objective of thispaper is to observe the influence of an appropriate tuning ofthese parameters to reduce the risk of an early battery drainage

  • 4.
    Abbas, Muhammad Tahir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    University of Oslo and Simula Metropolitan, NOR.
    Katona, Sándor
    Ericsson AB.
    Seres, Gergely
    Ericsson AB.
    Rathonyi, Bela
    Ericsson AB.
    Guidelines for an Energy Efficient Tuning of the NB-IoT Stack2020In: 45th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), IEEE Communications Society, 2020, p. 60-69, article id 9363265Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the energy consumptionof Narrowband IoT devices. The paper suggests that key tosaving energy for NB-IoT devices is the usage of full Discontinuous Reception (DRX), including the use of connected-mode DRX (cDRX): In some cases, cDRX reduced the energy consumption over a 10-year period with as much as 50%. However, the paper also suggests that tunable parameters, such as the inactivity timer, do have a significant impact. On the basis of our findings, guidelines are provided on how to tune the NB-IoT device so that it meets the target of the 3GPP, i.e., a 5-Wh battery should last for at least 10 years. It is further evident from our results that the energy consumption is largely dependent on the intensity and burstiness of the traffic, and thus could be significantly reduced if data is sent in bursts with less intensity,irrespective of cDRX support.

  • 5.
    Abbas, Muhammad Tahir
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Caso, Giuseppe
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oslo, Norway.
    Energy-Saving Solutions for Cellular Internet of Things - A Survey2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 62096-62096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cellular Internet of Things (CIoT), a new paradigm, paves the way for a large-scale deployment of IoT devices. CIoT promises enhanced coverage and massive deployment of low-cost IoT devices with an expected battery life of up to 10 years. However, such a long battery life can only be achieved provided the CIoT device is configured with energy efficiency in mind. This paper conducts a comprehensive survey on energy-saving solutions in 3GPP-based CIoT networks. In comparison to current studies, the contribution of this paper is the classification and an extensive analysis of existing energy-saving solutions for CIoT, e.g., the configuration of particular parameter values and software modifications of transport- or radio-layer protocols, while also stressing key parameters impacting the energy consumption such as the frequency of data reporting, discontinuous reception cycles (DRX), and Radio Resource Control (RRC) timers. In addition, we discuss shortcomings, limitations, and possible opportunities which can be investigated in the future to reduce the energy consumption of CIoT devices.

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  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Arahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Latency-aware Multipath Scheduling inInformation-centric Networks2019In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Luleå, Sweden. 4-5 June 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the latency-aware multipath schedulerZQTRTT that takes advantage of the multipath opportunities ininformation-centric networking. The goal of the scheduler is touse the (single) lowest latency path for transaction-oriented flows,and use multiple paths for bulk data flows. A new estimatorcalled zero queue time ratio is used for scheduling over multiplepaths. The objective is to distribute the flow over the paths sothat the zero queue time ratio is equal on the paths, that is,so that each path is ‘pushed’ equally hard by the flow withoutcreating unwanted queueing. We make an initial evaluation usingsimulation that shows that the scheduler meets our objectives.

  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Are MIRCC and Rate-based Congestion Control in ICN READY for Variable Link Capacity?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) has been introduced as a potential future networking architecture. ICN promises an architecture that makes information independent from lo- cation, application, storage, and transportation. Still, it is not without challenges. Notably, there are several outstanding issues regarding congestion control: Since ICN is more or less oblivious to the location of information, it opens up for a single application flow to have several sources, something which blurs the notion of transport flows, and makes it very difficult to employ traditional end-to-end congestion control schemes in these networks. Instead, ICN networks often make use of hop-by-hop congestion control schemes. How- ever, these schemes are also tainted with problems, e.g., several of the proposed ICN congestion controls assume fixed link capacities that are known beforehand. Since this seldom is the case, this paper evaluates the consequences in terms of latency, throughput, and link usage, variable link capacities have on a hop-by-hop congestion control scheme, such as the one employed by the Multipath-aware ICN Rate-based Congestion Control (MIRCC). The evaluation was carried out in the OMNeT++ simulator, and demonstrates how seemingly small variations in link capacity significantly deterio- rate both latency and throughput, and often result in inefficient network link usage. 

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  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    ICN Congestion Control for Wireless Links2018In: IEEE WCNC 2018 Conference Proceedings / [ed] IEEE, New York: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) with its design around named-based forwarding and in-network caching holds great promises to become a key architecture for the future Internet. Still, despite its attractiveness, there are many open questions that need to be answered before wireless ICN becomes a reality, not least about its congestion control: Many of the proposed hop-by-hop congestion control schemes assume a fixed and known link capacity, something that rarely – if ever – holds true for wireless links. As a first step, this paper demonstrates that although these congestion control schemes are able to fairly well utilise the available wireless link capacity, they greatly fail to keep the link delay down. In fact, they essentially offer the same link delay as in the case with no hop-by-hop, only end- to-end, congestion control. Secondly, the paper shows that by complementing these congestion control schemes with an easy- to-implement, packet-train link estimator, we reduce the link delay to a level significantly lower than what is obtained with only end-to-end congestion control, while still being able to keep the link utilisation at a high level. 

  • 9.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    SIMULA METROPOLITAN CENTER FOR DIGITAL ENGINEERING (SRL).
    Caso, Giuseppe
    IMULA METROPOLITAN CENTER FOR DIGITAL ENGINEERING (SRL).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rabitsch, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Anagnostopolous, Themistoklis
    NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH “DEMOKRITOS”.
    Xylouris, Georgios
    NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH “DEMOKRITOS”.
    Koumaras, Harilaos
    NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH “DEMOKRITOS”.
    Aumayr, Erik
    L.M. ERICSSON LIMITED.
    Bosneag, Anne-Marie
    L.M. ERICSSON LIMITED.
    McNamara, Joseph
    L.M. ERICSSON LIMITED.
    Pretel, Ivan
    FON TECHNOLOGY SL.
    Etxebarria, Iñaki
    FON TECHNOLOGY SL.
    Jimeno, Elisa
    ATOS SPAIN SA.
    Diaz-Zayas, Almudena
    UNIVERSIDAD DE MALAGA, SPAIN.
    Garcia, Belen
    UNIVERSIDAD DE MALAGA, SPAIN.
    Reichert, Leonie
    HUMBOLDT UNIVERSITY, GERMANY.
    Sakkas, Christos
    INFOLYSIS P.C..
    Papaioannou, Angeliki
    INFOLYSIS P.C..
    Koumaras, Vaios
    INFOLYSIS P.C..
    Rajaguru, Santosh Kumar
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V..
    Prakash, Arun
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V..
    Eichhorn, Fabian
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V..
    Emmelmann, Marc
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V..
    Keil, O.
    CHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V..
    Lioprasitis, Dimitrios
    SPACE HELLAS (CYPRUS) LTD.
    Gardikis, Georgios
    SPACE HELLAS (CYPRUS) LTD.
    Frascolla, Valerio
    INTEL.
    Monitoring and Analytics (Release B)2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This document describes the design and implementation of the 5GENESIS Monitoring & Analytics (M&A) framework in its Release B, developed within Task T3.3 of the project work plan. M&A Release B leverages and extends M&A Release A, which has been documented in the previous Deliverable D3.5 [1]. In particular, we present new features and enhancements introduced in this new Release compared to the Release A. We also report some examples of usage of the M&A framework, in order to showcase its integrated in the 5GENESIS Reference Architecture. 

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    García, Rafael
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Dely, Tobias
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    MONROE, a distributed platform to measure and assess mobile broadband networks: demo2016In: Proceedings of the Tenth ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation, and Characterization, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo presents the MONROE distributed platform and how it can be used to implement measurement and assessment experiments with operational mobile broadband networks (MBBs). MONROE provides registered experimenters with open access to hundreds of nodes, distributed over several European countries and equipped with multiple MBB connections, and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Experiments are scheduled through a user-friendly web client, with no need to directly access the nodes. The platform further embeds tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 11.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rafael, García
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Tobias, Dély
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Fosselie Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino & IMDEA Networks, Italy.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    Measuring and Assessing Mobile Broadband Networks with MONROE2016In: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile, and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Red Hook: IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile broadband (MBB) networks underpin numerous vital operations of the society and are arguably becoming the most important piece of the communications infrastructure. In this demo paper, our goal is to showcase the potential of a novel multi-homed MBB platform for measuring, monitoring and assessing the performance of MBB services in an objective manner. Our platform, MONROE, is composed of hundreds of nodes scattered over four European countries and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Through a user-friendly web client, the experimenters can schedule and deploy their experiments. The platform further embeds traffic analysis tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 12.
    Ali, Usman
    et al.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Caso, Giuseppe
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    De Nardis, Luca
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oslo, Norway.
    Neri, Marco
    Rohde & Schwarz, Italy..
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Data-Driven Analysis of Outdoor-to-Indoor Propagation for 5G Mid-Band Operational Networks2022In: Future Internet, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1-27, article id 239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful rollout of fifth-generation (5G) networks requires a full understanding of the behavior of the propagation channel, taking into account the signal formats and the frequencies standardized by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). In the past, channel characterization for 5G has been addressed mainly based on the measurements performed on dedicated links in experimental setups. This paper presents a state-of-the-art contribution to the characterization of the outdoor-to-indoor radio channel in the 3.5 GHz band, based on experimental data for commercial, deployed 5G networks, collected during a large scale measurement campaign carried out in the city of Rome, Italy. The analysis presented in this work focuses on downlink, outdoor-to-indoor propagation for two operators adopting two different beamforming strategies, single wide-beam and multiple synchronization signal blocks (SSB) based beamforming; it is indeed the first contribution studying the impact of beamforming strategy in real 5G networks. The time and power-related channel characteristics, i.e., mean excess delay and Root Mean Square (RMS) delay spread, path loss, and K-factor are studied for the two operators in multiple measurement locations. The analysis of time and power-related parameters is supported and extended by a correlation analysis between each pair of parameters. The results show that beamforming strategy has a marked impact on propagation. A single wide-beam transmission leads, in fact, to lower RMS delay spread and lower mean excess delay compared to a multiple SSB-based transmission strategy. In addition, the single wide-beam transmission system is characterized by a smaller path loss and a higher K-factor, suggesting that the adoption of a multiple SSB-based transmission strategy may have a negative impact on downlink performance.

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  • 13.
    Ali, Usman
    et al.
    Sapienza University of Rome, ITA.
    Caso, Giuseppe
    Ericsson Research.
    De Nardis, Luca
    Sapienza University of Rome, ITA.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, NOR.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oslo, NOR.
    Neri, Marco
    Rohde & Schwarz, ITA.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella
    Sapienza University of Rome, ITA.
    Large-Scale Dataset for the Analysis of Outdoor-to-Indoor Propagation for 5G Mid-Band Operational Networks2022In: Data, E-ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 34-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding radio propagation characteristics and developing channel models is fundamental to building and operating wireless communication systems. Among others uses, channel characterization and modeling can be used for coverage and performance analysis and prediction. Within this context, this paper describes a comprehensive dataset of channel measurements performed to analyze outdoor-to-indoor propagation characteristics in the mid-band spectrum identified for the operation of 5th Generation (5G) cellular systems. Previous efforts to analyze outdoor-to-indoor propagation characteristics in this band were made by using measurements collected on dedicated, mostly single-link setups. Hence, measurements performed on deployed and operational 5G networks still lack in the literature. To fill this gap, this paper presents a dataset of measurements performed over commercial 5G networks. In particular, the dataset includes measurements of channel power delay profiles from two 5G networks in Band n78, i.e., 3.3–3.8 GHz. Such measurements were collected at multiple locations in a large office building in the city of Rome, Italy by using the Rohde & Schwarz (R&S) TSMA6 network scanner during several weeks in 2020 and 2021. A primary goal of the dataset is to provide an opportunity for researchers to investigate a large set of 5G channel measurements, aiming at analyzing the corresponding propagation characteristics toward the definition and refinement of empirical channel propagation models.

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  • 14.
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    SDN Enhanced Ethernet VPN for Data Center Interconnect2017In: 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet) / [ed] Maga, D, IEEE, 2017, p. 77-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) is an emerging technology that addresses the networking challenges presented by geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs). One of the major advantages of EVPN over legacy layer 2 VPN solutions is providing All-Active (A-A) mode of operation so that the traffic can truly be multi-homed on Provider Edge (PE) routers. However, A-A mode of operation introduces new challenges. In the case where the Customer Edge (CE) router is multi-homed to one or more PE routers, it is necessary that only one of the PE routers should forward Broadcast, Unknown unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic into the DC. The PE router that assumes the primary role for forwarding BUM traffic to the CE device is called the Designated Forwarder (DF). The proposed solution to select the DF in the EVPN standard is based on a distributed algorithm which has a number of drawbacks such as unfairness and intermittent behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for EVPN support, where the SDN controller interacts with EVPN control plane. We demonstrate how our solution mitigates existing problems for DF selection which leads to improved EVPN performance.

  • 15.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Chen, Eric
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Qinghua, Wang
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Web metrics for the next generation performance enhancing proxies2019In: 2019 International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), IEEE, 2019, p. 171-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast growth of Internet traffic, the growingimportance of cellular accesses and the escalating competitionbetween content providers and network operators result in agrowing interest in improving network performance and userexperience. In terms of network transport, different solutionsranging from tuning TCP to installing middleboxes are applied.It turns out, however, that the practical results sometimes aredisappointing and we believe that poor testing is one of thereasons for this. Indeed, many cases in the literature limittesting to the simple and rare use case of a single file download,while common and complex use cases like web browsing oftenare ignored or modelled only by considering smaller files. Tofacilitate better testing, we present a set of metrics by whichthe complexity around web pages can be characterised andthe potential for different optimisations can be estimated. Wealso derive numerical values of these metrics for a small set ofpopular web pages and study similarities and differences betweenpages with the same kind of content (newspapers, e-commerceand video) and between pages designed for the same platform(computer and smartphone).

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  • 16.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Schneyer, Sean
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    PRTP: A Partially Reliable Transport Protocol for Multimedia Applications: Background, Information and Analysis1999Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Izurza, Andoni
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Liberal, Fidel
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    On the move with TCP in current and future mobile networks2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 8th International Conference on the Network of the Future (NOF). / [ed] T. Mahmoodi, S. Secci, A. Cianfrani, F. Idzikowski, New York, USA: IEEE, 2017, p. 66-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile wireless networks constitute an indispensable part of the global Internet, and with TCP the dominating transport protocol on the Internet, it is vital that TCP works equally well over these networks as over wired ones. This paper identifies the performance dependencies by analyzing the responsiveness of TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC when subject to bandwidth variations related to movements in different directions. The presented evaluation complements previous studies on 4G mobile networks in two important ways: It primarily focuses on the behavior of the TCP congestion control in medium- to high-velocity mobility scenarios, and it not only considers the current 4G mobile networks, but also low latency configurations that move towards the overall potential delays in 5G networks. The paper suggests that while both CUBIC and NewReno give similar goodput in scenarios where the radio channel continuously degrades, CUBIC gives a significantly better goodput in scenarios where the radio channel quality continuously increases. This is due to CUBIC probing more aggressively for additional bandwidth. Important for the design of 5G networks, the obtained results also demonstrate that very low latencies are capable of equalizing the goodput performance of different congestion control algorithms. Only in low latency scenarios that combine both large fluctuations of available bandwidths and a mobility pattern in which the radio channel quality continuously increases can some performance differences be noticed.

  • 18.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country.
    Liberal, Fidel
    University of the Basque Country.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Kristianstad University.
    TCP Performance over Current Cellular Access: A Comprehensive Analysis2018In: Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services: Methods, Models, Approaches, Techniques, Algorithms and Tools / [ed] Ivan Ganchev, R. D. van der Mei, Hans van den Berg, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 371-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile internet usage has significantly raised over the last decade and it is expected to grow to almost 4 billion users by 2020. Even after the great effort dedicated to the improvement of the performance, there still exist unresolved questions and problems regarding the interaction between TCP and mobile broadband technologies such as LTE. This chapter collects the behavior of distinct TCP implementation under various network conditions in different LTE deployments including to which extent the performance of TCP is capable of adapting to the rapid variability of mobile networks under different network loads, with distinct flow types, during start-up phase and in mobile scenarios at different speeds. Loss-based algorithms tend to completely fill the queue, creating huge standing queues and inducing packet losses both under stillness and mobility circumstances. On the other side delay-based variants are capable of limiting the standing queue size and decreasing the amount of packets that are dropped in the eNodeB, but they are not able under some circumstances to reach the maximum capacity. Similarly, under mobility in which the radio conditions are more challenging for TCP, the loss-based TCP implementations offer better throughput and are able to better utilize available resources than the delay-based variants do. Finally, CUBIC under highly variable circumstances usually enters congestion avoidance phase prematurely, provoking a slower and longer start-up phase due to the use of Hybrid Slow-Start mechanism. Therefore, CUBIC is unable to efficiently utilize radio resources during shorter transmission sessions.

  • 19.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country.
    Liberal, Fidel
    University of the Basque Country.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Kristianstad University.
    Robert, Remi
    Ericsson AB.
    TCP behaviour in LTE: impact of flow start-up and mobility2016In: Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2016 9th IFIP, IEEE, 2016, p. 73-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, more than two billion people uses the mobile internet, and it is expected to rise to almost 4 billion by 2020. Still, there is a gap in the understanding of how TCP and its many variants work over LTE. To this end, this paper evaluates the extent to which five common TCP variants, CUBIC, NewReno, Westwood+, Illinois, and CAIA Delay Gradient (CDG), are able to utilise available radio resources under hard conditions, such as during start-up and in mobile scenarios at different speeds. The paper suggests that CUBIC, due to its Hybrid Slow- Start mechanism, enters congestion avoidance prematurely, and thus experiences a prolonged start-up phase, and is unable to efficiently utilise radio resources during shorter transmission sessions. Still, CUBIC, Illinois and NewReno, i.e., the loss-based TCP implementations, offer better throughput, and are able to better utilise available resources during mobility than Westwood+ and CDG – the delay-based variants do. 

  • 20.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Liberal, Fidel
    University of the Basque Country, Spain.
    Haile, Habtegebreil Kassaye
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    On the use of TCP BBR in cellular networks2018In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, no 3, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TCP BBR (Bottleneck Bandwidth and Round-trip propagation time) is a new TCP variant developed at Google, and which, as of this year, is fully deployed in Googles internal WANs and used by services such as Google.com and YouTube. In contrast to other commonly used TCP variants, TCP BBR is not loss-based but model-based: It builds a model of the network path between communicating nodes in terms of bottleneck bandwidth and minimum round-trip delay and tries to operate at the point where all available bandwidth is used and the round-trip delay is at minimum. Although, TCP BBR has indeed resulted in lower latency and a more efficient usage of bandwidth in fixed networks, its performance over cellular networks is less clear. This paper studies TCP BBR in live mobile networks and through emulations, and compares its performance with TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC, two of the most commonly used TCP variants. The results from these studies suggest that in most cases TCP BBR outperforms both TCP NewReno and TCP CUBIC, however, not so when the available bandwidth is scarce. In these cases, TCP BBR provides longer file completion times than any of the other two studied TCP variants. Moreover, competing TCP BBR flows do not share the available bandwidth in a fair way, something which, for example, shows up when shorter TCP BBR flows struggle to get its fair share from longer ones. 

  • 21.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, Center for Wireless Systems.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    On the Impact of Velocity on the Train-to-Earth MIMO Propagation Channel: Statistical Observations and Qualitative Analysis2017In: 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, IEEE, 2017, p. 1865-1866Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide measured data collected from 97 trains completing over 7000 journeys in Sweden showing that the throughput over LTE is impacted by train velocity. In order to explain these observations we assume that the underlying causes can be found in the implementation of the MIMO system into LTE Rel. 8 and the diffuse scattering of signals from ground reflections.

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  • 22.
    Bergman, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pieskä, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Westlinder, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Rust, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Socket Intents Extended for SCTP: Extended Version of Socket Intents to Use the Transport Protocol SCTP2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a project in the course Computer Engineering Project, DVAE08, at Karlstad University. The aim of the project was to modify an already existing solution for selecting the most fitting path for known traffic online, with a proactive approach instead of a reactive, called Socket Intents. The purpose of the modified version is to make the previous solution compatible with the transport protocol SCTP. This solution consists of three new implemented components; a header parser, a sniffer, and a query manager. The header parser and sniffer receive packets from the traffic and send them to one another. The query manager handles queries from the policies to the sniffer, as well as the response. Together, these components will gather information about the state of the network, and select the most fitting path that fulfill application needs. The results achieved from the modification are good work for the SCTP one-to-one type. 

  • 23.
    Bhamare, Deval
    et al.
    University of Surrey, United Kingdom.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Vestin, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khoshkholghi, Mohammad Ali
    King's College London, United Kingdom.
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Mahmoodi, Toktam
    King's College London, United Kingdom.
    Öhlén, Peter
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm.
    Curescu, Calin
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm.
    IntOpt: In-band Network Telemetry optimization framework to monitor network slices using P42022In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 216, article id 109214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is being heralded as an enabler of the recent technologies such as 5G/6G, IoT and heterogeneous networks. Existing NFV monitoring frameworks either do not have the capabilities to express the range of telemetry items needed to perform management or do not scale to large traffic volumes and rates. We present IntOpt, a scalable and expressive telemetry system designed for flexible NFV monitoring using active probing and P4. IntOpt allows us to specify monitoring requirements for individual service chain, which are mapped to telemetry item collection jobs that fetch the required telemetry items from P4 programmable data-plane elements. We propose mixed integer linear program (MILP) as well as a simulated annealing based random greedy (SARG) meta-heuristic approach to minimize the overhead due to active probing and collection of telemetry items. Using P4-FPGA, we benchmark the overhead for telemetry collection. Our numerical evaluation shows that the proposed approach can reduce monitoring overheads by 39% and monitoring delays by 57%. Such optimization may as well enable existing expressive monitoring frameworks to scale for larger real-time networks. 

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  • 24.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    et al.
    Dell EMC.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla.
    Riktor Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC.
    Papastergiou, Giorgos
    Simula.
    Ros, David
    Simula.
    Tüxen, Michael
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Deliverable D2.1 - First Version of Low-Level Core Transport System2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This document presents the first version of the low-level Core Transport System in NEAT, to be used for development of a reference implementation of the NEAT System. The design of this core transport system takes into consideration the Transport Services and the API defined in Task 1.3 and in close coordination with the overall architecture (Task 1.2). To realise the basic Transport Services provided by the API, a set of low-level transport functionalities has to be provided by the NEAT core transport system. These functionalities take the formof several building blocks, or NEAT Components, each representing an associated implementation activity. Some of the components are needed to ensure the basic operation of the NEAT System—e.g., a NEAT Flow Endpoint, a callback-based NEAT API Framework, the NEAT Logic and the functionality to Connect to a name. Some other components are needed to ensure connectivity usingMiddlebox Traversal techniques (e.g., TURN), discovery of path support for different transport protocols using Happy Eyeballs mechanisms, offering end-to end Security (e.g., (D)TLS over transport), gather statistics for the users or system administrators, and the ability to apply different policies in order to influence the decision-making process of the transport system. This document describes each of these building blocks and related design choices.

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  • 25.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    et al.
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Buckley, Donagh
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    A NEAT framework for enhanced end-host integration in SDN environments2017In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SDN aims to facilitate the management of increasingly complex, dynamic network environments and optimize the use of the resources available therein with minimal operator intervention. To this end, SDN controllers maintain a global view of the network topology and its state. However, the extraction of information about network flows and other network metrics remains a non-trivial challenge. Network applications exhibit a wide range of properties, posing diverse, often conflicting, demands towards the network. As these requirements are typically not known, controllers must rely on error-prone heuristics to extract them. In this work, we develop a framework which allows applications deployed in an SDN environment to explicitly express their requirements to the network. Conversely, it allows network controllers to deploy policies on end-hosts and to supply applications with information about network paths, salient servers and other relevant metrics. The proposed approach opens the door for fine grained, application-aware resource optimization strategies in SDNs

  • 26.
    Budzisz, Lukasz
    et al.
    Signal Theory and Communication Dept., Universitat Politechnìca de Catalunya.
    Ferrus, Ramon
    Signal Theory and Communication Dept., Universitat Politechnìca de Catalunya.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    An Analytical Estimation of the Failover Time in SCTP Multihoming Scenarios2007In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, IEEE , 2007, p. 3929-3934Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation behind this paper is a need to have a more accurate estimation of the failover time in SCTP. The traditional one, commonly used in the literature, is based on the sum of the consecutive retransmission timeouts. This is not always appropriate, especially when using the SCTP multihoming feature as a basis for achieving transport layer mobility in wireless networking scenarios, where the transition time between available paths becomes a key aspect for the optimisation. Two new factors are introduced into the proposed estimation formula to reflect the influence of the network parameters and the behaviour of the most common protocol implementations. For the proposed model, we perform a best-worst case analysis, and then illustrate it with an example of a detailed estimation. Finally, we perform simulations comparing our proposal with the traditional estimation in a typical transport layer mobility scenario including long thin networks.

  • 27.
    Budzisz, Lukasz
    et al.
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya.
    Ferrús, Ramon
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fracchia, Roberta
    Motorola Labs – Paris, France.
    Galante, Giulio
    Istituto Superiore Mario Boella.
    Casadewall, Ferran
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya.
    Towards transport-layer mobility: Evolution of SCTP multihoming2008In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 980-998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, growing availability of emerging wireless technologies has pushed the demand to integrate different wireless-network technologies such as: wireless local-area networks, cellular networks, and personal and short-range networks. The inter-working of heterogeneous radio access networks poses many technical challenges, with mobility management being one of the most important. In this paper we survey the existing proposals and show that transport-layer mobility is a viable candidate for implementing seamless handover in heterogeneous wireless access networks. Since the mobile Stream Control Transmission Protocol (mSCTP) is at the core of most relevant transport-layer mobility schemes being currently studied, we identify the key scenarios where the protocol can effectively leverage the multihoming feature to enhance handover support. Moreover, to provide the reader with a complete overview of the mSCTP's application area, we also survey the situations where the use of mSCTP-based schemes is not possible or has some limitations. Then, in one of the identified key scenarios, we investigate several challenging open issues related to path management and path-transition optimization by considering bandwidth-estimation schemes and link-layer support. Finally, we consider introducing concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) into mSCTP-based mobility schemes, as a future research direction.

  • 28.
    Budzisz, Łukasz
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ferrús, Ramon
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    A taxonomy and survey of SCTP research2012In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 44, no 4, p. -36, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a relatively recent general-purpose transport layer protocol for IP networks that has been introduced as a complement to the well-established TCP and UDP transport protocols. Although initially conceived for the transport of PSTN signaling messages over IP networks, the introduction of key features in SCTP, such as multihoming and multistreaming, has spurred considerable research interest surrounding SCTP and its applicability to different networking scenarios. This article aims to provide a detailed survey of one of these new features—multihoming—which, as it is shown, is the subject of evaluation in more than half of all published SCTP-related articles. To this end, the article first summarizes and organizes SCTP-related research conducted so far by developing a four-dimensional taxonomy reflecting the (1) protocol feature examined, (2) application area, (3) network environment, and (4) study approach. Over 430 SCTP-related publications have been analyzed and classified according to the proposed taxonomy. As a result, a clear perspective on this research area in the decade since the first protocol standardization in 2000 is given, covering both current and future research trends. On continuation, a detailed survey of the SCTP multihoming feature is provided, examining possible applications of multihoming, such as robustness, handover support, and loadsharing.

  • 29.
    Cardellini, Valeria
    et al.
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Galinac Grbac, Tihana
    University or Rijeka, Croatia .
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kathiravelu, Pradeeban
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Lo Presti, Francesco
    University or Rome tor Vergata, Italy.
    Marotta, Antonio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Nardelli, Matteo
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Luís, Veiga
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Integrating SDN and NFV with QoS-Aware Service Composition Cardellini2018In: Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services: Methods, Models, Approaches, Techniques, Algorithms, and Tools / [ed] Ivan Ganchev; Robert D. van der Mei; J.L. van den Berg, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 212-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional networks are transformed to enable full integrationof heterogeneous hardware and software functions, that are configuredat runtime, with minimal time to market, and are provided to theirend users on “as a service” principle. Therefore, a countless number ofpossibilities for further innovation and exploitation opens up. NetworkFunction Virtualization (NFV) and Software-Defined Networking (SDN)are two key enablers for such a new flexible, scalable, and service-orientednetwork architecture. This chapter provides an overview of QoS-awarestrategies that can be used over the levels of the network abstractionaiming to fully exploit the new network opportunities. Specifically, wepresent three use cases of integrating SDN and NFV with QoS-awareservice composition, ranging from the energy efficient placement of virtualnetwork functions inside modern data centers, to the deployment ofdata stream processing applications using SDN to control the networkpaths, to exploiting SDN for context-aware service compositions.

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  • 30.
    Carneil, Zarafshan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Parabolic equation models simulating LoS MIMO conditions2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and develops a simulation model for Line of Sight(LoS) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems in complex environments. The focus will be on implementing a 2 × 2-MIMO system in order to study phase differences of the received signals. The propagation of the electromagnetic waves is based on an existing wave propagation model that uses the parabolic equation approach. This work aims to deepen our understanding of a 2 × 2-MIMO systems’ behavior under various conditions, including free space propagation but also standard atmospheric and ducting environments. The results demonstrate that the parabolic equation method aligns well with theoretical expectations, validating its use for modeling MIMO systems.The findings have significant implications for optimizing the design and operation of wireless communication systems. The thesis also outlines potential future work, including empirical model verification, development of alternative models, and extension to more complex MIMO systems.

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  • 31.
    Caso, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Simula Metropolitan Center for Digital Engineering, NOR.
    Alay, Ozgu
    Simula Metropolitan Center for Digital Engineering, NOR.
    Ferrante, Guido Carlo
    Ericsson Research.
    De Nardis, Luca
    Sapienza University, ITA.
    Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella
    Sapienza University, ITA.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    User-Centric Radio Access Technology Selection: A Survey of Game Theory Models and Multi-Agent Learning Algorithms2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 84417-84464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User-centric radio access technology (RAT) selection is a key communication paradigm, given the increased number of available RATs and increased cognitive capabilities at the user end. When considered against traditional network-centric approaches, user-centric RAT selection results in reduced network-side management load, and leads to lower operational costs for RATs, as well as improved quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for users. The complex between-users interactions involved in RAT selection require, however, specific analyses, toward developing reliable and efficient schemes. Two theoretical frameworks are most often applied to user-centric RAT selection analysis, i.e., game theory (GT) and multi-agent learning (MAL). As a consequence, several GT models and MAL algorithms have been recently proposed to solve the problem at hand. A comprehensive discussion of such models and algorithms is, however, currently missing. Moreover, novel issues introduced by next-generation communication systems also need to be addressed. This paper proposes to fill the above gaps by providing a unified reference for both ongoing research and future research directions in the field. In particular, the review addresses the most common GT and MAL models and algorithms, and scenario settings adopted in user-centric RAT selection in terms of utility function and network topology. Regarding GT, the review focuses on non-cooperative models, because of their widespread use in RAT selection; as for MAL, a large number of algorithms are described, ranging from game-theoretic to reinforcement learning (RL) schemes, and also including most recent approaches, such as deep RL (DRL) and multi-armed bandit (MAB). Models and algorithms are analyzed by comparatively reviewing relevant literature. Finally, open challenges are discussed, in light of ongoing research and standardization activities.

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  • 32.
    Caso, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstads universitet.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstads universitet.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Aumayr, Erik
    Ericsson.
    Bosneag, Anne-Marie
    Ericsson.
    Xilouris, Georgious
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Oikonomakis, Andreas
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Anagnostopoulos, Themistoklis
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Koumaras, Harilaous
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Dias-Zayas, Almudena
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Garcia, Bruno
    NCSR Demokritos, GRC.
    Emmelmann, Marc
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (FhG), DEU.
    Eichhorn, Fabian
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (FhG), DEU.
    Briedigkeit, Thomas
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (FhG), DEU.
    Rajaguru, Santosh Kumar
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (FhG), DEU.
    Prakash, Arun
    FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (FhG), DEU.
    Jimeno, Elisa
    ATOS SPAIN SA, ESP.
    Sakkas, Christos
    INFOLYSIS P.C..
    Matzakos, Panos
    EURECOM.
    Pretel, Ivan
    FON TECHNOLOGY SL.
    Reichert, L.
    HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITÄT ZU BERLIN, DEU.
    Schoppmann, Phillipp
    HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITÄT ZU BERLIN, DEU.
    Gutierrez, Jesus Teran
    IHP GMBH – INNOVATIONS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE MICROELECTRONICS/LEIBNIZ-INSTITUT FUER INNOVATIVE MIKROELEKTRONIK.
    Phinikarides, Alexander
    PRIMETEL PLC.
    Monitoring and Analytics (Release A)2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This document describes the design and implementation of the 5GENESIS Monitoring & Analytics (M&A) framework (Release A), developed within Task T3.3 of the Project work plan.

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  • 33.
    Caso, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ali, Usman
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    De Nardis, Luca
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Oslo, Norway.
    Neri, Marco
    Rohde and Schwarz, Italy.
    Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    An Initial Look into the Performance Evolution of 5G Non-Standalone Networks2023In: TMA 2023 - Proceedings of the 7th Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifth Generation (5G) networks have been operational worldwide for a couple of years. To reveal how the 5G system evolution (e.g., changes in network conditions, deployment, and configurations) affects user performance, empirical long-term analyses are required. This paper presents preliminary insights from our ongoing large-scale measurement study of the commercial 5G non-standalone (NSA) networks deployed in Rome, Italy. An initial comparison between the measurements in 2020-2021 vs. 2023 shows a decrease in throughput and latency performance, calling for deeper analyses toward understanding the root causes and deriving proper optimization solutions. 

  • 34.
    Cheng, Jun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Telco Distributed DC with Transport Protocol Enhancement for 5G Mobile Networks: A Survey2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed data center hosts telco virtual network functions, mixing workloads that require data transport through transport protocols with either low end-to-end latency or large bandwidth for high throughput, e.g., from tough requirements in 5G use cases. A trend is the use relatively inexpensive, off-the-shelf switches in data center networks, where the dominated transport traffic is TCP traffic. Today’s TCP protocol will not be able to meet such requirements. The transport protocol evolution is driven by transport performance (latency and throughput) and robust enhancements in data centers, which include new transport protocols and protocol extensions such as DCTCP, MPTCP and QUIC protocols and lead to intensive standardization works and contributions to 3GPP and IETF.

    By implementing ECN based congestion control instead of the packet-loss based TCP AIMD congestion control algorithm, DCTCP not only solves the latency issue in TCP congestion control caused by the switch buffer bloating but also achieves an improved performance on the packet loss and throughput. The DCTCP can also co-exist with normal TCP by applying a modern coupled queue management algorithm in the switches of DC networks, which fulfills IETF L4S architecture. MPTCP is an extension to TCP, which can be implemented in DC’s Fat tree architecture to improve transport throughput and shorten the latency by mitigating the bandwidth issue caused by TCP connection collision within the data center. The QUIC is a reliable and multiplexed transport protocol over UDP transport, which includes many of the latest transport improvements and innovation, which can be used to improve the transport performance on streaming media delivery.

    The Clos topology is a commonly used network topology in a distributed data center. In the Clos architecture, an over-provisioned fabric cannot handle full wire-speed traffic, thus there is a need to have a mechanism to handle overload situations, e.g., by scaling out the fabric. However, this will introduce more end-to-end latency in those cases the switch buffer is bloated, and will cause transport flow congestion.

    In this survey paper, DCTCP, MPTCP and QUIC are discussed as solutions for transport performance enhancement for 5G mobile networks to avoid the transport flow congestion caused by the switch buffer bloating from overloaded switch queue in data centers. 

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  • 35.
    Cheng, Jun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kovács, Benedek
    Ericsson AB.
    Darula, Marian
    Ericsson AB.
    Proposal for IEC GOOSE transport in 5G networks2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid control systems have special latency and performance requirements on the underlying communication network. In 3GPP, such requirements are typically served by the so-called Critical Machine Type Communication (C-MTC) network slice. Generic Object Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE, IEC 61850-8.1) is a protocol used in power substation automation. GOOSE is a layer 2 protocol that operates via multicast over Ethernet which allows Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) to exchange data horizontally between the bays within substation and between the substations, especially for interlocking, measurement and tripping signals. 3GPP 5th generation of mobile networks (5G) will support a variety of services, including Massive Machine-Type Communications (M-MTC) and Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) differentiated by the latency and reliability requirements. GOOSE is used by C-MTC in smart grid power substations, which can be a part of URLLC in 5G IoT networks.

    Experiments so far proposed to tunnel GOOSE messages in 4G Evolved Packet Core (EPC) bearers, in an IP tunnel. In this paper, we will motivate the idea of transporting GOOSE over user plane by tunneling via Ethernet over Generic Routing Encapsulation (EoGRE) and 3GPP Non-IP Data Delivery (NIDD), which will follow 3GPP standardization on 5G Standalone (SA), where the transfer latency and reliability will be governed by 5G URLLC. For 5G Non-Standalone (NSA) networks, GOOSE communication involves 5G to Long Term Evolution (LTE) interworking, LTE protocol adaptation from GTP-U/UDP to GRE on S1-U has been realized and deployed in LTE networks. In addition, to reach the right performance level, we propose a GOOSE Gateway (GW) including a 5G Modem to create unicast GOOSE messages to be transmitted over 5G networks. A congestion control algorithm, e.g. Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), is required in the data link layer (congestion control is supposed to be solved by multicasting in the original Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) setup). In 3GPP Release 15 standardization, ECN is proposed to be implemented by Low Latency, Low Loss, Scalable Throughput (L4S) congestion control in 5G-NodeB, 5G User Equipment (UE) and other entity. GOOSE messages could share the same ECN congestion control mechanism.

    The main contributions from this paper are: (1) Analyzed and compared GOOSE over Ethernet and GOOSE over IP. (2) Introduced a new logic to optimize GOOSE traffic on EPC user plane via non-IP Packet Data Network (PDN) data type in the 5G network. (3) Suggested to implement GOOSE GW to aggregate and unicasting GOOSE messages effectively between the substations, and to add congestion control by using ECN mechanism in 5G-NodeB and by implementing the pushback/reaction point in GOOSE GW. 

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  • 36.
    Cho, Daewoong
    et al.
    Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zomaya, Albert Y
    School of Information Technologies, University of Sydney.
    Wang, Lizhe
    China Univ. of Geosci., China.
    Virtual Network Function Placement: Towards Minimizing Network Latency and Lead Time2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), Piscataway: IEEE, 2017, p. 90-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging network architecture to increase flexibility and agility within operator's networks by placing virtualized services on demand in Cloud data centers (CDCs). One of the main challenges for the NFV environment is how to minimize network latency in the rapidly changing network environments. Although many researchers have already studied in the field of Virtual Machine (VM) migration and Virtual Network Function (VNF) placement for efficient resource management in CDCs, VNF migration problem for low network latency among VNFs has not been studied yet to the best of our knowledge. To address this issue in this article, we i) formulate the VNF migration problem and ii) develop a novel VNF migration algorithm called VNF Real-time Migration (VNF-RM) for lower network latency in dynamically changing resource availability. As a result of experiments, the effectiveness of our algorithm is demonstrated by reducing network latency by up to 70.90% after latency-aware VNF migrations.

  • 37. Christoforidis, Christos
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Niklas
    Johansson, Henrik
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    SCTPTrace: An Extension of TCPTrace for SCTP2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to analyzing TCP data and extracting the information in such a way that it becomes viewable, there are a couple of tools that can be used. One of them is TCPTrace. TCPTrace is used to analyze special dump files created from programs such as tcpdump, snoop and WinDump. TCPTrace became published for a broader public in the late 1996 by Shawn Ostermann. Since then functionalities, changes and fixes have been implemented for example the extension to create graphs and trace UDP packets. From the dump files a trace will be done, and depending on the input from the user, TCPTrace can present this information in a number of ways such as plain text, trace files and graphs, depending on the amount of information the user is looking for. The extensive information traced will be viewed and divided for each connection found. For each connection, information such as retransmits, throughput, round trip times, bytes and packets sent and received etc. can be presented.

    This project came to be, since there has been a desire to see a tool for SCTP that provides the same functionalities as TCPTrace. The project, called SCTPTrace, aimed to implement as much of the previous TCP functionalities as possible for the SCTP protocol. 

  • 38.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Efficient Scheduling to Reduce Latency for Signaling Traffic using CMT-SCTP2016In: 27th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 4-7, Valencia, Spain, IEEE, 2016, p. 2127-2132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate delay spikes during transmission of bursty signaling traffic, concurrent multipath transmission (CMT) over several paths in parallel could be an option. Still, unordered delivery is a well known problem when concurrently transmitting data over asymmetric network paths, leading to extra delay due to Head-of-Line Blocking (HoLB). The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), designed as a carrier for signaling traffic over IP, is currently being extended with support for CMT (CMT-SCTP). To reduce the impact of HoLB, SCTP has support for transmission of separate data flows, called SCTP streams. In this paper, we address sender scheduling to optimize latency for signaling traffic using CMT-SCTP. We present dynamic stream-aware (DS) scheduling, which utilizes the SCTP stream concept, and continuously considers the current network status as well as the data load to make scheduling decisions. We implement a DS scheduler and compare it against some existing schedulers. Our investigation suggests that DS scheduling could significantly reduce latency compared to dynamic path scheduling that does not consider streams. Moreover, we show that naive round-robin scheduling may provide low latency over symmetric network paths, but may transmit data on non-beneficial asymmetric network paths leading to increased latency. Finally, our results show that a static stream based approach, found beneficial for bulk traffic, is not appropriate for bursty signaling traffic. 

  • 39.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Implications of using a Large Initial Congestion Window to Improve mSCTP Handover Delay2012In: MOBILITY 2012 : The Second International Conference on Mobile Services, Resources, and Users / [ed] Josef Noll, University of Oslo & Movation, Norway, Alessandro Bazzi, CNR - IEIIT, Italy, IARIA , 2012, , p. 6p. 116-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The currently rather heterogeneous wireless landscape makes handover between different network technologies, so-called vertical handover, a key to a continued success for wireless Internet access. Recently, an extension to the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) – the Dynamic Address Reconfiguration (DAR) extension – was standardized by IETF. This extension enables the use of SCTP for vertical handover. Still, the way vertical handover works in SCTP with DAR makes it less suitable for real-time traffic. Particularly, it takes a significant amount of time for the traffic to ramp up to full speed on the handover target path. In this paper, we study the implications of an increased initial congestion window for real-time traffic on the handover target path when competing traffic is present. The results clearly show that an increased initial congestion window could significantly reduce the transfer delay for real-time traffic, provided the fair share of the available capacity on the handover target path is sufficiently higher than the send rate required by the real-time flow. Additionally, we notice that this performance gain comes without penalizing the competing traffic.

  • 40.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    On the Impact of Data Scheduling to Reduce Latency for Telephony Signaling Traffic using CMT-SCTP2015In: The 11th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW), Karlstad, Sweden, May 28-29, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SCTP is a transport protocol targeted for telephony signaling traffic. Although SCTP from its inception supported multihoming, it has until now not supported concurrent mul- tipath transfer. However, this is about to change: Currently a standard for concurrent multipath transfer is underway. Since it is unclear whether concurrent multipath transfer could reduce transmission latency, this paper evaluates two algorithms for scheduling signaling traffic for transmission. We find that the mechanisms may provide good performance and to some extent enables for service differentiation. Still, the results indicate that unpredictable traffic require dynamic scheduling.

  • 41.
    Emmelmann, Marc
    et al.
    FOKUS-Fraunhofer Gesellschaft e.V., Institute for Open Communication Systems, DEU.
    Monachesi, Marcello
    FOKUS-Fraunhofer Gesellschaft e.V., Institute for Open Communication Systems, DEU.
    Shrestha, Prasit
    FOKUS-Fraunhofer Gesellschaft e.V., Institute for Open Communication Systems, DEU.
    Eichhorn, Fabian
    FOKUS-Fraunhofer Gesellschaft e.V., Institute for Open Communication Systems, DEU.
    Gutiérrez, Jésus
    Innovations for High Performance microelectronics/ Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, DEU.
    Ehrig, Marcus
    Innovations for High Performance microelectronics/ Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, DEU.
    Maletic, Nebojsa
    Innovations for High Performance microelectronics/ Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, DEU.
    Grass, Eckhard
    Innovations for High Performance microelectronics/ Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, DEU.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Caso, Giuseppe
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, NOR.
    Griwodz, Carsten
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, NOR.
    Koffmann, Israel
    RUNEL NGMT LTD.
    Matzakos, Panos
    EURECOM.
    Kaltenberger, Florian
    EURECOM.
    Koumaras, V.
    INFOLYSiS.
    Sakkas, Christos
    INFOLYSiS.
    Theodoropoulos, George
    INFOLYSiS.
    Papaioannou, Angeliki
    INFOLYSiS.
    Frascolla, Valerio
    Intel, DEU.
    Vahid, Seiamak
    University of Surrey, GBR.
    Tsolkas, Dimitris
    Fogus.
    Alonso, Egoitz
    NEMERGENT SOLUTIONS SL.
    Xilouris, Georgios
    NCSR Demokritos.
    Christopoulou, Maria
    NCSR Demokritos.
    Koumaras, Harilaos
    NCSR Demokritos.
    Sarlas, Thanos
    NCSR Demokritos.
    Anagnostopoulos, Theodore
    NCSR Demokritos.
    Díaz, Almudena
    University of Malaga, ESP.
    Gonzálezi, Iván
    University of Malaga, ESP.
    García, Irene
    University of Malaga, ESP.
    Merino, Pedro
    University of Malaga, ESP.
    Mesogiti, I.
    COSMOTE KINITES TILEPIKOINONIES AE.
    Setaki, Fofy
    COSMOTE KINITES TILEPIKOINONIES AE.
    Theodoropoulou, Eleni
    COSMOTE KINITES TILEPIKOINONIES AE.
    Deliverable 6.2: Trials and experimentation (cycle 2)2020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable presents the second cycle of trials and experimentation activities executed over 5GENESIS facilities. The document is the continuation of deliverable D6.1, in the sense that it captures tests carried out over the evolved infrastructures hosting 5GENESIS facilities following the methodology defined in D6.1. In this document 8 main KPIs and 4 application specific validation trials achieved, under 123 experiments that performed in total. The tests focus more on i) the evolved 5G infrastructure deployments that includes radio and core elements in non-standalone (NSA) deployment configurations based on commercial and open implementations, and ii) the use of Open 5GENESIS Suite for the execution of the tests.

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  • 42.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    et al.
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla.
    Eckert, Toerless
    CISCO.
    Evensen, Kristian Riktor
    Celerway.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fosselie Hansen, Audun
    Celerway.
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mangiante, Simon
    Dell EMC.
    McManus, Patrick
    Mozilla.
    Papastergiou, Giorgos
    Simula.
    Ros, David
    Simula.
    Tüxen, Michael
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Vyncke, Eric
    CISCO.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Deliverable D1.1 - NEAT Architecture2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ossification of the Internet transport-layer architecture is a significant barrier to innovation of the Internet. Such innovation is desirable for many reasons. Current applications often need to implement their own mechanisms to receive the transport service they need, but many do not have the breadth of adapting to all possible network characteristics. An updated transport architecture can do much to make the Internet more flexible and extensible. New ground-breaking services often require different or updated transport protocols, could benefit from better signalling between application and network, or desire a more flexible choice of which network path is used for which traffic. This document therefore proposes a new transport architecture. Such architecture lowers the barrier to service innovation by proposing a “transport system”, the NEAT System, that can leverage the rich set of available transport protocols. It paves the way for an architectural change of the Internet where new transport-layer services can seamlessly be integrated and quickly made available, minimising deployment difficulties, and allowing Internet innovators to take advantage of them wherever possible. The document provides a survey of the state-of-the-art to identify the architectural obstacles to, and opportunities for, evolution of the transport layer. It also details a set of general requirements for a new transport architecture. This new architecture is motivated by a set of use-cases, followed by a description of the NEAT architecture for a transport system, designed to permit applications to select appropriate transports based on their needs and the available transport services.

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  • 43. Fida, Mah-Rukh
    et al.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Lutu, Andra
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Ozgu
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Argyriou, Antonios
    FLEX-MONROE: A unified platform for experiments under controlled and operational LTE settings2017In: WiNTECH 2017 Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & CHaracterization, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents FLEX-MONROE, a unique platform that facilitates achieving a thorough understanding of LTE networks, one that captures the status of current operational MBB networks and that also enables LTE performance improvements by allowing experimentation in an environment with controllable LTE parameters. Using this platform, we propose to investigate how variations in the LTE network parameters influence the network characteristics, which, in turn, translate to application performance metrics that represent the end-user experience. We argue that the FLEX-MONROE platform is crucial to understand, validate and ultimately improve how current operational MBB networks perform, towards providing guidelines for designing future 5G architectures. Furthermore, understanding the effects of low-level tweaks in network parameters in the LTE infrastructure on the application performance is critical to provide guidelines on how to improve the application performance in the current but also future MBB networks

  • 44.
    Fida, Mah-Rukh
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Kousias, Konstantinos
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Argyriou, Antonios
    University of Thessaly, Greece.
    Demo: experimentation in controlled and operational LTE settings with FLEX-MONROE2017In: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & Characterization WiNTECH '17, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 93-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo paper presents FLEX-MONROE, a platform that facilitates better understanding of current LTE Mobile Broadband(MBB) networks and enables performance improvementsby allowing experimentation with controllable LTE parameters. The platform enables investigating impact oflow-level network parameter tweaks in LTE infrastructure onthe application performance. We argue that FLEX-MONROEis crucial to provide guidelines on improving application performance both in the current and future MBB networks

  • 45.
    Fischer, Anja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Blacher, Zak
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    An Ontological Approach to SIP DoS Detection2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional public switched telephone networks (PSTN) are replaced more and more by VoIP services these days.  Although it is good for saving costs, the disadvantage of this development is that VoIP networks are less secure than the traditional  way of transmitting voice. Because VoIP networks are being deployed in open environments and rely on other network  services, the VoIP service itself becomes vulnerable to potential attacks against its infrastructure or other services  it relies on.

    This thesis will present a discussion of security issues of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), the signalling protocol for  VoIP services. The main focus is on active attacks against the protocol that aim to reduce the service's availability -- so called  Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.

    Existing countermeasures and detection schemes do not adequately differentiate between DoS attacks. However, the differentiation  is important with respect to performance loss, as various protection schemes involve more computationally intensive processes.

    Based on that discussion, this thesis attempts to provide an ontological approach to describing, and eventually preventing attacks from  having their intended effects.

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    C2010:01
  • 46.
    Garcia, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Delay metrics and delay characteristics: A study of four Swedish HSDPA+ and LTE networks2015In: 2015 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), IEEE, 2015, p. 234-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network delays and user perceived latencies are of major importance in many applications in cellular networks. Delays can be measured with multiple approaches and at different protocol layers. This work involves a detailed examination of several delay metrics from a network, transport, and application perspective. The study explores base delay as well as latency under load, capturing also the effect of buffering. The examination is based on a comprehensive active measurement campaign performed in the networks of four Swedish operators. The results show that the delay captured by different metrics can vary significantly, with delay captured from the TCP three-way-handshake and adaptive ping measurements giving the most consistent results for base network delay in our measurements. As expected, when background traffic is introduced measured delay increases by an order of magnitude due to buffering in the network, highlighting the importance of also capturing latency under load when describing network performance. Finally, using an analytic model of flow completion time, we show that well-selected network measurements can provide a good prediction of higher layer delay performance.

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    fulltext
  • 47.
    Garcia, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Examining cellular access systems on trains: Measurements and change detection2017In: Proceedings of the 1st Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference, New York: IEEE, 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Access to reliable high-quality communication services on trains is important for today's mobile users. Train-mounted aggregation routers that provide WiFi access to train passengers and bundle external communication over multiple cellular modems/links is an efficient way of providing such services. Still, the characteristics of such systems have received limited attention in the literature. In this paper we examine the communication characteristics of such systems based on a large data set gathered over six months from an operational Swedish railway system. We characterize the conditions in terms of usage load, train velocity profiles, and observed throughput and delay as well as the relation between these parameters. Furthermore, we examine the data from an anomaly detection perspective. Based on a changepoint detection method, we examine how the collected metrics varies over the six months. Being able to detect shifts in the metrics over time can help detect anomalous changes in the hardware or environment, and also further helps explain the factors affecting the observed behaviors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Garcia, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Examining TCP Short Flow Performance in Cellular Networks Through Active and Passive Measurements2015In: AllThingsCellular '15 Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on All Things Cellular: Operations, Applications and Challenges / [ed] David Choffnes and Kobus Van der Merwe, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the conditions in a current cellular network by examining data passively collected in the core of a cellular operator during a 24-hour period. More than 2 billion traffic measurement data points from over 500,000 cellular users are analyzed. The analysis characterizes the Time-of-Day (ToD) variations for traffic intensity and session length and serves as a complement to the active measurements also performed. A comprehensive active measurement campaign was completed in the HSDPA+ and LTE networks of the four major Swedish operators. We collect around 50,000 data points from stationary cellular modems and analyze the ToD variation pattern for underlying network layer metrics such as delay and throughput. In conjunction with the time-varying session size distribution obtained from the passive measurements, we then analyze the ToD impact on TCP flows of varying sizes. The ToD effects are examined using time series analysis with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and differential Bayesian Information Criterion to allow comparison of the relative impact of the network ToD effects. The results show that ToD effects are predominantly impacting longer-running flows, and although short flows are also impacted they are mostly constrained by other issues such as protocol efficiency.

  • 49.
    Garcia, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Beckman, Claes
    Center for Wireless Systems, KTH.
    Train Velocity and Data Throughput: A Large Scale LTE Cellular Measurements Study2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), New York: IEEE, 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Train-mounted aggregation routers that provide WiFi access to train passengers and bundle external communication over multiple cellular modems/links is an efficient way of providing communication services on trains. However, the characteristics of such systems have received limited attention in the literature. In this paper we address this gap by examining the communication characteristics of such systems based on a large data set gathered over six months from an operational Swedish railway system. We focus our examination on the relationship between per link throughput and train velocity. Using Levenberg- Marquardt non-linear regression a noticeable critical point is observed for an RS-SINR of around 12 dB. At this point the impact of increased train velocity on per link throughput changes from being negative to becoming positive. Using a machine learning approach we also explore the relative importance of several observed metrics in relation to per link throughput.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Garcia, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Sundberg, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fine-grained Starlink Throughput Variation Examined With State-Transition Modeling2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging a data set of almost half a billion packets with high-precision packet times and sizes, we process it to extract characteristics of the bursts emitted over Starlink's Ethernet interface. The structure of these bursts directly reflect the physical layer receipt of OFDMA frames on the satellite link. We study these bursts by analyzing their rates, and by proxy the transition between different physical layer rates. The results highlight that  there is definitive structure in the transition behavior, and we note specific behaviors such as  particular transitionsteps associated with rate switching, and that rate switching occurs mainly to neighboring rates. We also study the joint burst rate and burst duration transitions, noting that transitions occur mainly within the same rate, and that changes in burst duration are often performed with an intermediate short burst in-between.Finally, we examine the configurations of the three factors burst rate, burst duration, and inter-burst silent time, which together determine the effective throughput of a Starlink connection.

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    fulltext
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