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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jönsson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Är SundaHus materialklassning kompatibel med Miljöbyggnads, BREEAMs och LEEDs materialkrav?: En studie om SundaHus miljöklassningar.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a society where there is a shortage of housing and the demand for new and sustainable buildings is growing. The houses that are being built today are focused on being energy efficient to save resources. Something that is forgotten is the choice of materials to house constructions. Materials can affect nature and people from the cradle to the grave by for example material hazardous components. The certification systems Miljöbyggnad, BREEAM and LEED have been checked and their material criteria have been defined. Through a selection of construction materials taken from SundaHus a review has been made of these materials towards the certification systems´ criteria on materials to see if they are compatible. The minority of the criteria were reviewed to separate materials and could be verified in SundaHus. Almost all materials passed the criteria that could be used of Miljöbyggnad and BREEAM regardless of classification in SundaHus. None of the LEED criteria were compatible with SundaHus for separate materials. The fact that the worse classifications in SundaHus could pass the criteria that were reviewed indicates that the requirements in environmental certification systems are too low. Higher and more demands should be made on individual materials and the hazardous substances in them.

  • 2. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

  • 3.
    Beiron, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Drifterfarenheter från en energieffektiv skola: Vargbroskolan i Storfors2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vargbroskolan i Storfors kommun har byggts med ambitionen att minimera energianvändningen utan att ge avkall på inneklimatet. Byggnaden är mycket välisolerad och har ett hybridventilationssystem. Denna rapport redovisar erfarenheter från de inledande två driftåren med fokus på energianvändning och inneklimat.

    Rapporten ingår som del i redovisningen av Demonstrationsprojekt 2006:05,Vargbroskolan, vilket är finansierat inom ramen för Energimyndighetensprogram för Passivhus och Lågenergihus.

    Vargbroskolan är en grundskola för årskurs 4-9 med ca 270 elever. Totala golvytan är ca 4030 m2. Byggnaden togs i drift januari 2008.

  • 4.
    Beiron, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Drifterfarenheter från ett superisolerat flerbostadshus: Kv SEGLET, Karlstad2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seglet är ett 12-vånings punkthus med 44 lägenheter beläget i Karlstad. Byggherre är Karlstads Bostads AB. Huset är byggt med mycket höga ambitioner när det gäller kvalitet och resurshushållning och togs i drift i börjanav 2007.

    Denna rapport redovisar klimatskalets egenskaper och funktion samt utformningen av installationssystemen för värme, ventilation och tappvatten.Rapporten beskriver också drifterfarenheterna från de första årens drift samt de förbättringsåtgärder som utförts.

    Seglets lösningar visar att energieffektivisering och inneklimat kan gå hand ihand. Konceptet med en enkel förvärmning av tilluften löser två problem. Dels kan tilluften tillföras lägenheten utan risk för drag och dels saknar det FTX-systemets nackdelar med utökat servicebehov för filterbyten och ökad elanvändning för tilluftsfläkten. Det välisolerade och täta klimatskalet ger en komfortabel inomhusmiljö. Den befarade risken med höga rumstemperaturer sommartid har inte besannats. Tack vare genomtänkta fönsterplaceringar med solskyddsglas där så är befogat samt goda möjligheter till effektiv vädring har lägenheterna samma temperaturnivå sommartid som motsvarande lägenheter i normalisolerade byggnader. Byggnaden är mycket resurseffektiv med låga förbrukningstal på både energi och vatten. Då största delen av värmebehovet täcks med fjärrvärme står sig byggnaden mycket väl i en jämförande miljöbedömning.

    Nyckeltal för klimatskal och energianvändning

    Medelvärde för klimatskalets värmeisolering, Um, W/m2,K ca 0,21

    Luftläckage, läckflöde vid provtryckning till 50 Pa, l/s,m2Aomg 0,13

    Specifik energianvändning, kWh/m2,år 58

     

     

  • 5.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu Nu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Germany.
    Alexandersson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Learning about flood risk: Comparing the Web-based and physical flood-walk learning environments2015In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed ’the flood walk’ project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical flood walk field trip into a Web-based virtual trip. In this study, we aim to examine whether the Web-based flood-walk environment can help participants to achieve the same learning outcome as its authentic counterpart. A total of 65 upper secondary school pupils participated in this study. The results illustrate that a physical experience is irreplaceable, and the importance of providing physical experiences for learners in both formal and informal education needs to be emphasised.

  • 6.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Hammervold, Johanne
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Methodology for determining life-cycle environmental impacts due to material and energy flows in wastewater pipeline networks: A case study of Oslo (Norway)2011In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 119-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hjalmarsson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    BIM i små väg- och anläggningsprojekt: För- och nackdelar med 3D-projektering kontra 2D-projektering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The road and construction industry is far behind other industries in terms of the use of modern working methods like BIM. However, as the Swedish Transport Administration and other customers is beginning to request the use of BIM, the industry must adapt and start using the new working methods. The transition is problematic because there are no standards and rules for how and when BIM is to be used. In addition, there are technical difficulties with proprietary file formats and learning projectors that are unfamiliar to the new software. But as the demand for BIM increases, companies need to adapt to win the jobs, the same applies to the smaller projects in the long run.

    The benefits reported with BIM are many, where the visualization opportunity leads to improved work coordination because everyone in the project sees the same things and thus gains greater understanding is the greatest advantage. The customer also gets a clear picture of the projector's proposal, which simplifies the decision-making process as it can be done faster. The ability to perform collision checks is also seen as an advantage as it can save money later in the project. A BIM can also be used for work preparation, which gives the construction workers a better understanding of what to do, their skills can also be used to review the model for detecting design errors and locating dangerous work operations. The information associated with the model makes it easier to make readjustments and the changes are reflected directly as the changes are made - this reduces drawing revisions and the actual costs of the project becomes clearer.

    To use 3D design instead of 2D design in smaller road and construction projects may imply a longer planning phase, for Tullholmsviken stage 3, the 3D design took 8 hours longer to create than when using traditional methods, which corresponds to 6400 kr in increased costs. This leads to increased design costs, but the benefits that modeling imply is estimated to compensate for the increased costs. In the previous phase of Tullholmsviken, there was a coordination problem between the architect and the land projector. The cost of fixing the problem was estimated to 32000 SEK, but with a 3D-modell that problem would probably been fixed earlier in the process and the costs would not be as high as 32000 kr. Increased projection costs for a 3D-modell would therefore be economically justifiable for that particular project

  • 8.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Sustainability transitions at the frontline: Lock-in and potential for change in the local planning arena2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores challenges and possibilities for integrating goals of long-term sustainable development into urban planning practice, with a specific focus on local institutional conditions for sustainability transitions. The analysis is based on a qualitative single case study of a large urban development process: the development of a new city district in Hyllie in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Hyllie was branded as a flagship project for sustainable urban development, with particularly high ambitions on climate neutrality and sustainable energy consumption. Several innovative elements were initiated in the development process, for instance the “climate contract” betweenthemunicipalityandlargeenergycompanies. Inthepaper,thisclimatecontractisdiscussed as an initiative with a promising potential for sustainability transitions. In practice, however, the outcome of the development in Hyllie in terms of sustainable development is ambiguous, since the district is also framed around luxury shopping, entertainment, and an ambition to attract visitors from a long distance. The Hyllie development illustrates pre-requisites for work on sustainable development in a decentralized and market-oriented planning context. Theoretically, the analysis is inspired by the multi-level perspective (MLP) and institutional theory. The results illustrate how the development process was shaped by a complex interplay between actors with differing agendas and targets at different stages in the process. These results are applied in a general discussion of challenges and possibilities for urban planning to contribute substantially to a transition to long-term sustainable development. Overall, the analysis demonstrates the importance of considering specific local institutional conditions in strategic work for long-term sustainability.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Dennis
    et al.
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Swegon AB, Tomelilla, Sweden..
    Bagge, Hans
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lindstrii, Lotti
    Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden.;WSP Construct Design, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Measurements of occupancy levels in multi-family dwellings-Application to demand controlled ventilation2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 2449-2455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occupancy level of dwellings is an important parameter to know to determine the energy efficiency, energy use and indoor air quality, especially in low-energy buildings where the user-related energy uses, such as household electricity and domestic hot water heating, are significant parts of the energy balance in a building. For residential buildings, there is a lack of occupancy level data, which also needs to be resolved over time, in a way so that both short term and long term variations can be described. As a part of an ongoing study, occupancy levels were measured as building average levels in 18 apartment buildings containing 342 apartments in total with readings every 30 min for more than a year. Averages and standard deviations of occupancy level, and variation in occupancy during the year, week and day respectively are presented. The results show a highly varying occupancy level over time, which indicates the potential of demand controlled ventilation in dwellings. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, George
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Klimatundersökning i krypgrund: Mätning och simulering av temperatur och fukthalt2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After reconstruction of the kitchen at the Central Hospital in Karlstad, moisture problems were detected in certain parts of ceiling of the crawl space under the kitchen. Landstingsfastigheter, who manages the premises, was interested in removing the moisture and how the climate of the crawl space would change in the event of measures to this end.

    Through measurements of temperature and humidity at different locations in the crawl space, the climate in the crawl space was determined. The measurements that were made were instantaneous surface temperatures of the floor and ceiling of the crawl space and the kitchen floor, as well as the movement of air in the crawl space. During a two-week period the air temperature and relative humidity in the crawl space was logged.

    Data from the measurements were then used as input data for the models, which were built in the simulation software COMSOL. In COMSOL three cross-sections of the crawl space were made in 2D. Two 3D models describing the properties of the crawl space in one of the areas affected by the moisture were also made. The models were used to simulate the effect of five and ten cm of insulation, respectively, as well as how arched insulation in the roof of the crawl space in the problem areas would affect the climate of the crawl space. As an alternative to insulation flanges in the roof were also simulated, with the aim to transfer heat to the ceiling from the air.

    The measurements showed that the crawl space temperature was maintained even when the outdoor temperature varied. Today the average temperature in the crawl space is 16.8°C and the average air movement is 0.046 m/s.

    Analysis of the humidity in the crawl space shows that the moisture probably doesn’t enter the crawl space from the outside, but rather from the sand that makes up the ground floor. To avoid condensation problems in the crawl space all temperatures should exceed 13.1°C.

    The simulations showed that adding insulation is a good option for raising the ceiling temperature in the areas affected by moisture. The insulation also lowered the average air movement, making it easier to control the moisture content in the crawl space. The most effective way to insulate the ceiling was to use arched insulation.

  • 11.
    Nyström, Emil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Augustsson, Pontus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Miljöbyggnad 3.0, kommande krav i svensk byggbransch.: En studie om miljöcertifiering i produktionsskedet på NCC.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract.

    Sustainable development intending to climate change is an important aspect in Sweden today. Laws, guidelines, and certifications have been created by the parliament, government, agencies such as Boverket, and nonprofit organizations like Sweden Green Building Council (SGBC). SGBC is Sweden's largest non-profit organization for building certifications and is currently updating its environmental certification system for environmental building. This certification is, called environmental building 3.0 and is planned to introduce a new assessment criteria named the building phase. The building phase is comprised of four different assessment criteria’s: building waste, energy value and energy type, renewable fuel as well as control and handling.

    The starting point for this study was to compare the NCC's checklist for green building with the future requirements of the environmental building assessment criteria from SGBC. The thesis is based on a literature study of the SGBC development plan for environmental building 3.0, its construction indicators, and the environmental building checklist. Results and conclusions of the first part of the work showed that the checklist for environmental building is in urgent need for an update and review, especially its points about temporary housing. This part of the result also revealed that the checklist needs measureable control limits.

    The second part of the study was to examine how NCC's projects would perform in a certification process with the new standards regarding building codes. This was done through a literature study, interviews with project members of both a completed project and an ongoing project at NCC, and a survey. This part of the study was also to assess trough a literature study of the construction site how NCC projects were to perform during a certification of the building phase.

    The current certification that NCC's projects have is classified, which are the grade obtained by a company when the lowest grade cannot be obtained. The next level on the scale is Bronze, which could currently not be reached. The conclusion of the thesis is that NCC can, with small funds, through the introduction of reception controls and more detailed documentation attains the next level on the scale, Bronze. It is also believed that the classification level Silver is obtainable with further efforts.

  • 12. Olsson, Daniel
    Visuell Projektering: En studie utförd på Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Visuell projektering har rötter i Japan och företaget Toyota där man först utvecklade Lean production. Man finner också rötter till visuell projektering i entreprenadavtalet partnering. Visuell projektering handlar om visuell planering i projekteringsfasen. Visuell projektering arbetar med en fysisk whiteboardtavla och post-it lappar som placeras i ett rutnät, med dess olika intressenter representerade i x- och y-led.

    Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad har mött stora framgångar genom hela produktionen i samband med nybyggnation av operationssalar. Under våren 2016 påbörjades projekteringen för en ombyggnation av de befintliga operationssalarna på sjukhuset. Projekteringen utförs visuellt och projektdeltagarna tycker att metoden är mycket bra men ingen vet riktigt varför metoden ger så bra resultat. Projektdeltagarna vet inte heller om det finns fler framgångsfaktorer i projekteringsprocessen än visuell projektering. Hur fungerar kommunikationen runt tavlan, vad övriga projektdeltagare anser om agerandet runt tavlan och om det finns några förbättringar att genomföra i avseende för visuell projektering är frågor som behandlas.

    Gemensamt projektkontor, stort engagemang och visuell projektering är några av framgångsfaktorerna för Centralsjukhuset. Engagemanget kommer av storleken och det tekniskt avancerade bygget. Visuell projektering leder till effektiva, korta möten där detaljfrågor endast diskuteras mellan de personer som berörs av ämnet. De flesta av deltagarna är handplockade och tycker att visuell projektering är näst intill felfritt men att det ändå finns förbättringar att genomföra, ofta nämns digitalisering som ett förbättringsförslag. Ett dokument innehållande riktlinjer för visuell projektering samt förtryckta lappar för tavlan presenteras som underlättande stöd och ett led i förbättring för visuell projektering.

    Den avgörande faktorn för ett projekt att uppnå framgång handlar om vilka personer som deltar. Regler kring tavlan och storlek på projekt är detaljer i sammanhanget, om än inte oviktiga. Det viktigaste är ändå att rätt personer arbetar med rätt saker, då uppnår projektet framgång.

  • 13.
    Rogbeck, David
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bergquist, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Verktyg för samhällsekonomisk värdering av temporära upplag av bergmassor i svenska storstäder: Scenariostudie i Göteborg med beaktande av livscykelanalys och kostnad-nytta-analys2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When constructing in urban areas, it is common to use material that is stored or extracted far away from the construction site. The material is then transported long distances and the transportations lead to large costs, both economically and environmentally. Excavated soil and rock masses from construction and demolition is seldom used optimally and is rarely recycled in an optimal way. An improved handling and recycling of the masses could potentially reduce costs for involved actors, while society could benefit from less environmental impact. The research questions addressed in this report are:

    1. Does the introduction of more local storage for excavated soil and rock masses for construction in cities lead to socioeconomic savings?
    2. What impact has environmental costs on the total cost, and are there social aspects that should be considered?
    3. What are the opportunities and difficulties of combining LCA and CBA to evaluate the socioeconomic benefits of a local storage?

    A calculation tool was developed to investigate whether a temporary storage reduces the costs and environmental impacts. Theories about Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has been studied and been the basis for the calculation tool. The calculation tool was then tested on a realistic scenario in the city of Gothenburg and was limited to only handle excavated rock.

    The result was that the study could not show that an introduction of a more local storage always leads to economic improvements. A mobile crusher was used in the local storage in the tested scenario. If a stationary crusher would be used instead, the outcome would be much more beneficial with a local storage. The developed calculation tool can be adapted for testing different scenario studies and can in an early stage, give an indication for if implementing a local storage is socioeconomic beneficial. The input data can easily be changed to suit different circumstances and to make accurate calculations for different scenarios. The calculation tool takes into account differences in the cost of construction of the storage, cost of crushing rock, transport costs and environmental impact. The environmental and social costs examined seem to have little impact on the total cost. It is advantageous to study both LCA and CBA to get more perspectives in the assessment and evaluation of the current situation compared to future changes.

  • 14.
    Salbom, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Energiåtgärder Säve Hotell: Minskning av uppvärmningsbehov2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Looking at a modern building built in accordance with current standards. How high they are set and could they be higher? This report examines a hotel building located in Säve, just north of Gothenburg. One of the targets of this report was to reduce its heating demand by 50%. The goal would be reached by using environmentally friendly materials, as well as upholding financial targets. An important target was for the project to be economically viable.

    By increasing the insulation thickness of the buildings climate barrier and thus reducing the transmission losses to 127 500 kWh / year, from 146 280, and making it more airtight lowered the energy lost through air leakage to 3 580 kWh / year, from 28 650. The efficiency of the ventilation system was improved as well, reducing the ventilation losses to 90 650 kWh / year, from 120 835.

    Despite these improvements the amount of energy needed for heating was reduced to 192 450 kWh / year, a mere 28%. The target was 50% of the original 266 500 kWh / year. By having a thick layer of insulation problems with drying out the moisture will occur and thus it is also important to keep the thickness at a reasonable level. Otherwise mold would start to grow, affecting the integrity of the structure as well as the health of the residents. By limiting the insulation thickness moisture levels can be maintained in reasonable levels and to dried out during the warmer part of the year.

    Another goal of the project was that improvements could be made with environmentally friendly materials. Many of the materials used in today’s buildings can be replaced with wood. An abundant material in Sweden that should be used more, not least as it’s a benefit to the environment as it binds carbon dioxide. All the materials are not easy to replace. Concrete being one such material. It is not directly harmful to the environment but nothing SundaHus recommends using, except prefabricated elements. Its high compressive strength and ability to work with reinforcement is hard to beat.

    The costs of making these improvements and modifications were estimated to cost roughly SEK3 million. The true benefits or costs over the course of the buildings life span of 50 years are more difficult to estimate, as it’s highly dependent of the cost of electricity. At the price of SEK0.60 / kWh the project would be a loss of approximately SEK1.85 million whereas if the price would had been SEK1.50 / kWh it’s estimated that the project would turn to a profit of SEK4.16 million.

    The conclusion is that it’s possible to improve buildings, but putting exorbitant goals to reduce heating requirements by as much as 50% is unreasonable. Thick insulation layer can give more problems than they solve. Moisture could cause mold that can affect the structural stability and also negatively affect the health of the residents. If these constructive problems could be solved, it is still far from certain that the cost of carrying themselves.

    The electricity price is a determining factor to whether the project will turn to a loss or be profitable.

  • 15.
    Törnvall, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    GNSS-mätning vid olika tidpunkter: En studie om osäkerhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether different times during a day affect GNSSbased measurements. To investigate this, measurements were made on two known points at several occasions. The measurements compared are made in the morning, afternoon and evening. The points used are located in Östersund and in Hallen. The equipment that was used were a Nomad handheld computer and a TopCon Hiper II GNSS receiver with tripod and footer. The measurements were performed with NRTK in the coordinate system SWEREF99 14 15. The data was analyzed in SBG GEO and then compared in Microsoft Excel. The result was an average radial difference of 3 mm in plane. At three out of four times, the accuracy was better in the morning than in the afternoon/evening. The maximum difference between measurements was 8 mm.

  • 16.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential environmental gains from reducing food losses through development of new packaging – a life cycle model.2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmental impact from the whole food packaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmental impact of packaging in order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmental impact, even if there is an increase in impact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environ- mental impact of the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing food losses when pack- aging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packaging and packaging waste directive of the European Union.

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