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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

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  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jönsson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Är SundaHus materialklassning kompatibel med Miljöbyggnads, BREEAMs och LEEDs materialkrav?: En studie om SundaHus miljöklassningar.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a society where there is a shortage of housing and the demand for new and sustainable buildings is growing. The houses that are being built today are focused on being energy efficient to save resources. Something that is forgotten is the choice of materials to house constructions. Materials can affect nature and people from the cradle to the grave by for example material hazardous components. The certification systems Miljöbyggnad, BREEAM and LEED have been checked and their material criteria have been defined. Through a selection of construction materials taken from SundaHus a review has been made of these materials towards the certification systems´ criteria on materials to see if they are compatible. The minority of the criteria were reviewed to separate materials and could be verified in SundaHus. Almost all materials passed the criteria that could be used of Miljöbyggnad and BREEAM regardless of classification in SundaHus. None of the LEED criteria were compatible with SundaHus for separate materials. The fact that the worse classifications in SundaHus could pass the criteria that were reviewed indicates that the requirements in environmental certification systems are too low. Higher and more demands should be made on individual materials and the hazardous substances in them.

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  • 3.
    Ahremark, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Nicole
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bjälklag av limträdäck: En jämförelse av handberäkningar och databaserat verktyg för dimensionering av bjälklag i kontor och lager med hänsyn till svikt och vibration2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demands on reducing the environmental impact while establishing new buildings lead to an increased focus on environmentally conscious choices of material. Achieving a sustainable construction requires replacing carbon dioxide-laden materials, such as concrete, with renewable materials like wood, of which there are large resources in Sweden. Glulam is primarily used for load bearing constructions and the advancing technique of wood construction has led to a new type of joists on the European market, made of glulam decking elements. However, this product has not yet reached the Swedish construction market. There is a lack of span tables based on Swedish standards and reliable controls of vibration.

    This thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Moelven Töreboda and the purpose of the study has been to develop a foundation for a new type of glulam product, applied to floor structures of office buildings and storage areas. Using structural calculations and the design software Statcon, the study has established spans for floor structures of glulam decking elements. Subsequently proposals for a topping slab and a suspended ceiling have been developed, that meet the requirements of sound classification C.

    In this work, the span of the glulam decking elements for strength classes GL24h and GL30c have been ascertained. The width of the elements is 585 mm, with varying heights in the range 90-215 mm. The study has included load categories for office buildings and storage areas.

    The result of the construction calculations is presented in various tables depending on strength class and load category. The span tables are based on three types of profiles, which present similar results. All three profiles stated a span of 7,6 m in offices for strength class GL30c for the cross-sectional height 215 mm, whereas strength class GL24h reached 7,3 m in the same load category.

    In the load category storage areas, profile 1 reached a span of 6,5 m for GL30c and 6,3 m for GL24h. The spans of profile 2 and 3 increased in length by 0,1 m for each strength class. It can be ascertained that the varying profiles do not have a significant effect on the span lengths.

    All three profiles have been verified given spring and vibration. The smallest cross-section, 90x585 mm, was the most critical in meeting the requirements due to the low mass. To meet the requirements of vibration, the cross-section need a sub floor or topping slab with a minimum load of 20 kg/m2. A conclusion is that sound class C is achieved through a topping slab on top of the joist and that the sound class improves when a suspended ceiling is added to the construction.

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    Bjälklag av limträdäck
  • 4. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

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  • 5.
    Alfalah, Ranim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ammouri, Zainab
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ekonomisk lönsamhet för solceller installerade på tak och fasad för flervåningsbyggnader2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to evaluate different combinations of solar panels on roofs and facades for multistorey buildings to identify the most cost-effective options. The goal is to compare the economic viability of solar panels installed on roofs and facades for two rental properties with different heating systems. One building consists of seven floors, and the other has four floors. The subject of the study is based on limited roof areas relative to floor area and electricity demand, and combined solar panel installations on roofs, facades, and other building parts can contribute to an efficient solution.

    The calculations are performed in the VIP-Energy program to determine electricity demand, the produced solar energy, self-consumption of solar energy, sold electricity, and purchased electricity. This information is used to conduct a life cycle cost analysis in Excel, where various installations and combinations of solar panels are compared for each property over a 25-year period. The analysis is conducted with two heating systems: district heating and geothermal heat pump.

    By combining the VIP-Energy program to obtain energy-related data and the LCC tool for analyzing life cycle costs, a comprehensive assessment of the economic benefits and profitability of solar panels for each property over a 25-year period can be made. This provides valuable insights for making well-informed decisions regarding the installation and use of solar panels while considering different heating systems and their impact on the investment's payback period.

    The results show that the combination of solar panels on roofs and facades offers the most cost-effective solution for both buildings, regardless of the heating system used. However, the profitability varies between the two heating systems, with the geothermal heat pump system proving to be the most advantageous. This is due to its higher savings and shorter payback period. The results indicate that the geothermal heat pump system has a maximum payback period of 8 years in house 4 and 7 years in house 5, while the district heating system has a maximum payback period of 14 years in house 4 and 11 years in house 5. This means that the investment is recouped faster in the geothermal heat pump system compared to the district heating system.

    The seven-story building has an advantage as it has larger areas for facade installations, increasing its potential to generate electricity through the facade compared to the four-story building that was also studied.

    Nearly all combinations of solar panels in both buildings show reasonable payback periods relative to the solar panels' warranty period of 12 years, and the investment in solar panels proves to be profitable with significant potential for future gains.

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  • 6.
    Alfredsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Haeffner, Fredric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag för erosionsskador i Kölaälv2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Ali Mahmood, Chro
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Yousefi, Leyla
    Karlstad University.
    Självdrag eller FTX?: En jämförelse av ventilationssystem2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractIntroduction: Since the year 2000, the number of buildings in Sweden has seen a significant increase. According to the Statistics Sweden (SCB), there were over 5 million dwellings in Sweden at the end of 2021. Out of these dwellings, approximately 42% are single-family houses, 51% are multi-family buildings, and the remaining is apartments in specialized housing. The energy consumption in single-family houses has increased by around 22% since the 1970’s, primarily due to the increased use of circulation pumps, underfloor heating, and ventilation. This has resulted in an increased environmental impact from the construction sector.

    Efficiency improvements in ventilation systems have been a longstanding focus due to the high energy consumption and significant environmental impact associated with their operational phase. A study reveals that HVAC systems impact the environment both during the manufacturing and the operational phases. Furthermore, new low-energy buildings have a higher environmental footprint during the construction phase due to the increased use of materials aimed at reducing operational energy consumption.

    The choice of a ventilation system is crucial for homes, as an efficient ventilation system not only improves indoor air quality but also reduces the risk of health problems that can arise from inadequate ventilation.

    Keywords: Life Cycle Cost, LCC, Ventilation System, Self-Exhaust Ventilation, Supply and Exhaust Ventilation, VIP-Energy, Supply and Exhaust Air System, Heat Recovery.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to demonstrate that the choice of ventilation system has a significant impact on reducing environmental emissions during the manufacturing and operational phases over a 30-year period.

    Goal: The objective is to determine which of self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery is the most cost-effective and has the lowest climate impact based on a life-cycle perspective for a single-family building over a calculation period of 30 years.Questions:

    Which of self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation is the most efficient in terms of energy consumption during the manufacturing and usage phases?How do self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation affect the heating costs for a single-family building assuming that heating is provided through district heating?Which of the two ventilation systems is most economically viable according to a comparative Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis, based on a single-family building with a calculation period of 30 years?Which of the two ventilation systems causes the greatest climate impact?

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  • 8.
    Almqwist, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Olsson, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Val av fönster med hjälp multikriterieanalys: Forshaga vårdcentral2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är tänkt som ett hjälpmedel vid fönsterprojektering och berör de aspekter som är av intresse vid val av fönster. Målgruppen är Landstingsfastigheter i Värmland (LIV) samt alla som har intresse av ämnet. Huvudsyftet är att förenkla för LIV i deras arbete att välja fönster och att lämna förslag på den bästa fönster-/solskyddslösningen till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

    Målet med rapporten är att skapa ett verktyg som hjälper LIV att på ett objektivt och enkelt sätt välja sina framtida fönster-/solskyddslösningar.

     

    Med hjälp av en multikriterieanalys (MKA) i samverkan med uppställda mål och syften har en mall arbetats fram, där fönster/solskydd kan utvärderas på ett objektivt sätt. MKA:n fungerar bra vid jämförelse av fönster men inte vid solskydd. Detta eftersom LIV har satt upp tydliga mål och syften för sin solskyddslösning. Därmed har en undersökande metod med hjälp av LIV:s uppställda krav använts som hjälpmedel vid val av solskyddslösning. MKA-metoden tillämpades för att finna det bästa fönstret till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

     

    Rapporten visar att med LIV:s förutsättningar är den bästa lösningen ett PVC-fönster med isolerglas. PVC-karmen är den lösning som ger lägst U-värde samt kostar minst i sammanhanget. Trots att PVC-fönstret redovisas som vinnare var det inte bäst i alla avseenden. Aluminiumfönstret är genomgående bra och bäst ur säkerhetssynpunkt men tillverkarna har svårt att minska de naturliga köldbryggorna som uppstår i karmen. Lösningarna blir dyra och fönstret är svårt att motivera ekonomiskt när säkerhetskraven är normala. Fönster med trä respektive trä-/aluminiumkarm får också ett genomgående gott betyg. Ur underhållssynpunkt har träkarmen svårt att mäta sig med de underhållsfria alternativen.

     

    Eftersom LIV har tydliga krav och mål uppställda på sina solskyddslösningar och på deras funktion, sorterades många lösningar bort. Skärningspunkten för alla kriterier föll på en fast solavskärmning som inte kräver något underhåll, eller vars funktion förändras av väder och vind. Solavskärmningen bör kombineras med en persienn för att möjliggöra ett gott insynsskydd.

    En slutsats vid val av fönster är att det är viktigt att ha tydliga mål och syften, först när det är färdigställt kan man gå vidare med vilken funktion och krav fönstret/solskyddet bör uppfylla.

  • 9.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Efficient daylighting approach by means of light-shelve device adequate for habitat program in Aarhus City2014In: International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, ISSN 2315-4462, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 441-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of light shelves consist of windows that have face towards the sun, which receive a vast quantity of energy that could be used for healthy day lighting. This paper debates a main assessment, investigates the optimization of daylight requirement by means of light shelves system. An experimental test was carried out assessing the measurements and lighting simulations of a model of a building in order to elucidate the characteristics of indoor lighting. Light shelf is an architectural element that permits daylight to enter deep into a building. It constitutes an optimal solution for an incorrect building orientation and less sunny days. The essential objective of this study is to highlight the vital role of light shelves in residential buildings in northern Europa where the requirement is to improve the daylight in the interior functional spaces. The main objects of this paper are to investigate the effect of daylight in the interior functional spaces using light shelves, the effect of natural light diffusion in interior space in the period of low daylight season, and glare effect in this field. This paper investigates a procedure for analysing the daylight performance using software habitat function

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  • 10.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Green housing: The optimal Solution To Combat The Negative Effects Of Global Climatechange2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No Architectural concept is complete without green areas. The vital mission of biophilic architecture is to revised conceptualization of architecture in response to a myriad of contemporary concerns about the effects of human activity. Our earth is warming more rapidly than it has in the past according to the research of scientists. The green building of biophilic architecture combines the interests of sustainability, environmental consciousness, green areas of the large nature, and organic approaches to evolve design solutions from these requirements and from the characteristics of the site, its neighborhood context, and the local microclimate and topography. The biophilic concept provides us with the opportunity to reach extremely low levels of energy consumption by employing high quality, cost-efficient measures to general architectural components - such measures are in turn off advantage to the ecology and economy sector. Our essential task of this research is to make of the green covering a human strategy in urban and architectural manner and to be a human culture with helping of local governments; we can acquire the competent legislation, which protect our life and environment.

  • 11.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Kalil Almusaed, Zaki
    Heat Island Effects Upon The Human Life On The City Of Basrah2007In: Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century: 2nd PALENC Conference 28th AIVC Conference / [ed] M. Santamouris, P. Wouters, Crete island: University of Athens , 2007, p. 45-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the terrible consequence of the Iraq –Iran war and recently USA attack over Iraq the urban green covering disappeared from large areas of the city, beside the extension of the building over the green areas. The negative effects of this phenomenon over human’s thermal comfort become more perceptive. Today we can observe clearly the negative effect of urban heat island in the center of Basra city, precisely in physical frameworks of the city; we can observe a typical phenomenon with a large negative effect for the period of summer heating that is a natural thermodynamic phenomenon. In the surfaces of physical framework, in the core of day between 12-15 pm, the sun is shining perpendicular above the earth surfaces (framework physic). Consequently the temperature on the earth surfaces increases surprisingly up to 60 ºC. Therefore there occurs a difference of temperature between the earth surfaces and cosmos space which conduce to generate a gigantic colonization of air from the earth surface to cosmos space, such resultants of this phenomenon is no air zones and under pressure on earth surfaces, with the intention of making a nasal bleeding, which seeking for a medical intervention aide.

  • 12.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Alasadi, Asaad
    The University of Basrah, Iraq.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    A Research on the Biophilic Concept upon School’s Design from Hot Climate: A Case Study from Iraq2022In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2022, article id 7994999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been solid global trends and severe attempts by ministries of education in the world to improve the reality of educational institutions and schools through the design and construction of schools and educational systems that meet the requirements of the age by applying the concepts of sustainable and effective systems to the new generation. They called for a promising future and hence the need to activate the applications of the biophilic schools. The theme of the biophilic schools is closely related to the concept of sustainable environmental structures that deal with the surrounding natural environment with intimacy, which is one of the most important new methods of design and construction at present, where ecological challenges are powerfully evoked in the making of their design decisions. Biophilic schools are an essential part of a new concept that wants to design revolutionary educational systems with new economic outputs that are valuable but do not depart from the idea of sustainable schools in general. It represents an expression given to schools designed to be environmentally sensitive and healthy for their occupants and educational systems based on experience, humanity, and attraction. Indeed, many architects have begun to explore and develop new architectural designs linked with the concepts of biophilic schools. Through the researchers’ awareness of the negative circumstance experienced by school buildings in Iraq and by investing in the recommendations of an applied field research, it was reached to crystallize the research problem represented in the obstacles that schools suffer from, which calls for the search for developmental solutions for an efficient educational environment, and in order to reach this goal, by informing researchers about new global experiences in this field, the research presented its hypothesis in choosing the model of biophilic schools that exist in many countries in the world, because of what it can provide from successful and fruitful educational and urban components. The researchers reached many conclusions and recommendations aimed at applying the research hypothesis and achieving its goals.

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  • 13.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Biophilic Habitat: Environment Adaptability In Context Of BioEcological Architectural Conception2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vital objective of biophilic habitat is to outline attributes and put them into a clear, sensible, organized format so developers, designers, planners, and architects can learn about the importance of a connection to the natural environment in all their building projects. Renew ability is the key to our human range and our prime resource for architecture. Every site is definite as to its location, natural relief, local vegetation, and its macro-microclimate.

    Biophilic habitat becomes an original utterance in social requirement. Moreover, this concept becomes a truly new orientation of human cultural life. Biophilic habitat is a part of a new concept in architecture, that work intensive with human health, ecology and sustainability precepts, such a integrate part of architectural formation which must be in optimal proportion with other buildings material. The position of green covering and its area depend basically on the category of functions that occur under this area. Biophilic habitat produces buildings that use less energy to operate because they feature efficient designs, materials and systems. The majority biophilic architectures have highly competent heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting systems, and appliances. In addition, these biophilic restructures are built of energy-efficient materials carefully installed to prevent the loss of conditioned.

  • 14.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Building materials in eco-energy houses from Iraq and Iran2015In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 1, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Builders from the Western part of Asia are trained to make buildings that can fulfil certain required functions while giving full consideration to all sites and environmental conditions. The research covers the zone between Iraq and Iran. The first investigated region is the ‘‘Mesopotamian Marshes’’ or Iraqi-Iran Marshes, a wetland zone situated in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran. The other region is a desert district, which includes a prominent part of the southern and western parts of Iraq and part of Iran. The last is the centre city of Basra. The building materials were the most important building element that affected the conformation of vernacular habitats from the western part of Asia in general and the Iraq–Iran area in particular. In this study, we needed to focus on the effects of ecological and energy-efficiency processes in creating vernacular habitats and the selection of optimal building systems and materials in this part of the world, which can be an essential point for sustainable environmental building processes in the future. Reeds, clay, straw, bricks, and wood were the most popular building materials used by builders from this region. The impact of building material on the environment embodies the essential method implicitly significant in this research to effectively determine traditional building materials in the environment, in addition to comparative analysis. This presents an essential factor of our analysis, in addition to the impact of environments on building systems. The main target of this study is to benefit designers and building engineers in their pursuit to find optimal and competent solutions suitable for specific local microclimates using traditional methods in the design process that are sustainable and ecological.

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  • 15.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Bricks between the Historical Usage and Sustainable Building Concept2022In: Masonry for Sustainable Construction / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, UK: INTECH, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bricks are the most frequent ceramic product and may be found in antique and modern structures. Together with stone and concrete, they are among the most used building materials. Reading through history, we may see that throughout the Stone Age, cave dwellers erected structures for a variety of reasons out of fragments of rocks and boulders of various shapes; Menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs have survived to this day—stone constructs used for religious purposes. Dwellings and fortresses were constructed from unhewn natural stone, the shards of which were piled on each other without any order. Brick is a common antique building material that has been used from ancient times, such as in Egypt’s ancient dwellings, Rome’s Colosseum, and many sections of China’s Great Wall. One of the earliest construction materials is brick. It was utilized in Mycenaean civilization, ancient Greece, Rome, Central America, and other ancient constructions. The oldest, used in prehistoric times, is dry masonry of irregularly shaped stones. Soil is a natural building material that can be seen everywhere, and it also has its unique style in traditional architecture. Like wood, stone has been the primary building material since ancient times. It has been used as a construction material since prehistoric times. The actual art of brickmaking may be observed in the great range of textures and surface treatments, which constitute a distinctive mark of each maker. Brick is now employed for resistant buildings, regular internal walls, interior or outside surface decorating, pavement, and even modern art installations. No other building feature provides as many opportunities for producing one-of-a-kind architectural effects.

  • 16.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Overview of a Competent Sustainable Building2018In: Sustainable Buildings: Interaction Between a Holistic Conceptual Act and Materials Properties / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad, Kroatia: INTECH, 2018, p. 399-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    etween the human being and the protective building space, always a relationship with a reciprocal character a permanent arrangement, where the human being interest is to create the necessary poise to his different well-unfolded activities, under that cover as space. The building is a major element of human life. It is a major concern, a major purchase, and has a major effect upon our lives [1]. We spend over 90% of our time indoors. Today, the technological archetypes of the modern buildings are formed of a mixture of many components such as materials, energy, and construction configuration systems, which influence directly on human life and health. In marketing vision, architectural product being creations of the human work, a time-consuming good, as any other manufacture, it has not only to be produced but also to get the user’s disposal [2]. Although in sustainable design, the building becomes the system, subsystem should be examined. The climate has a solid impact on the conceptions of habitat forms and configuration of internal space [3]. While the holistic integration of systems is critical to sustainable building, every system within the system has its climatic advantage or disadvantage. The human being entered the third millennium without the hope of achieving permanent peace on our beautiful earth, sustainable development, and equality for all, where the earth is our sustainer, the chain of ecological survival. In the future, sustainable considerations will be a regular part of our basic beliefs and knowledge. Both of our norms and behavior as the physical environment must be automatically based on an environmentally balanced mind-set, not alone but along with many other considerations. Within planning, means that the green will be taken far to be more seriously that reuse of our cities will gain even more importance that green areas will be actively involved and that traffic patterns will be turned upside down. Reliability is the key to our human continuum and our prime resource for building. Earth sheltering, earth handling, and earth escaping are more clearly pronounced in the vocabulary of architectural planning and design. Trees for shade and windbreak can bear a consideration in architecture and landscaping. But general landscaping is regarded apart from the architecture, whereas in intelligent bioclimatic design, it is most effectual as an integral part of the architecture and interresponsive with its inland farming and landscaping. The building experience managed to isolate the building from the unfavorable climatic conditions, determining an inside microclimate able to provide for physical comfort. At lower latitudes, the climate moderates and summer heat, as well as rain, becomes significant. Windows are designed to admit the winter sunshine while excluding it in the summer. Insulation is used to minimize heat loss, and ventilation helps to counteract heat gain. Sustainability is an overall vision of creating quality in all parts of the building by making a whole positive in building manipulation, where an appropriate balance must be ensured between the environmental, social, and economic considerations, but also with the context in which the building is part—the city and society. In other words, the overall construction industry faces a significant transformation. A change that really matters to the development community, that keeping in mind that ecology means the doctrine of keeping communities, so take care of things. Sustainability is not mysterious, but requires common sense, consideration, and action. It became clear to understand that sustainable building is a designation of the edifice that meets UN criteria for sustainability [4]. A sustainable city is organized so as to enable all its citizens to meet their own needs and to enhance their well-being without damaging the natural world or endangering the living conditions of other people, now or in the future [5]. The concept of “sustainable building” comes from the concept of “sustainable development.” It was coined in the Brundtland Commission’s report after the first green conference in the UN’s Director had taken place in Stockholm 1972. The main task, of sustainability in building design, is to a great extent reduce the energy consumption of other buildings and other environmental loads, which has also been the cause of the authorities since the oil crisis in 1973. Since the oil crisis, there are still tightening rules for building energy consumption through the building regulations; but new rules in building regulations only apply to the new construction, which is limited in number to the total building stock. Therefore, in the case of renovations and extensions to existing buildings, it is up to the homeowner to take into account the environment. Sustainability in building sector means that account should be taken of the construction on the environment, both in the long term and in the short term. In addition, through all phases of a construction process, from the production of building materials until it returns as waste. But also the environmental burden that settlement means in the form of property, where building sustainable is to build for the future. In this concept, it is necessary to meet our generation’s needs without destroying the ability of future generations to meet their own necessities. That is, a building is sustainable in both environmental, economic, and social terms. In other words, it means that a building is responsible for the environment as little as possible, that the building’s overall economy from construction to demolition is as good as possible and that construction is as good as possible for people to live. In pursuit of sustainable solutions, there are many examples of choices and solutions that can immediately be sustainable, but which cannot be considered sustainable in the full perspective. For example, a unilateral focus on energy savings without regard to the indoor climate can result in imbalances between environmental and social quality, thus resulting in a nonsustainable solution. Another example is an unqualified requirement to use locally produced materials to minimize transport without looking at the energy used for the production of the materials. There has been a tendency for sustainability in construction to be perceived and introduced as single measures that can make the building sustainable. However, sustainable construction implies that planning and decision-making are based on an overall perspective, which cannot be ensured by individual measures. Low-energy buildings, environmentally friendly construction, green construction, and sustainable construction—are these all the same concepts? The answer is no—although they all aim to reduce energy consumption and to some extent limit environmental impact, sustainability differs significantly from the others [6]. The basic quality requirements for buildings will be expanded to include low resource consumption, recycling building materials, etc. In the sustainable building, planning and decision-making must be based on an overall perspective, which aims not only at low energy consumption, a good economy, or a good indoor climate. Instead, it should be said that the construction as a whole is sustainable and contributes to solving the environmental and societal challenges that we face. 

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  • 17.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Overview of Sustainable Cities, Theory and Practices2019In: Sustainable Cities: Authenticity, Ambition and Dream / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, Kroatia: INTECH, 2019, p. 2-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Umeå universitet.
    Passive and Low Energy Housing by Optimization2012In: Effective Thermal Insulation: The Operative Factor Of A Passive Buildning Model / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Croatia: InTech, 2012, p. 23-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Passive And Low Energy Housing: In The Context Of “Archie-Metrics”Concept"2010In: lmssad, Rhodes Island: University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The house is not only a roof, but also a home, the place where it is formed the moral climate and on which lasts the family spirit. The architectural product, being a product of the human work, a long time user product, like any other product it has not only to be produced but also to get the user’s disposal. The passive and low energy housing represents one of the most consistent concepts of sustainable building and brings with consideration of energy saving concept.

    Presently becomes incorrect work manner when we take the building phenomenon such as (passive and low energy building), detached from the large concept of architecture. Energy in

    passive and low energy building is an important factor; but it has an abstract act without human sentiments. Economy is other factor; all these factors classified such constant value. The human comfort is a vital aim of architecture, and it classified such variable level. The interaction always appears between the energy such abstract act and human comfort such human feeling. The balancing condition is extremely complex. Our job in this investigation is to establish a commune area by architectural conjecture over passive and low energy building.

  • 20.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Basra University, IRQ.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Alasadi, Asaad
    Basra University, IRQ.
    Analytical interpretation of energy efficiency concepts in the housing design process from hot climate2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 21, p. 254-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical understanding of an architectural product shows architecture as a series of complex activities, which aims to create an optimal material framework with well-organized functional spaces that can meet the material and human spiritual requirements. The vision of a multifaceted architecture shows that it is necessary to design and work cooperatively with an architectural theory to transform the lateral conceptual viewer of the multilateral design process. The effort has to focus on ensuring the active collaboration of sciences and techniques with the creative building design process. The real stages of house design theory still insufficiently incorporate natural phenomena such as thermography, climatology, aerodynamics, and thermodynamics in the building design approach. The primary target of this research is to define an efficient method of building design in which essential aspects are considered during the first phase of design ideas. The study concluded that using a classical design model is respectable. However, it can bring many mistakes in the confirmation of a holistic design assignment related to energy, thermal comfort, and economic factors that represents an essential tool for architectural creation products where the innovative model proceeds with all design elements, activities and space roles which can reunify in the interpretation of functional spaces by creating an interspace with a consistency habitat environment.

  • 21.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Almusaed, Ali
    Towards a Zero Energy House Strategy Fitting For South Iraq climate2008In: Passive and Low Energy Architecture 2008 Conference / [ed] Paul Kenny, Vivienne Brophy, J. Owen Lewis, Dublin: University College Dublin , 2008, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Najar, Karim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    An Innovative School Design Based on a Biophilic Approach Using the Appreciative Inquiry Model: Case Study Scandinavia2022In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. Volume 2022, p. 1-18, article id 8545787Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the school’s role in society and its works, it became essential to reevaluate its functions and importance for society after the aggressive attack of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a new educational space design represents a powerful and required tool for stimulating creativity and increasing concentration, motivation, and assimilation of knowledge for future generations. The article will use appreciative inquiry as a method that works with perspective ideas readings doted by high positive human sensitivity. It also represents a powerful tool for the students’ opinions about the teaching spaces and environments. To improve the performance of educational institutions and schools, considering the sustainability concepts and biophilic designs has become an urgent necessity within the Scandinavian countries and in the world in general. The scientific research and theoretical analysis within the biophilic theory have been conducted to see how the designer can integrate the nature components holistically in the educational environment based on spatial, visual, and ecological integration concepts. The study aims to develop knowledge about applying biophilia as a phenomenon in educational institutes of Scandinavia where the students among others are the main decision-maker. The article’s main finding is that students dream of free open teaching spaces integrated with nature, where the biophilic theory frameworks are suitable to form this sustainable model that enables educational institutions and schools to improve their performance within different stages of the study.

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  • 23.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Nathir, Ameer M
    Shading Effects Upon Cooling House Strategy In Iraq2007In: Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century: 2nd PALENC Conference 28th AIVC Conference / [ed] M. Santamouris, P. Wouters, Crete island: University of Athens , 2007, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroclimatic forces have been important factors ever since man first constructed shelter. Throughout architectural history, local buildings have used great in providing the most comfortable internal conditions possible within the exigencies and constraints of local climate. The habitual living way in Iraq is accurately reflected in the households’ organization, in their volumetric configuration, in the forms of useful locations they engender. Houses are compact with interior courtyard; the streets are sinuous and pass through houses volumes. The shady interior courtyard has the effect that the rooms do not communicate directly with the overheated air outside, but through intermediate buffer spaces. In the mean time between courtyard and street at least a wall or a building is always interposed. This isolation from the street indicates concerns for defense. The architectural elements are strongly decorated, reproducing special typologies and traditional houses. The socials relations are strong, a situation which leads to personal-social spaces. The shadow is wanted to create both by means of architectural details and volumes, which have become a landmark of the local architecture specific character, and by means of natural elements (vegetation, water, etc.). The northern orientation is perfect for the summer functional rooms.

  • 24. Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Almusad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Natural Lighting Efficiency By Means of Sun- Skylight-Tubes2014In: International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, E-ISSN 2249-8958, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of comfort a luminous ambience refers to the distribution of luminance and chromatic ties on the interior envelope of a space that is one of different fields of vision for a subject within an ambience. Luminance and chromatic ties are at present not often studied as far as comfort in buildings is concerned. Sun lighting and bioclimatic concept is inseparable considerations when designing a building because of the historical and practical significance of natural lighting in architecture. Sunlight is as old as architecture itself. Human life gets sufficient sunlight, in fact, we use more of 90 % of our day indoor, for this reason, specialists are now seeing how architecture can ameliorate the indoor-outdoor links. At present, by biological and technological investigation the trend is to search backwards towards the previous philosophies and advantages of more indoor / outdoor relationship. Plus homeowners who want to have healthy home environments might want to renew the most relevant facts of technology and biology.

  • 25.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Reviewing and Integrating AEC Practices into Industry 6.0: Strategies for Smart and Sustainable Future-Built Environments2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 13464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the possible ramifications of incorporating ideas from AEC Industry 6.0 into the design and construction of intelligent, environmentally friendly, and long-lasting structures. This statement highlights the need to shift away from the current methods seen in the AEC Industry 5.0 to effectively respond to the increasing requirement for creative and environmentally sustainable infrastructures. Modern building techniques have been made more efficient and long-lasting because of AEC Industry 6.0’s cutting-edge equipment, cutting-edge digitalization, and ecologically concerned methods. The academic community has thoroughly dissected the many benefits of AEC Industry 5.0. Examples are increased stakeholder involvement, automation, robotics for optimization, decision structures based on data, and careful resource management. However, the difficulties of implementing AEC Industry 6.0 principles are laid bare in this research. It calls for skilled experts who are current on the latest technologies, coordinate the technical expertise of many stakeholders, orchestrate interoperable standards, and strengthen cybersecurity procedures. This study evaluates how well the principles of Industry 6.0 can create smart, long-lasting, and ecologically sound structures. The goal is to specify how these ideas may revolutionize the building industry. In addition, this research provides an in-depth analysis of how the AEC industry might best adopt AEC Industry 6.0, underscoring the sector-wide significance of this paradigm change. This study thoroughly analyzes AEC Industry 6.0 about big data analytics, the IoT, and collaborative robotics. To better understand the potential and potential pitfalls of incorporating AEC Industry 6.0 principles into the construction of buildings, this study examines the interaction between organizational dynamics, human actors, and robotic systems.

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Fukt i passivhus i relation till väderlek: Alsters förskola2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 27.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennät: Underlag för framtida åtgärder i Fengersfors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater contains elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus which the treatment plants are forced to deal with. If the purification in the plant are substandard these substances is emitted in lakes and streams, which can lead to eutrophication. The small village of Fengersfors, in the province of Dalsland, uses two small stabilization pounds to cleanse their wastewater. These stabilization pounds do not meet the authorities’ treatment requirements, which have led the municipality to upgrade the facility. Before expanding the treatment plant, today’s volumes of extraneous water must be reduced to be able to dimension the new pounds, in proportion to the size of Fengersfors. Extraneous water is clean water that reaches the treatment plants in addition to water from baths, showers, washing machines and toilets. Examples of additional water can be storm water and groundwater. It is desired to minimize the percentage of extraneous water in wastewater systems to avoid costly purification processes.

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the flow of extraneous water which transports to the stabilization pounds. What sources to extraneous water is there in Fengersfors and which actions should the municipality take to achieve their goal of reduced flow of extraneous water to the stabilization pounds?

    To identify seepage of extraneous water in wastewater systems is a time consuming job. To address the problem, without being forced to duplicate the system, it is important to first build an image of the area. In this study this is done by four examinations: field inventory of residential areas, field inventory of transfer schemes, investigation of groundwater levels and dye tracing of bad connections. These steps are easy to preform, requires no large financial means and need not to be performed by individuals with special skills. The survey is completed in two overview maps, Fengersfors Norra and Fengersfors Södra. These are then used for basic calculations to point out areas which are contributing large volumes of groundwater, trough foundation drainage, to the treatment plant.

    Several properties in Fengersfors have their roof surfaces connected to the wastewater system. Simple measures, such as switching to drain spouts with dense water deflector, can reduce the volume of rainwater that reaches the stabilization pounds. General for the area is that ditches have been neglected for a long time, resulting in drums and wells clogged. A functioning ditch system is necessary for transport of storm and drainage water to the recipient. During the dye tracing process parts of previously unknown storm water systems were found. Sewer system maps can now be updated and become an important part of future actions. The study provides an indication of which areas need to be addressed or further investigated by the municipality.

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    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennät
  • 28.
    Andersson, Hedda
    Karlstad University.
    El-och värmeenergibehov för skolor: Beräknade och uppmätta värden för 4 skolor i Stockholm2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As buildings are built more and more energy-efficient, precision of energy calculations needs to increase as the error decrease and the requirement to calculate “correctly” increases. At the beginning of a construction project, a builder must show that the building will comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning's regulations when the project is completed in order to start the project. When the building is finished, it is tested through different feeds to investigate whether the building meets the requirements that the builder has claimed in the design step. The difficulty of calculating the energy requirement of a building so that it corresponds to the measured energy requirement is well known in the construction industry. In a school, heating of premises and tap water accounts for two thirds of the energy use and one third consists of lighting, kitchens and fans for ventilation. In a study with 7 newly built Swedish schools calculated and measured energy was examined, it was found that calculated and measured energy needs differed between -44% to + 28%. 

    To make it easier to produce calculations of schools energy needs that correspond to real energy needs, this report examines which parameters are important for a school's energy needs and which parameters that makes the calculated and measured energy needs differ profoundly. Two preschools and two primary schools were examined in this study. A calculation model was built to examine which parameters have the greatest impact on a school's energy needs and to calculate the schools' energy needs. 

    The measured and estimated heat energy requirements in the examined schools had a deviation of -3% and -16%. The measured and calculated electricity energy needs in the schools had a deviation of -2% and + 28%. The parameters that were important when calculating a school's energy needs turned out to be the efficiency of ventilation, tap water consumption, g-value, room temperature, supply air temperature, operating time of ventilation, operating time of commercial kitchens and electricity requirements for commercial kitchens. 

    The result showed that when making energy calculations and trying to adjust and match it as closely as possible to the real measured values, the parameters with the most impact on this were efficiency of ventilation, g-value, supply air temperature, electricity demand for the commercial kitchen and the operating times of both the ventilation and the commercial kitchen. 

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    KAU.
    Berg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Vertikal förskjutning i höga byggnader med träregelstomme: Vertikal förskjutning i lägenhetsskiljande vägg orsakad av momentan belastning och krypning i hammarband samt uttorkning i träregelstomme.2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Europa har det under de senaste 20 åren skett en snabb utveckling av byggkonstruktioner i trä. Detta till följd av implementeringen av den Europeiska unionens byggproduktdirektiv in i medlemsländernas egen bygglagstiftning. Byggproduktdirektivet har på senare tid ersatts med byggproduktförordningen, Construction Products Regulation, CPR. Övergången till det som idag heter CPR innebar att med mer funktionsbaserade bestämmelser möjliggöra uppförande av högre och större byggnader samtidigt som det främjar den tekniska utvecklingen inom träbyggnation. En limiterande faktor som uppstår vid uppförandet av höga byggnader med träregelstomme är det lokala tryck som uppstår vinkelrätt fiberriktningen i hammarband/syll vilket leder till att en vertikal förskjutning uppstår i byggnaden, något som dels kan äventyra fasadmaterialens väderskyddande egenskaper dels byggnadens funktion i stort.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur den teoretiska tryckkraft hammarbanden i ett typhus utsätts för ökar med en ökad belastning från byggnaden samt hur denna tryckkraft påverkar den vertikala förskjutning som uppstår, även effekter av långtidslaster tas med i beräkning av vertikal förskjutning. I examensarbetet jämförs 6 olika varianter av konstruktionslösningar samt en kontroll för att avgöra om avväxlingsregeln har någon inverkan på hammarbandets tryckkraftskapacitet samt den vertikala förskjutningen som uppstår. Arbetet görs för att förbättra möjligheterna till att bygga högre hus med traditionell träregelstomme.

    Resultaten visar att användningen av en avväxlingsregel för öppningar i väggar leder till större deformationer i form av vertikal förskjutning och bör undvikas i höga byggnader med träregelstomme. Användningen av KL-trä som hammarband tillsammans med en avväxlingsregel i konstruktionsvirke visar på lägre vertikal förskjutning samt högre tryckhållfasthet än i de fall där både hammarband samt avväxlingsregel består av konstruktionsvirke, användningen av KL-trä som hammarband ger därför goda förutsättningar för högre byggnader med träregelstomme. Resultaten visar även att fuktkvotsförändringen i trämaterialet spelar en stor roll i den vertikala förskjutning som uppstår i byggnaden, där mellanbjälklagen står för den största vertikala förskjutningen. Resultatet visar att konstruktioner där mellanbjälklaget placeras på väggen bör undvikas och bör i stället fästas in i väggens sida.

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  • 30.
    Andersson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Bygga hus i traditionell härjedalsstil2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 31.
    Andersson, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bergstrand, Ann-Charlott
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Höjdbestämningsmetoder vid upprättande av nybyggnadskartor: Jämförelse mellan nätverks-RTK och trigonometrisk höjdmätning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Levelling and trigonometric height measurements are the methods that are mostly used today for height determination, as the standard error with these methods is in the magnitude of millimeters, as long as the view length is less than 50 m.

    When creating a new construction map the requirement on standard error differ from 1 (Fredriksson, 2011) to 10 cm (www.arvidsjaur.se) depending on which municipality it concerns.

    When using network RTK for measuring, the accuracy in height can fall below 3 cm when the conditions are optimal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if network RTK can be used as an alternative to determinate height when accuracy under 10 cm is requested.

    Five points at locations with different conditions for accuracy got their height determined with the three methods mentioned above. Positional accuracy was formed for each point and method. The result from levelling was used as reference for the calculations. To compare the result with the requirements extended standard uncertainty, 2covering 95 %, was used. The result from trigonometric height measurement shows a position accuracy of 4 mm. From the network RTK, the points that were positioned without interference got a positional accuracy of 3.3 to 5.5 cm, while the points that were influenced by their environment, multipath interference and obstructions, got a positional accuracy of 123.3 cm and 234.4 cm. Positional accuracy of this method became 127.4 cm.

    The result from the height determination with network RTK shows big difference in accuracy for the different points. The conclusion is that network RTK measurement would not be a sufficiently accurate height determination method for preparation of a new construction map in an area similar to the one used for this test. Conversely, a construction map drawn up in an open area free from interference obstacles the results show that the network RTK is an approved method for determining height, depending on the requirements of the municipality.

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    Höjdbestämningsmetoder vid upprättande av nybyggnadskartor
  • 32.
    Arndtsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University.
    Optimeringsflöde av modelleringsprogram vid broprojektering: Analys av de tre modelleringsprogrammen Tekla Structures, Revit 2013 och Rhinoceros2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Optimeringsflöde vid Broprojektering
  • 33.
    Arvidsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berg, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Styrka och styvhet i förbindare för volymbyggande i trä: Experimentell undersökning av förbindare i anslutningen mellan stabiliserande vägg och tvärvägg2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    För höga träbyggnader, över två våningar, ökar kraven på byggnadens konstruktion. En viktig och ofta utmanande aspekt att ta hänsyn till vid dimensionering är stomstabilisering mot horisontella vindlaster. Detta eftersom de horisontella vindlasterna ger upphov till lyftkrafter i konstruktionen. De uppstådda lyftkrafterna överförs via bjälklag och stabiliserande väggar ner i grundkonstruktionen via tvärväggen. Tvärväggar bidrar till stabiliseringen mot de horisontella lasterna i konstruktionen. Anslutningen mellan stabiliserande vägg och tvärväggar är därför särskilt viktig. Därav blir förbindarnas egenskaper i förbandet en viktig aspekt i möjligheten att kunna motverka de horisontella krafterna.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka styrka och styvhet i förbandet, mellan stabiliserande vägg och tvärvägg för höga modulhus med trä som stommaterial. Genom kunskap om dessa storheter kan beräkningsmodeller utvecklas i syfte att analysera trämoduler mer optimalt. Experimentella trycktester av förbindare, mellan stabiliserande vägg och tvärvägg, utförs med förbindare i vinklar 0°, 30° och 45° mot horisontalplanet. Styrkan och styvheten från de experimentella testerna jämförs mellan de olika vinklarna. Förbindarnas kapacitet och styvhet jämförs även med beräkningar utförda enligt Eurokod 5 för att studera huruvida de stämmer överens.

    Metoden för trycktesterna bestod av att utifrån befintliga ritningar över stommen för en tvär- och stabiliserande väggsanslutning, bygga provkroppar med konstruktionsskruv skruvade från tvärvägg in i yttervägg med 0°, 30° och 45° lutning, i rapporten benämnt Typ 0, Typ 30 och Typ 45. Trycktesterna genomfördes med en hydraulisk press där kraft och förskjutning för respektive test redogörs.

    Resultatet från de experimentella testerna visar att styrka och styvhet för konstruktionsskruven ökar för Typ 30 och Typ 45 jämfört med Typ 0. Skillnaden i styrka mellan Typ 0 och Typ 45 är dock relativt liten. Typ 30 uppvisar störst styrka från testerna. Detta är intressant att undersöka vidare med andra studier, där ett större antal tester kan genomföras för att säkerställa resultatet. Styvheten mellan Typ 30 och Typ 45 är likvärdig. De teoretiska beräkningarna enligt Eurokod 5 för förbindarnas kapacitet överensstämmer dock inte med resultatet från de experimentella testerna. Samtliga förbindare uppvisade en betydligt högre kapacitet under testerna än det beräknade utfallet. En anledning till att resultatet skiljer sig kan bero på att kapaciteten av förbindarna med skråskruvningen är dock inte helt utförda enligt Eurokod 5, då det inte finns ett bestämt sätt att utföra detta på.

    Vid undersökning av deformationen av konstruktionsskruvarna för de olika typerna, uppvisas två flytleder i skruven. För Typ 0 blev förskjutningen så stor att brott uppstod i skruven, något som inte uppstod för Typ 30 och Typ 45.

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  • 34.
    Aziz, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dimensionering av högprofilerad plåt: Analys av tillgängliga programvaror2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 35.
    Aziz, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dimensionering av högprofilerad plåt: Analys av tillgängliga programvaror2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 36.
    Backman, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindefelt, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Mångfaldens Jakobsberg: En plats för alla2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Modeling displacement path dependence in nailed sheathing-to-framing connections2017In: CompWood 2017 - Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: Programme & Books of Abstracs / [ed] Josef Füssl, Thomas K. Bader, Josef Eberhardsteiner, Vienna: TU verlag , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Path dependence in OSB sheathing-to-framing nailed connection revealed by biaxial testing2018In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 144, no 10, article id 04018197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OSB sheathing-to-wood framing connection, as typically used in light-frame shear walls, was experimentally examined in a novel biaxial test setup with respect to possible path dependence of the load-displacement relation. The connection with an annular-ringed shank nail was loaded under displacement control following nine different displacement paths within the sheathing plane, which coincided at a number of points. In intersection points, resultant connection force, its orientation and work performed on the connection system to reach the specific point were calculated and compared. Evaluation of experiments revealed significant path dependence with respect to orientation of force resultants at path intersection points. However, magnitude of the forces and the work carried out showed relatively small dependence of the displacement path undertaken. Comparison of uniaxial connection tests with the European yield model demonstrated strong contribution of withdrawal resistance of the ringed shank nail to its lateral strength. Results of this type are a valuable basis to build better models when simulating such connections in wood structures.

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  • 39.
    Berg, Nicklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eriksson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan modulbadrum och platsbyggt badrum vid renovering2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 1960 och 1975 byggdes cirka 1 006 000 nya bostäder i Sverige. Många av dessa lägenheter har idag ett stort behov av renovering. Ett alternativ till att renovera badrummen på traditionellt sätt, där badrummet rivs ut och fräschas upp är att använda ett så kallat modulbadrum som integreras i den nuvarande huskroppen. Målet med arbetet var att med hjälp av kriterierna ekonomi, miljö och kvalitet utreda vilket alternativ som är bäst lämpat vid renovering; att bygga in badrumsmoduler eller att renovera befintliga badrum. Dessutom ska hyresgästernas åsikter i frågan utredas i form av en enkät. Vidare kontrollerades eventuella skillnader i miljöpåverkan samt kostnaderna för att klimatkompensera. Jämförelserna gjordes med hjälp av erhållna handlingar från Con-Form samt uppgifter från kalkylatorer på företag i branschen. Detta sammanställdes sedan i kalkyler i kalkyleringsverktygen BidCon och Sektionsfakta där priset per modul och priset per platsbyggt badrum kalkylerades fram. Denna summa användes för att få fram en pay off-tid för att se hur många år det, vid en hyreshöjning, skulle ta att betala sig. Materialen kontrollerades i databasen SundaHus för att se vilket alternativ som var mest miljövänligt och innehöll minst antal farliga substanser. Enkäten visade att den tänkta målgruppen är negativt inställda till modulbadrumsalternativet. Därför är det osannolikt att hyresgäster i allmänhet kommer acceptera de förändringar som modulbadrumslösningen innebär. Förlusten av ljus och försämringen av planlösningen samt de försämrade möbleringsmöjligheterna är argument tunga nog för att överskugga fördelarna. Pay off-tiden för det högsta hyresökningsalternativet är möjligtvis rimligt, men faller på att målgruppen helt förkastar lösningen. Därför är slutsatsen att modulbadrum inte är ett alternativ till att renovera befintliga badrum eftersom kundernas åsikter och kostnaderna talar emot detta. Platsbyggda badrum rekommenderas i det här fallet.

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  • 40.
    Bergström, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lindeman, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dimensionering av Arena Tingvallahallarna: Ny arena i anslutning till de befintliga Tingvallahallarna2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the fall semester 2014 has a course called Examensarbete, BYGC14, been conducted by the authors of this report. The course is given at Karlstad University and is based on the students themselves to choose a problem to solve. Because this course is for structural engineers, the problem naturally treats a problem in the construction industry. In this thesis, we have chosen to construct and design a new arena that is supposed to be adjacent to today's existing Tingvallahallarna. In the current situation Karlstad IBF uses the largest arena in Tingvallahallarna but because they aim to step up to the top league, the requirements for the arena is going to be increased, which the current venue can´t live up to.The arena is primarily designed for floorball, information on requirements that Swedish Floorball Federation (SIBF) sets at venues in the highest league has therefore been gathered. These together with the demands from BBR have been the basis for the design of the arena. The aim of the thesis was to develop a proposal that can form the basis for future discussions on how the arena situation in Karlstad can be solved.The goal of this thesis has been to design and make calculations for the structure. The calculations are made by hand and according to the Eurocodes. The design is made of steel and the same construction techniques available in the current Tingvallahallarna are used to get the new arena to blend in with the existing structure.The arena has been designed to respect the existing buildings to architecturally blend in with the area. It also meets the requirements BBR and SIBF sets for arenas, while it has adapted to the demands and requirements of the municipality.Evacuation has been solved with fire escapes with special ledges which mean that people with disabilities also can safely evacuate through them. To make it easier for the disabled a lift is installed to take them to level two. The thesis is considered to have reached the set targets with respect to the design and construction calculations for the framework.

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  • 41.
    Berndtson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Andersson Frohm, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Den nya branschstandarden ByggaF: Hur fungerar den i produktionen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Den nya branschstandarden ByggaF
  • 42.
    Berndtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Brukarmedverkan i partneringprocessen: Ett praktiskt processverktyg för att effektivisera byggprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Partnering är ett samverkansarbete mellan olika aktörer i ett byggprojekt där alla strävar mot gemensamma mål, vilket bidrar till ett mer hållbart byggande. Metoden härstammar från USA och har börjat implementeras allt mer i den svenska byggbranschen. ByggDialog är ett företag som arbetar enbart med partnering och strävar efter att förändra arbetssättet i dagens byggbransch. Kundens behov och önskemål sätts alltid i fokus, men för att skapa ett bättre samarbete bör kunden dela ByggDialogs värderingar. Resultatet av ett bra partneringarbete ger ett team som har en öppen dialog och arbetar mot samma mål. Trots att ByggDialog eftersträvar tät kontakt med brukare i alla projekt blir det av olika skäl inte alltid så. Syftet med rapporten var att stärka brukarmedverkan i partneringprocessen där målet var att hitta förbättringar på de brister som påvisats, samt alternativt skapa ett praktiskt processverktyg för att effektivisera byggprocessen.

    För att få en insyn i hela processen på kort tid har studien haft tillgång till tre referensprojekt, Mariebergsskolan, Sannerudsskolan och Dejeskolan som är i olika skeden i byggprocessen. Metodvalet arbetades fram utifrån en litteraturundersökning där observation och intervju visade sig vara det lämpligaste valet för studiens ämne. Studien använde sig av två observationsscheman, ett för information och ett för beteende samt en intervjumall enligt trattmodell. Intervjuerna blev den största informationsskällan till de brister som behövde förbättras. Intervjuer har gjorts med nyckelpersoner från beställare, brukare och entreprenör som har upplevts viktiga för studien. Respondenternas svar på intervjufrågorna gav resultat som la grunden till de brister som identifierades och som senare arbetades vidare med i analysen. Analysen gav förbättringar på de upptäckta brister som senare blev funktioner.

    Funktionerna är uppdelade från A-F, där de ska implementeras i en nuvarande process. Funktionerna kan vara en ny funktion eller en förbättring av ett redan befintligt arbetssätt. De övergripande förbättringarna ligger i förstudien och tidigt skede där arbetet ska engagera och motivera brukarna samt att en arbetsgrupp ska skapas för att hitta ”rätt funktion på rätt plats” i byggprocessen. Teamroller har visat sig vara mycket viktiga för att funktionerna ska kunna tillämpas som ger en bättre förståelse och ett motiverat och engagerat team. En bättre förståelse för vad resultatet kommer att ge, både till brukarna och deras organisation bidrar till en social utveckling. Finns det en bra kommunikation så är det lättare att undvika felbyggnationer vilket betyder mindre materialspill som främjar den miljömässiga aspekten. Genom att involvera brukarna i den öppna budgeten är det lättare att ”rätt” saker prioriteras för att hitta den bästa ekonomiska lösningen.

    Slutsats som kan dras för att stärka brukarmedverkan och effektivisera partneringarbetet är att det krävs en egen process, som ska implementeras i partneringprocessen med olika funktioner för att sträva efter den ideala processen. Funktionerna inriktar sig till både beställare, brukare och entreprenör, men där entreprenörens största uppgift är att vägleda och ge riktlinjer för att uppnå ett optimalt resultat.

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    Brukarmedverkan i partneringprocessen
  • 43.
    Binak, Burbuqe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    ARBETSMILJÖ OCH TILLGÄNGLIGHET I BOSTÄDER: Arbetsmiljö för personal inom hemtjänst i relation till svensk bostadsplanering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tack vare tekniska och medicinska framsteg kan idag mycket av den vård som ges på sjukhus och vårdinrättningar tillgodoses i det egna hemmet. Ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv är detta en fördel eftersom vård i hemmet är betydligt billigare än en likvärdig behandling med sängplats på sjukhus. Allt eftersom vårdtyngden ökar i hemmen har det visat sig att belastningsskadorna hos den personal som utför arbetet ökat. Omvårdnadspersonal inom hemtjänsten är nu den yrkesgrupp som står för flest arbetsskador i Sverige. Orsaken är att dagens bostäder inte är anpassade för vård av svårt sjuka och funktionsnedsatta i hemmen. Utrymmesbrist leder till att personalen inte kan ta hjälp av lyfthjälpmedel eller använda sig av intränad lyftteknik vid personförflyttning. Störst risk för skada föreligger i sovrum, på toaletter och i badrum eftersom merparten av förflyttningen sker där. För att hindra detta måste dagens och framtida bostäder byggas med generösare tillgänglighetskrav. Kostnaderna för den utökade tillgängligheten bör finansieras genom subventioner. Genom att bygga bostäder som säkerställer en god arbetsmiljö för omsorgspersonalen kommer samhällets kostnader för sjukskrivningar och förtidig utslagning från arbetsmarknaden att minska.I detta arbete undersöks skillnaderna mellan 1 ordinärtboende, 3 Seniorboenden och 1 trygghetsboende och med hjälp av plananalyser och enkätundersökningar vill vi visa att det finns brister i tillgänglighet fastän de är handikappsanpassade.

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  • 44.
    Bjurström, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Isoleringens klimatavtryck: En analys av optimal isoleringstjocklek baserat på klimatavtrycket för träbaserade småhus2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate sector accounts for a significant part of Sweden's climate impact. By 2045, Sweden must reach the goal of no net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This means that the construction sector needs to contribute to the adjustment for the climate goal to be achieved. Previous studies demonstrate through a life cycle analysis that the climate impact from the product stage accounts for a significant part of the building's climate impact over the life cycle. They also state that insulation materials account for a significant part of the climate impact in wood frame constructions. An increased amount of insulation leads to an increased climate impact in the product stage, but at the same time a reduced energy use and thereby a reduced climate impact in the use stage.  The purpose of the study was to contribute to climate-smart choices when designing detached houses with wood framed constructions. The aim of the study is to calculate the climate impact in the product stage and construction process stage as well as the use stage for the most common insulation materials and heating systems. Then, based on these calculations determine optimal insulation thicknesses for minimal climate impact in the various cases. To meet the study's objectives, a case study was conducted in which the climate impact in the product stage and construction process stage was compared with the use stage for different insulation materials and heating systems. The case study examined the insulation materials stone wool, glass wool, cellulose fiber and wood fiber in combination with the heating systems heat pump, biofuel and district heating. The energy consumption in the operational phase was calculated using the energy simulation program BIM Energy. With emission factors for the various forms of heating, the climate impact of the use stage was calculated. This was then compared with the climate impact of the insulation in the product stage and construction process stage to determine the optimal insulation thickness. The results of the study show that the optimal insulation thickness regarding the climate impact in the product stage and construction process stage as well as the operational phase varies depending on the insulation material and heating system. For newly produced detached houses different types of heat pumps are common heating systems and the most common insulation material is stone wool. For the simulation with stone wool insulation in combination with a heat pump, the optimal insulation thickness is relatively low. The results of the study showed that the optimal insulation thickness varies depending on the insulation material and heating system. When designing wooden framed detached houses where low energy consumption is sought, it is important to weigh the climate impact from the product and construction production phase as well as the operational phase to achieve an overall climate footprint that is as low as possible. In some cases, a large amount of insulation is not advantageous if the climate impact over the entire life cycle is considered. It may be necessary to consider other types of insulation materials than mineral wool to minimize climate impact.

  • 45.
    Bohman, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Effekter av nya PBL: En studie av processen från handläggning av bygglovsansökan till slutbesked2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has now passed two years since the new site- and construction law, PBL, went into force. It replaced the previous PBL applicable since 1987, and it involves relatively large changes in many different areas of the construction sector. The ambitions of the new law are for instance to simplify and clarify the legal text, increase efficiency in the permitting processes and improve the quality of construction. To achieve this, a variety of changes was made. Some of the most important are: inserted deadline in the processing of building applications, extended assessment of building applications, revised rules about controlplan and quality manager, a certificate is required to start and end the project, an additional meeting is inserted and the construction management of the municipalities will have to do a mandatory visit at the work scene. The objective of this thesis has been to examine what effects have occurred due to the introduction of the new PBL. To find that out, a literature study and a series of interviews have been made. To additional support, and clearly show the specific effects, a comparison between two projects has been done. The result shows that a variety of effects has occurred. Overall, it has been found that the new law demands more resources from the construction management of the municipalities, mostly due to an increased amount of administration and additional tasks. An estimation is that the new law means an additional burden of 25 percent. Other effects are that some municipalities have difficulties in meeting the deadline in the process of building applications, that the revised rules for quality manager have caused shortcomings, and that the need of a certificate to start and end projects has resulted in an increased clearness in the building process. It has also been found that the new law contains certain ambiguities. Of course, it is difficult to see the effects after only two years, and it remains to be seen how these unfolds.

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    Effekter av nya PBL
  • 46.
    Bragd, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Energieffektivisering i småhus: Vilka tekniker krävs för vilka energinivåer och lågenergihustyper?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The point of this thesis is to, mainly by using the program VIP-Energy, sift out which techniques used for reducing specific energy use in houses that can be seen as reasonable or expensive and if the demanded levels for specific energy use in low energy houses involves reasonable or expensive techniques.

       The techniques were sorted as following:

    Windows moved to the center of the wall, heat exchanger for showers, heat exchanger for drainage, sun panels, MVHR and solar cells are assessed as being reasonable techniques to reduce specific energy use.

    A combination of sun panels and heat exchanger for drainage and a combination of sun panels and heat exchanger for showers are assessed as being expensive techniques.

    To reduce the U-value for the windows from 0,8 to 0,7 in a well insulated house is assessed as being a reasonable technique while reducing U-value for the windows from 1,7 to 1,2, 0,9 or 0,7 in a poorly insulated house is assessed as being an expensive technique.

    Increased airtightness and extra insulation is assessed as being a reasonable technique in a poorly insulated house but is assessed as being an expensive technique in a well insulated house.

       All techniques necessary for the demanded levels of specific energy use in low energy houses belong to the group which was assessed as being reasonable.

  • 47.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Massivträ: Jämförelse mellan olika principer för sammanfogning av trä till plattelement med avseende på pris, hållfasthet och ekologi2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of solid wood construction methods can have a positive impact on the sustainability of constructions. The development of computer-controlled processing techniques enables the solid wood timber industry to rationalize the construction of buildings. The solid wood techniques come at time and will be higher valued in the future due to the natural characteristics of this material.

    The improvement of solid wood methods has resulted in various techniques to join wood into solid prefabricated parts. There is a need for a comparative market study of the different principles of solid wood construction to widen the knowledge and to explain interested builders the viability of these techniques. The key question for this study is: Which techniques of combining solid wood elements to whole boards are the most favorable ones concerning wood construction buildings – leaving apart questions of production costs, durability and ecological considerations?

    To point out the utility of these construction techniques and give them a broader understanding a general study of solid wood construction has been presented. The comparative study is based as well on studies of literature as on reviews of 27 companies in 6 countries.

    The following techniques for the production of boards made of solid timber elements are considered in this report:

     Laminating

     Nailing

     Stapling

     Screwing

     Stress laminating

     Doweling: vertically, horizontally, diagonally and with wooden screws

     Dovetailing techniques

     Wood welding techniques

    The study shows that the techniques of solid wood construction are very different in itself. CLT of cross-laminated timber scores highest in terms of cost and durability, but if one considers ecological factors, dovetailing is best. Taking into account both durability and ecological considerations, doweling is best. These alternatives give some freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces and the efficient use of lower qualities of timber and they are therefore suitable for residential construction buildings.

    CLT is the most cost-effective, not patented and well established option in the market; the development of more health-friendly adhesives is still going on. Current researches demonstrate an alternative: Wood welding joins the parts better together than gluing them.

    Considered from the ecological viewpoint, boards made exclusively of wood, are preferable since no chemicals or not renewable resources are used. Recent researches show, that solid wood constructions have positive effects on the health of the residents of these buildings in comparison of buildings using non-natural materials.

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  • 48.
    Bäckman, Tomas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kvalitetsfel i byggbranschen: Orsaker och åtgärder2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the building industry errors and problems occur on a daily basis. Former studies has shown that the average cost to attend these errors amount to 4,4 % of the production cost. These costs are only those which are discovered during the production phase. If the costs that are discovered during the utilization life span are included the number can reach up to 10 % of the production cost.

    This degree thesis includes an investigation of three building projects where Peab Karlstad was the main contractor. Two of the projects were constructions of new apartment buildings and one was a conversion and extension of a water treatment works.

    The study showed the main problems in the projects can be deduced to the planning of the projects, which also the involved parties agreed in.

    The time-limit in the projects is by many said to be the biggest cause for errors to occur. Other sources mean that the time-limits will be shorted as a result of increased demands from the clients and the increased international competition. If the time-limit can’t be changed then the industry must change their ways to plan and implement their projects to minimize the problems.

    There are two new methods to improve and make more efficient planning. The first is called visual planning and is focused on the human beings in the project. The other one is called BIM, Building Information Model or Building Information Modeling, and is based on coordination of the information under the entire building process.

    Both methods are growing strongly in the industry and have proven to be more efficient. It takes time to implement new methods and that means that it can take time before these methods are used in a larger scale and improvement can be noticed.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Bäckström, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effektiv isolering med vakuumisoleringspaneler för att minimera köldbryggor: Värmesimuleringar i infästningen i ett mellanbjälklag av trästomme2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostäders uppvärmning står för en stor del utav vår energianvändning. För att minska energianvändningen är det viktigt att minimera värmeutsläppet genom byggnadens konstruktionsdelar. Genom att optimera isoleringen i en byggnad bidrar man till att minimera värmeutflödet, vilket bidrar till minskad energianvändning. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka möjligheterna att minska värmeutflödet i anslutningen av mellanbjälklag i trästomme genom applicering av vakuumisoleringspaneler. Resultaten ska sedan jämföras med hur mycket mer vanlig mineralull som behövs i resterande del av ytterväggen för att uppnå samma minskning av värmeutflöde.Vakuumisoleringspaneler är ett superisoleringsmaterial som vanligtvis består av pressad kiseloxid som omsluts av ett metallhölje. Innan höljet sluts samman töms materialet på luft och vakuum bildas.Konstruktionsdelen som valts i denna studie är infästningen mellan yttervägg och mellanbjälklag. Både ytterväggen och mellanbjälklaget har träreglar som stomme. Sedan genomfördes simuleringar med hjälp av energiberäkningsprogrammet Comsol Multiphysics. Det gjordes flertalet simuleringar med till exempel olika storlekar och tjocklekar på vakuumisoleringspaneler.Resultatet visar att köldbryggan som uppstår i anslutningen mellan yttervägg och mellanbjälklag av en trästomme kan minskas med 260–460% vid användningen utav vakuumisoleringspaneler, resultatet beror på tjocklek på trästommen och hur stor panel som används. Att resultatet visar en större minskning än 100% betyder att värmeflödet genom anslutningen blir lägre än genom den kontinuerliga ytterväggen när VIP används.Om man inte använder sig utav vakuumisoleringspaneler i denna konstruktionslösning kan man ersätta dess effekt genom att tillämpa extra isolering i yttervägg, mängden isolering som krävs är mellan 25mm och 55mm, beroende på vilken av stomtjocklekarna och vilken storlek på panelen som används.

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  • 50.
    Bäckström, Carolin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Gauffin, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Framtidens energieffektiva flerbostadshus2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The housing sector of today represents for almost 40% of the energy consumption, an energy consumption of which the major part consists of non-renewable energy sources. This is not sustainable and utilization of new energy-efficient technologies in buildings can be a step in the right direction, towards a sustainable energy society.

    This report has been made on behalf of and in cooperation with Älvstranden Utveckling AB in Gothenburg to examine how future energy-efficient technologies can affect the energy demand in energy-efficient multi-dwelling buildings.

    The report is based on Älvstrandens passive house, Hamnhuset, a house whose energy consumption is far below the BBR's requirements. The report looks at the opportunities for improvement within windows, insulation, solar energy technologies, as well as white goods. Computer simulations are then made to apply the selected technologies into a reference building. Technologies are selected from an energy efficient perspective and no account has been taken of other aspects such as the economy. They must also be available on the market within a ten-year period. Information has been gathered through interviews and contacts with experts in their respective fields, as well as representatives of the various technologies.

    By using high-efficient insulation and smart windows, heat transmission losses and thus the heat demand can be reduced. Increased solar irradiation through the windows during the winter months also contributes to a reduction in need of purchased energy during the coldest part of the year, when the supply of renewable energy is minimal. A large part of the needed electricity may be covered by electricity from solar cells mounted on the roof, balcony fronts and facades. A reduction of purchased electricity has a major impact on the building's stress on the environment and carbon dioxide emissions from a life cycle perspective. That is also why electricity heated white goods are exchanged into appliances on district heating.

    By installing a larger amount of and more efficient solar collectors which also has a smoother heat production over the year, the need for heating domestic hot water is reduced.

    The calculations are made in two stages, the first sets out the various technologies effectiveness and potential individually; several simulations have been made for one and the same technology to provide different variations depending on the situation it is used. For example, several combinations of windows are tested in different orientations. In step two, the techniques with the greatest energy saving potential are selected in order to jointly result in a final house. To see how a future streamlining of household technology and lighting affects the energy balance of a building, a simulation is also made where household electricity is reduced by 40%.

    The result of selected energy efficiency measures shows a reduction of the specific energy demand by 70 % compared to the BBR's requirements and 50 % compared to the reference house. In addition the environmental impact of the building reduces from a CO2 perspective with 85 % compared to the reference house. However, there is an uncertainty of the results as they are based on speculations in the technologies future capacity. Results should therefore be seen as an inspiration for how high the objectives can be set in the construction of energy-efficient buildings.

    Still, in the light of this report, there are great opportunities to within a ten-year period build multi-dwelling buildings that are way more energy efficient than today.

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