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  • 1. Aboona, Yousi
    et al.
    Tummings, Alexander
    Effektivisering inom bygglogistik: En fallstudie över bygglogistiksproblem under produktionsprocess2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction sector there are currently high demands regarding short project times. As a result of this, the constructer demands lower costs, which in itself leads to challenges to meet the requirements. Other contributing factors to difficult-to-achieve requirements are changed project conditions and varying material flows. As a result, the majority of all recent reports have been identified as logistics-related problems.

    In order to streamline the production process and meet the planned requirements, it is required to logistically plan the project at an early stage by having good planning, good communication and cooperation at the construction site. A large part of logistics is covered by planning and utilizing transport and material deliveries in an efficient way.

    The purpose of this degree project is to investigate how construction logistics work at Veiddekkke's workplaces, where one of their ongoing projects includes OKQ8 in Karlstad. This is to be able to identify the logistics problems that may arise during the project and for what reasons.

    After identifying the logistical problems that may arise at the construction site, the goal is to develop proposals and implement these proposal solutions in order to avoid these problems recurring in future construction projects.

    At the beginning of this thesis, an extensive literature study was conducted based on various books, reports and research articles to obtain as much knowledge as possible in the field. To gather the necessary information about the OKQ8 project, a case study was conducted at the construction site. The methods used for data collection were surveys, interviews, observations, and work diaries. Site manager and supervisor were interviewed, and different types of observations were made at the workplace.

    The results show that the construction logistics at Veidekke work well in general, but sometimes problems arise during the production process which can affect the project. The two major types of problems identified are transport and material deliveries. However, there are also other types of factors that can affect construction logistics, such as poor communication and poor planning.

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    Effektivisering inom bygglogistik
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

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  • 3.
    Ahremark, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Nicole
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bjälklag av limträdäck: En jämförelse av handberäkningar och databaserat verktyg för dimensionering av bjälklag i kontor och lager med hänsyn till svikt och vibration2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demands on reducing the environmental impact while establishing new buildings lead to an increased focus on environmentally conscious choices of material. Achieving a sustainable construction requires replacing carbon dioxide-laden materials, such as concrete, with renewable materials like wood, of which there are large resources in Sweden. Glulam is primarily used for load bearing constructions and the advancing technique of wood construction has led to a new type of joists on the European market, made of glulam decking elements. However, this product has not yet reached the Swedish construction market. There is a lack of span tables based on Swedish standards and reliable controls of vibration.

    This thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Moelven Töreboda and the purpose of the study has been to develop a foundation for a new type of glulam product, applied to floor structures of office buildings and storage areas. Using structural calculations and the design software Statcon, the study has established spans for floor structures of glulam decking elements. Subsequently proposals for a topping slab and a suspended ceiling have been developed, that meet the requirements of sound classification C.

    In this work, the span of the glulam decking elements for strength classes GL24h and GL30c have been ascertained. The width of the elements is 585 mm, with varying heights in the range 90-215 mm. The study has included load categories for office buildings and storage areas.

    The result of the construction calculations is presented in various tables depending on strength class and load category. The span tables are based on three types of profiles, which present similar results. All three profiles stated a span of 7,6 m in offices for strength class GL30c for the cross-sectional height 215 mm, whereas strength class GL24h reached 7,3 m in the same load category.

    In the load category storage areas, profile 1 reached a span of 6,5 m for GL30c and 6,3 m for GL24h. The spans of profile 2 and 3 increased in length by 0,1 m for each strength class. It can be ascertained that the varying profiles do not have a significant effect on the span lengths.

    All three profiles have been verified given spring and vibration. The smallest cross-section, 90x585 mm, was the most critical in meeting the requirements due to the low mass. To meet the requirements of vibration, the cross-section need a sub floor or topping slab with a minimum load of 20 kg/m2. A conclusion is that sound class C is achieved through a topping slab on top of the joist and that the sound class improves when a suspended ceiling is added to the construction.

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    Bjälklag av limträdäck
  • 4. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

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  • 5.
    Albinsson, Eric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Från deponi till lösullsisolering: En undersökning av återbrukspotentialen för isoleringsspill i en husfabrik2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Befolkningen på jorden ökar idag i en ohållbar takt. Dagens samhälle är inte förenligt med den naturresursbas som jorden besitter. Byggbranschen står för en stor del av de utsläpp som bidrar till den globala uppvärmningen. För att minska dessa krävs åtgärder där klimatet sätts i första hand. En del i att minska byggbranschens klimatpåverkan är att återbruka de produkter som redan finns. Den här studien undersöker klimatbesparingen som kan göras genom ett återbruk av isoleringsspill.

    Syftet med arbetet är att öka förståelsen för återbruk och cirkulär ekonomi inom byggprocessen. Studiens mål är att redogöra för den klimatbesparande och ekonomiska potentialen för att förädla mineralullsspill från en husfabrik. I studiens mål ingår det också att utvärdera möjligheterna till en implementering på Häggmarks husfabrik i Sunne.

    Resultatet av studien visar på att det finns flera goda möjligheter till en implementering av processen i en husfabrik. Studien har genomförts med Häggmarks AB i Sunne och Västra Ämtervik. Häggmarks har goda förutsättningar för ett återbruk av isoleringsspill. All byggnation sker inomhus skyddat från fukt. Det finns stora ytor att använda som förvaring samt lokal för en förädlingsprocess.

    Den återbrukade lösullsisoleringen visar på god isoleringsförmåga, en stor klimatbesparing samt en ekonomsik nytta för Häggmarks.

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  • 6.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, AmjadJönköping University.
    Sustainable Cities: Authenticity, Ambition and Dream2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book has been written to represent the efficient applications of sustainability in urban areas. The book intends to illustrate various techniques of action on sustainability on city conception, functions and conformation. This book is divided into four parts and nine chapters: Section I is entitled "Introduction to Sustainable Cities Concept" and contains one chapter "Introductory chapter: Overview of Sustainable Cities Theory and Practices," which discusses sustainability in cities in conception and practice. Section II is entitled "Energy and Environmental Analysis of Sustainable Cities Models." This includes four chapters. It expresses the effect of the environment and energy embodiment on city configuration and function. Section III is entitled "The Role of Transport in a Sustainable City." This part includes two chapters. Section IV is entitled "The influence of Social and Economic Factors in Urban Space Conception." It includes two chapters.

  • 7.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Overview of Sustainable Cities, Theory and Practices2019In: Sustainable Cities: Authenticity, Ambition and Dream / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, Kroatia: INTECH, 2019, p. 2-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jonkoping University, Sweden..
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Homod, Raad Z.
    Basrah University for Oil and Gas, Iraq..
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jonkoping University, Sweden..
    Environmental profile on building material passports for hot climates2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 3720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vernacular building materials and models represent the construction methods and building materials used in a healthy manner. Local building materials such as gravel, sand, stone, and clay are used in their natural state or with minor processing and cleaning to mainly satisfy local household needs (production of concrete, mortar, ballast, silicate, and clay bricks and other products). In hot climates, the concept of natural building materials was used in a form that can currently be applied in different kinds of buildings. This concept depends on the proper consideration of the climate characteristics of the construction area. A material passport is a qualitative and quantitative documentation of the material composition of a building, displaying materials embedded in buildings as well as showing their recycling potential and environmental impact. This study will consider two usages of building materials. The first is the traditional use of building materials and their importance in the application of vernacular building strategies as an essential global bioclimatic method in sustainable architecture. The second is the affordable use of new building materials for their availability and utilization by a large part of society in a way to add more detail to research. The article aims to create an objective reading and analysis regarding specific building materials in order to generate a competent solution of materials that is suitable for building requirements in hot climates. This study evaluates the most suitable Building Material Passports needed in hot climates, where the environmental profile must be analyzed to confirm the use of natural materials.

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  • 9.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Reviewing and Integrating AEC Practices into Industry 6.0: Strategies for Smart and Sustainable Future-Built Environments2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 13464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the possible ramifications of incorporating ideas from AEC Industry 6.0 into the design and construction of intelligent, environmentally friendly, and long-lasting structures. This statement highlights the need to shift away from the current methods seen in the AEC Industry 5.0 to effectively respond to the increasing requirement for creative and environmentally sustainable infrastructures. Modern building techniques have been made more efficient and long-lasting because of AEC Industry 6.0’s cutting-edge equipment, cutting-edge digitalization, and ecologically concerned methods. The academic community has thoroughly dissected the many benefits of AEC Industry 5.0. Examples are increased stakeholder involvement, automation, robotics for optimization, decision structures based on data, and careful resource management. However, the difficulties of implementing AEC Industry 6.0 principles are laid bare in this research. It calls for skilled experts who are current on the latest technologies, coordinate the technical expertise of many stakeholders, orchestrate interoperable standards, and strengthen cybersecurity procedures. This study evaluates how well the principles of Industry 6.0 can create smart, long-lasting, and ecologically sound structures. The goal is to specify how these ideas may revolutionize the building industry. In addition, this research provides an in-depth analysis of how the AEC industry might best adopt AEC Industry 6.0, underscoring the sector-wide significance of this paradigm change. This study thoroughly analyzes AEC Industry 6.0 about big data analytics, the IoT, and collaborative robotics. To better understand the potential and potential pitfalls of incorporating AEC Industry 6.0 principles into the construction of buildings, this study examines the interaction between organizational dynamics, human actors, and robotic systems.

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  • 10.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University .
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University .
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Akiner, Ilknur
    Akdeniz University, TUR.
    Akiner, Muhammed Ernur
    Akdeniz University, TUR.
    Coherent Investigation on a Smart Kinetic Wooden Facade Based on Material Passport Concepts and Environmental Profile Inquiry2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 14, article id 3771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is one of the most fully renewable building materials, so wood instead of non-renewable materials produced from organic energy sources significantly reduces the environmental impact. Construction products can be replenished at the end of their working life and their elements and components deconstructed in a closed-loop manner to act as a material for potential construction. Materials passports (MPs) are instruments for incorporating circular economy principles (CEP) into structures. Material passports (MPs) consider all the building's life cycle (BLC) steps to ensure that it can be reused and transformed several times. The number of reuse times and the operating life of the commodity greatly influence the environmental effects incorporated. For a new generation of buildings, the developing of an elegant kinetic wooden facade has become a necessity. It represents a multidisciplinary region with different climatic, fiscal, constructional materials, equipment, and programs, and ecology-influencing design processes and decisions. Based on an overview of the material's environmental profile (MEP) and material passport (MP) definition in the design phase, this article attempts to establish and formulate an analytical analysis of the wood selection process used to produce a kinetic facade. The paper will analyze the importance of environmentally sustainable construction and a harmonious architectural environment to reduce harmful human intervention on the environment. It will examine the use of wooden panels on buildings' facades as one solution to building impact on the environment. It will show the features of the formation of the wooden exterior of the building. It will also examine modern architecture that enters into a dialogue with the environment, giving unique flexibility to adapt a building. The study finds that new buildings can be easily created today. The concept of building materials passport and the environmental selection of the kinetic wooden facade can be incorporated into the building design process. This will improve the economic and environmental impact of the building on human life.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sociala krav i byggentreprenader: En tillfällig trend eller här för att stanna?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has, since the economic crisis of 2007, gained increasing social segregation. The gap between rich and poor has increased and the large number of hidden statistics regarding people excluded from the labor market is greater than in many years. Social exclusion has thus taken a toll on community groups that already before the crisis had a hard time getting included. Groups such as young, elderly, immigrants and people with mental of physical disabilities. To curb this development, the European Commission have, since the 2004 directives, enabled public sector clients to, through procurement of goods, services and contracts, include measures that promote social consideration.

    Social consideration is a term that have been a part of Swedish procurement legislation since 2007, and was updated in 2010. This update meant that the meaning of this term was given greater weight and that clients were more clearly encouraged to use the term.

    The term social consideration have proven to be an unclear term, both in European tutorials and governmental investigations. Investigators describe the possibility as difficult to interpret and legally complex. To enable a smooth implementation, an open dialogue between clients and contractors have been recommended. A dialogue which, according to this study based on personal interviews, is being missing, partly or completely, in many places around central Sweden.

    The goal and purpose of this study is based on a range of issues surrounding the concept of social consideration and its impact on the public sector in Sweden. What is being done, what is wanted and why. The personal interviews where conducted with municipal housing companies and municipalities in order to reconcile the current state of the new contract term.

    These interviews clearly show that the term social consideration is known by the majority of public clients in central Sweden. However, only one out of seven interviewees have hitherto pushed through a work contract with predetermined requirements on social considerations. Notable though, is that three out of seven interviewees where in the process of publishing work contracts with the instituted social demands criterion.

    The justification for why the remaining parties did not, or where not planning to, set social standards in public work contracts was motivated mainly by the absence of knowledge in the subject. Clearer evidence and better guidance was considered a linchpin for future implementation. It was consistently put forth that social responsibility can lead to good future synergies for both society and their own company. But the design of how to set the requirement or requirements and in what stage, is something that every interviewed party had its own opinion about.

    Despite divided opinions on how and at what stage social considerations should be included in public procurement, there is a unified voice among the interviewed parties saying that the concept of social responsibility and consideration is here to stay.

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    Sociala krav i byggentreprenader
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  • 12.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Berglund, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Förbättra lågenergihusens materialval ur ett hållbart perspektiv: En studie hur man kan förbättra valet av isoleringsmaterial till vägg och tak samt material till grundkonstruktionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13. Annas, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Niklas
    Effektivisering av byggproduktion: vid byte av fönster2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Anneli, Delang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Livscykelekonomiska kalkyler (LCC) som beslutsunderlag i praktiken: - hos Landstingsfastigheter Värmland och Dalarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det går att spara mycket energi i befintliga offentliga fastigheter och lokaler. Sveriges landsting har under 2009-2016 sparat omkring 180 miljoner kronor i minskade energikostnader på årsbasis (SKL 2016). Livscykelkostnadskalkyler (LCC) lyfts fram av forskare som del i svaret för att överkomma brister och/eller identifiera framgångsfaktorer för hållbart byggande (Gluch 2014). Landstingen i Värmland och Dalarna är bäst i Sverige på energieffektvisering (SKL 2016) och har arbetat strategiskt och framgångsrikt med energifrågor sedan 1990 talet och har använt sig av LCC i omkring 10 år. Hur arbetar de med LCC i praktiken?

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    Arkivfil
  • 15.
    Augustson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Stanser, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Projektutveckling av kvarteret Ärtan: Marknadsanalys2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Skanska Hus Väst is planning to construct condominiums in an area called Ärtan which lies in Karlstad, in the city district of Romstad. To be able to construct condominiums in this area a market analysis is needed. The market analysis describes the most appropriate type of residence to construct depending on ground conditions, public demand, the surrounding buildings and environment, the pattern in which the inhabitants move in the rural- and in the city district and how much the customer is willing to pay for a condominium on Ärtan. This means that relevant statistics of income, employment, prices on equal objects and more is needed to forecast the housing- and property market.

     

    The first part in the project development of Ärtan is to make a market analysis. The market analysis includes the city analysis, the object analysis and the business intelligence, figure 2.  

    The business intelligence is not included because the report is demarcated to the city- and object analysis only. The city- and object analysis will result in the determination of a suitable target group and how much the customer will be willing to pay for a condominium in Ärtan.  The purpose of this study is to determine these two and also decide the methods most appropriate for analyzing and determining the will of payment for the project.

     

    Business intelligence

    MARKET ANALYSIS

    City analysis

    Object analysis

    A short description of the city

    Business sector and employment

    Housing - and property market

    Population

    Supply and demand

      The state of the Property market

    A short description of the object

    Location analysis

    Equal objects

    Incomes and profitability

    Figure 2. Layout of the market analysis.

     

    The methods used for analyzing and making a conclusion in the report are:

    • Tobins Q
    • Business sector specialization quota
    • Regression analysis
    • Multiple Regression analysis
    • The method of location and price (Ortprismetoden)
    • Demand with the help of elasticity's.

     

    With these methods and with a great amount of collected data we have drawn the conclusion that the conditions for constructing condominiums in Ärtan are not optimal but still profitable. We have tried to make this judgment as objective as possible and we have looked at all the advantages and disadvantages of the area. Karlstad's business sector and employment have increased during the last years and are displaying good conditions to withstand these troubling financial times.

    We found good conditions to invest in the real estate market in Romstad, due to the lack of condominiums in the area and due to a higher level of incomes compared to the rest of the inhabitants of Karlstad.

               

    After the traces from the financial crises we assess that the will of payment on condominiums on Ärtan should be about 22 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area) in the interval of 20 500 - 23 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area). Suitable target groups for the product are people which have a good and firm will of payment and are in their thirties or forties. A good thing to do is also to adjust parts of the condominiums for older inhabitants. Our opinion is that a mix of younger and older people creates charm, comfort and a sense of safety in the neighborhood which is needed to get the area more attractive on the market.

     

    All the methods that were used in this analysis showed similar results which led us to the conclusion that all of the methods used are suitable for this assignment. However, the combination of the multiple regression analysis and the brokers' opinions is the most suitable one for the assignment because the combination can be executed easy, swift and true.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Axelsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Åtgärder för minskad klimatbelastning i anläggningsprojekt: Trafikverkets ökade krav på klimatgasreducering genom Klimatkalkyl2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction processes in the construction industry account for emissions of approximately 6 million tonnes CO2e per year in Sweden. This means a significant proportion of about 10% of the climate-related emissions in Sweden. Climate impact in the construction industry is mainly due to the consumption of fossil fuel in work machinery and transport vehicles, as well as steel, asphalt and concrete production (IVA 2014).

    The Swedish Transport Administration, which manages the infrastructure in Sweden, orders annual construction work for the amount of SEK 60 billion in investment and maintenance. The Swedish Transport Administration has been assigned by the government to contribute to the transport policy consideration for environment and health. This means a climate-neutral infrastructure by 2050 and reduced climate impact by 2020 by 15% compared with 2015. To achieve this, the Swedish Transport Administration has developed a tool called Climate calculus to calculate and define a starting point for climate-related emissions in the projects. By means of Climate calculations, the Swedish Transport Administration requires projectors and contractors to reduce the climate impact of the projects in relation to the initial situation.

    The assignment for the degree project is NCC Infra Service Middle. The Swedish Transport Administration is one of NCC's most important customers, which means that the increased demands concern them to the highest extent. The idea behind the thesis is to study a suitable project where potential climate-saving measures are calculated. The project chosen for the study is an 11 km long road project on the highway 63 outside Karlstad, which NCC Infra Service began at the end of 2016. The project is interesting to study because it could potentially be covered by the new requirements. The aim is to provide NCC Infra Services with increased knowledge and better prerequisites for meeting tomorrow's tougher requirements. A Climate calculation has been prepared for the project to identify climate impacts and materials and calculate a starting point for the project's climate impact. Investigations for the purpose of mapping options have been implemented. Finally, it has been calculated how climate impact is affected if the proposed measures are taken.

    In total, the project generates emissions of 1 433 tones CO2e. Bituminous layers, asphalt, have the greatest impact, about 40%. Diesel consumption in work machines and transport vehicles generates about 27% of total emissions. Steel in the form of rails and felt fence accounts for about 19%. Remaining is distributed on concrete, explosives and rock crushing. If all proposed measures were implemented, a 47% reduction would be achieved. Most importantly, there is a shift from diesel to Hydrogenated vegetable oil. The reduction is 23% in relation to the initial situation, or 15% if the other measures are implemented simultaneously. Using Green Asphalt-made asphalt instead of conventionally manufactured would reduce the climate impact of the project by about 13%. Crushing rock materials on-site would reduce the overall climate load by about 10%. Using only wire rods instead of beam rods would give a reduction of about 5%.

    Several of the changes should also lead to an economic saving of about 1.4 MSEK. If the Swedish Transport Administration bonus of 3% of the contract sum, in this case about 2 MSEK, also would be distributed the financial outcome would be a profit of approximately 3.4 MSEK compared to the economic outturn.

    The conclusion is that the Swedish Transport Administration's demands are fully achievable. There is a great potential to reduce emissions from the construction industry. NCC's focus should be to switch to HVO fuel, always use Green Asphalt, try to crush rock material on-site and minimize material use, especially asphalt, steel and concrete.

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  • 17.
    Berg, Nicklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eriksson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan modulbadrum och platsbyggt badrum vid renovering2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 1960 och 1975 byggdes cirka 1 006 000 nya bostäder i Sverige. Många av dessa lägenheter har idag ett stort behov av renovering. Ett alternativ till att renovera badrummen på traditionellt sätt, där badrummet rivs ut och fräschas upp är att använda ett så kallat modulbadrum som integreras i den nuvarande huskroppen. Målet med arbetet var att med hjälp av kriterierna ekonomi, miljö och kvalitet utreda vilket alternativ som är bäst lämpat vid renovering; att bygga in badrumsmoduler eller att renovera befintliga badrum. Dessutom ska hyresgästernas åsikter i frågan utredas i form av en enkät. Vidare kontrollerades eventuella skillnader i miljöpåverkan samt kostnaderna för att klimatkompensera. Jämförelserna gjordes med hjälp av erhållna handlingar från Con-Form samt uppgifter från kalkylatorer på företag i branschen. Detta sammanställdes sedan i kalkyler i kalkyleringsverktygen BidCon och Sektionsfakta där priset per modul och priset per platsbyggt badrum kalkylerades fram. Denna summa användes för att få fram en pay off-tid för att se hur många år det, vid en hyreshöjning, skulle ta att betala sig. Materialen kontrollerades i databasen SundaHus för att se vilket alternativ som var mest miljövänligt och innehöll minst antal farliga substanser. Enkäten visade att den tänkta målgruppen är negativt inställda till modulbadrumsalternativet. Därför är det osannolikt att hyresgäster i allmänhet kommer acceptera de förändringar som modulbadrumslösningen innebär. Förlusten av ljus och försämringen av planlösningen samt de försämrade möbleringsmöjligheterna är argument tunga nog för att överskugga fördelarna. Pay off-tiden för det högsta hyresökningsalternativet är möjligtvis rimligt, men faller på att målgruppen helt förkastar lösningen. Därför är slutsatsen att modulbadrum inte är ett alternativ till att renovera befintliga badrum eftersom kundernas åsikter och kostnaderna talar emot detta. Platsbyggda badrum rekommenderas i det här fallet.

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  • 18.
    Berggren, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dig or no dig?: En jämförelse mellan schaktfria tekniker och konventionell schakt vid VA-produktion.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's public water and sewer system consists of 191 000 km of water- and sewer pipelines. Annually is it about 380 km of pipelines which not is reconditioned even if it should if the renovation rate should keep up with the ageing of the pipelines. The renovation costs large sums of money which is supposed to be one of the biggest reasons that some of the renovations are absent. In order to keep production going in Sweden’s water and sewer - sector is it required that both finance and time is to be reviewed.

    This study compares the economics of various methods of producing water and sewer lines. The work also includes a study of pollution in form of carbon dioxide during the production of pipelines. The methods that have been raised are conventional excavation, directional drilling and relining. In directional drilling has two methods been examined, JT and AT drilling. For relining the examined methods are slip-lining and closed -fit.

    The work has been done for Skanska Väg och Anläggning Väst , which is part of Skanska Sverige AB. The comparison has been performed with a literature study to complete the theory behind the background. The result in the comparative study of economics and environment is based on calculations from completed and ongoing projects within Skanska, as well as interviews with various contractors.

    The results show that trenchless technologies emit less carbon dioxide than conventional excavation which is not surprising since the excavation handled much larger land masses. In regards to the economy can be said that the basis of the result is substandard but a fact is still that what is most effective due to cost varies depending on the project. A generalization can be made for trenchless methods. These tend to be more profitable, the deeper and longer works, and the fewer connections and the ramifications it is on line. Directional drilling is limited by the drilling mud that is an out coming waste during the production. For bigger line sizes will the disposing of the sludge be a major expense which in some cases can make it unprofitable to drill. Generally drilling bigger sizes with god profit demands objects worthy of protection above ground.

  • 19.
    Berglund, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    bygglogistik: Vilka vinster kan göras genom välplanerad materialhantering?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 20.
    Bergström, Johannes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Sjöberg, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nybyggnation av våtrum: Jämförelse mellan förtillverkat och platsbyggt2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Con-Form AS är en norskägd stomentreprenör som projekterar och egentillverkar byggdelarsåsom vägg, bjälklagselement, pelare, balk, trappor och våtrumsmoduler. Att tillverkavåtrumsmoduler är en relativt ny och obeprövad byggteknik i Sverige gentemot platsbyggdavåtrum. Anledningarna till valet av en specifik produkt är priset och kvalitén.Den prisjämförelse som utförts i denna rapport är framtagen utifrån produktion av tjugofyravåtrum. Våtrummet som har kostnadskalkylerats är på 5,9 m2 och består av en toalett, ettduschset med draperi samt ett handfat med tillhörande underskåp och armaturer.Kostnaden för våtrumsmodulen har tagits fram av Con-Form Töcksfors AB och kostnaden fördet platstillverkade våtrummet av NCC Karlstad i samarbete med underentreprenörer. I dettafall blev summan för det platstillverkade våtrummet 52 500 SEK och summan förvåtrumsmodulen 50 900 kr. Vid byggnation av platstillverkade våtrum blir de indirektakostnaderna mer omfattande. Indirekta kostnader är exempelvis ökad material- ochavfallshantering på byggarbetsplatsen. Våtrumsmodulen är därmed det billigare alternativetav de båda.En fördel med det förtillverkade våtrummet är delvis minskad materialhantering påbyggarbetsplatsen då modulen levereras vid inbyggnadstidpunkt och med kranlyft placerasdirekt i byggnaden. En nackdel med våtrumsmoduler är att dessa tidigt behöver komma in iprojekteringen och kunden låser sig därmed vid valt våtrum. Våtrumsmoduler passar därmedbäst i hotell och hyresrätter där det är en och samma beställare som tidigt i projekteringenbeslutar över utseende av våtrummen.En fördel med platsbyggnation är möjligheten att anpassa våtrummet efter kundens tycke ochbehov längre fram i byggskedet. Detta kan vara en avgörande faktor vid försäljning avexempelvis bostadsrätter. Däremot blir kostnaden för våtrummet dyrare vid platstillverkningoch logistik samt materialhantering blir mer omfattande.

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  • 21.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Massivträ: Jämförelse mellan olika principer för sammanfogning av trä till plattelement med avseende på pris, hållfasthet och ekologi2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of solid wood construction methods can have a positive impact on the sustainability of constructions. The development of computer-controlled processing techniques enables the solid wood timber industry to rationalize the construction of buildings. The solid wood techniques come at time and will be higher valued in the future due to the natural characteristics of this material.

    The improvement of solid wood methods has resulted in various techniques to join wood into solid prefabricated parts. There is a need for a comparative market study of the different principles of solid wood construction to widen the knowledge and to explain interested builders the viability of these techniques. The key question for this study is: Which techniques of combining solid wood elements to whole boards are the most favorable ones concerning wood construction buildings – leaving apart questions of production costs, durability and ecological considerations?

    To point out the utility of these construction techniques and give them a broader understanding a general study of solid wood construction has been presented. The comparative study is based as well on studies of literature as on reviews of 27 companies in 6 countries.

    The following techniques for the production of boards made of solid timber elements are considered in this report:

     Laminating

     Nailing

     Stapling

     Screwing

     Stress laminating

     Doweling: vertically, horizontally, diagonally and with wooden screws

     Dovetailing techniques

     Wood welding techniques

    The study shows that the techniques of solid wood construction are very different in itself. CLT of cross-laminated timber scores highest in terms of cost and durability, but if one considers ecological factors, dovetailing is best. Taking into account both durability and ecological considerations, doweling is best. These alternatives give some freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces and the efficient use of lower qualities of timber and they are therefore suitable for residential construction buildings.

    CLT is the most cost-effective, not patented and well established option in the market; the development of more health-friendly adhesives is still going on. Current researches demonstrate an alternative: Wood welding joins the parts better together than gluing them.

    Considered from the ecological viewpoint, boards made exclusively of wood, are preferable since no chemicals or not renewable resources are used. Recent researches show, that solid wood constructions have positive effects on the health of the residents of these buildings in comparison of buildings using non-natural materials.

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  • 22.
    Carlson, Rosinda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Erfarenhetsåterföring i byggbranschen: En kvalitativ undersökning av erfarenhetsåterföring mellan projekt i byggbranschen2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to generate an understanding of experience feedback in organizations in the construction industry and examine what motivates and inhibits this. The study was conducted as an inductive qualitative interview study. In-depth interviews were consequently conducted with nine project managers in the construction industry and the data were then analyzed thematically. The data analysis resulted in three different themes: (1) Experience - organizational but person-dependent, (2) Personal drive or an imposed requirement and (3) The desire to move forward. The results showed that the structure of organizations' feedback on experience differs. It is more organized in some organizations and not even a requirement in others. The time perspective, the prevailing pandemic linked to the fact that much of the knowledge is person-dependent and that it is not a requirement from management are challenges that the study identifies linked to experience feedback in organizations in the construction industry. The driving force to share their experiences with colleagues that has been distinguished as the most prominent is the desire to make it easier for colleagues in the future and that the process will not have to be reinvented.

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  • 23.
    Carlén Bäckström, Lucas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mamghaderi, Javad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    En studie om arbetsmiljö, tillbud, och risker inom produktion med fokus på kategorin fall2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The working environment in construction production is an area that is exposed to a large amount of risks, incidents and accidents. Incidents and risk observations that are the step before accidents happens daily at the construction working environment, which entails an increased risk of someone being injured or even die while doing their works. No one need to hurt themselves or die while doing their jobs, a working environment should be a safe place for everyone. Therefore, the work environment agency, the construction industry and the construction companies in Sweden all are constantly working on improving the working environment in construction production. Although the construction industries has achieved a more well-developed and safer working environment than it was before in time, risks and accidents still happening. This project is carried out with support from the construction company Peab with the aim of strengthening the knowledge of why incidents, risk observations and accidents occur in construction production and within which category the greatest problem occurs. This project has been limited to incidents and accidents within the category of fall from higher altitude. The area in this category is one of the most dangerous working environment areas where the victims are exposed to the worst consequences. The method for this study was carried out through case studies on two different workplaces, questionnaires, interviews and literature study. After the report has been compiled with using all the method and the collected data, it turns out that even today there are problems regarding risk observations, incidents and accidents at the workplaces in construction production. The fact that there are risks in the working environments in construction production depends on many parameters. like lack in communication, plans/controls, deficiencies in attitude / human factor, lack of time/stress, deficiencies in performance and weather conditions are causes that lead to most risks, incidents and accidents. The conclusion shows that the most common incidents and risks that have occurred are related to the category fall which is refer to one area of some type of higher level that is very exposed area. The winter climate in Sweden has a direct connection to the fact that the incidents and the risks through falls and slips increase significantly during the winter months. Problems within the planning phase, the execution phase and the follow-up phase occurs and the basis for the problems depends in most cases on attitude or the human factor. The most important improvement measures in terms of attitude are that every individual must think for himself and consider being more cautious and take the security measures more seriously at the risky areas. Staying for a short while in the work process and thinking before carrying out the work can make a big difference, it will make the person who carrying out the work more caution which in turn will help with reducing accidents and incidents at workplaces in production. The recommendations presented show that there are a lot of improvement measures to take to make workplaces in production safer.

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  • 24. Celik, Ahmedin
    et al.
    Berggren, Daniel
    Hammarö ryttarförening - En framtid med möjligheter: Ett styrdokument för utveckling av Hammarö ryttarförenings verksamhet och anläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarö ryttarförening (HRF) runs a riding school and rents horse stabling to individualsand there facility is located in Torp in Hammarö municipality. In the fall of 2012 HRF begana project whose purpose was to ensure that the organization and facility are conducted in linewith the association’s mission, goals and visions. The reason for the extensive work was thatthe facility is worn and heavily neglected in terms of renovations and that many of thepremises don’t meet the requirements of the business. To assist the work HRF took help fromthe construction engineering program at Karlstad University and KLARA architects inKarlstad.

    The purpose of this report was to highlight and clarify the potential development opportunitiesfor HRF’s business at the current or a new location. The objective of this report was to presenta steering document that outlines some of the development opportunities. The steeringdocument should include a business analysis that describes the present situation and vision, alocality study of potential sites, an economic analysis to estimate the economic impact of eachalternative location and a conceptual proposal of a new horse stable and new site plan at Torp.Important issues that the studies should answer were which alternative location that wasconsidered to have the greatest opportunity to achieve a more appropriate facility with highquality, safety and availability in the long term, and that is considered to have the greatestopportunity to develop and expand the association's various activities.

    A literature study was conducted where laws, rules and theory of horse stables and itsfunctions were read. The business analysis was developed in consultation with HRF throughmeetings and field trips. The locality study was made as a SWOT analysis where strengthswere analyzed against weaknesses and opportunities against threats. The approach for thesketch and drawing phase to develop a conceptual proposal was to sketch out variousalternative proposals and to have regular meetings with HRF and KLARA architects. Theeconomic report was drawn up as a budget spreadsheet for all the buildings, which would bepart of each alternative location, where total investment cost including production, contractorand other start-up costs could be estimated.

    The result of the report was a detailed business analysis that specified HRF's goals andvisions. The locality study examined three potential alternative locations, one alternative wasdismissed and two alternatives were examined in more detail. One alternative was based onHRF's current location at Torp and the other on a new location at Sätter on Hammarö. Also,the economic impact for each alternative location was evaluated.

    The conceptual proposal resulted in a draft blueprint for a new horse stable and a new siteplan for Torp where the new horse stable was included. The conclusion was that HRF wouldhave more opportunities to meet their goals and visions if HRF moved to the new location atSätter. The economic report demonstrated that there would be a greater investment to relocateto Sätter than to remain on Torp, but that it could be justified as it would give HRF and otherstakeholders a greater opportunity for long-term development and contribute to a betterassociationism.

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  • 25.
    Damberg Larsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    GNSS-baserat grävsystem i VA-projekt: En undersökning om GNSS-baserade grävsystem ger ökad produktivitet och säkerhet i medelstora VA-projekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine control has long been common in major road construction and railway construction. However, machine control has become more and more common when digging trenches for pipe laying, but there are not many studies on how the use of machine control affects a work as trench digging for pipe laying.

     

    The report will investigate how a sewer, water and drain pipe project is influenced by using excavators that are equipped with machine control. The investigation will be conducted in two parts and will cover three different themes, economics, work environment and environment.

     

    Different questionnaires were customized for people with different positions. The persons surveyed were workers affected by the use of machine control in projects. These surveys addressed all three of the above topics.

     

    In order to make a deeper study of how the use of machine control affects the economy, figures on costs and progress / productivity were collected from a trench digging and pipe laying project in Toverud, Hammarö. There they used excavators that were equipped with machine control. These figures were compared to a reference project that was also carried out in Hammarö, but in 2009 when machine control was not used.

     

    The result shows that the use of machine control increases productivity while reducing workload and dangers for workers. Because the same type of work is carried out in less time, the total fuel consumption for the project decreases. The calculations showed that a work involving 1100 meters of trench digging and pipe laying. There would be savings up to around 3178 liters of diesel, and that the execution time would be about 15 days faster if the excavators were equipped with machine control.

    A limitation of machine control is that there is a lot of work for the surveyor if many revisions of the drawings are required. It is very important that the surveyor performs well with the line profile, otherwise the positive effects of using machine control at work will disappear. High buildings and forests can be a problem for the reception.

    The conclusion is that productivity increases and quality in the work environment is improved when using machine control.

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    GNSS-baserat grävsystem i VA-projekt
  • 26.
    Dzafic, Amir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser: En studie om risker och konsekvenser inom NCC:s produktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theft and brake-ins at Swedish construction sites is a very common problem that mainly occurs during the production phase of building. The fractures that occur are not limited to a specific area but they also occur throughout the entire country. However, the areas around the major cities and larger national and European roads are most affected. Many companies are not prepared for the costs of a theft or burglary and there are no clear procedures for dealing with the situation that occurs. Stolen gods and burglaries is a waste of production that the companies should work harder to remove or at least reduce. The waste is so big that about 7000 burglaries and robberies from Swedish workplaces are reported annually. According to other studies, these 7000 burglars render a cost of 1.4 billion SEK annually for the Swedish construction industry.

    The work has been carried out and with the help of NCC Sverige AB section Värmland. The main purpose and goal of this work is to make NCC workplaces safer and more efficient by reducing the risk of a theft or burglary. The goal is also to give an increased understanding of what it means and what happens in the production phase after thefts and burglaries at construction sites.

    The method used to obtain the right information is primarily interviews and questionnaire surveys, but discussions have also been held with most supervisors, site managers and several other workers. In addition, site visits have been carried out at construction sites where routines have been investigated, placement of containers and security in and around the site offices as well as preventive measures and the risks involved on the site.

    The subject is quite unexplored, but there are some studies that have been done over the years. Svenska Byggbranschens Utveklingsfond, SBUF, has done several information papers and implemented a number of projects that deal with theft and burglaries on Swedish construction sites. Another major study that has been carried out is "Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser – omfattning, skadeverkan och risk", a study conducted at Malmö University on behalf of FoU Väst. These studies form the basis of my work and this is where knowledge and information about the subject has been retrieved.

    The investigations showed that a workplace that is close to major roads or which is located in a way that makes the insight poor, is at the highest risk of being affected by burglaries. Furthermore, it is possible to say that bad lighting, badly marked alarm signs and a workplace that is not properly protected in the form of proper fences and locks lies in a high-risk zone in case of a theft. There is a lot to work to do with the companies when it comes to routines and preventive measures. For example, one would be able to invest in a much more burglary fence which would make work difficult for any thieves.

    Given the pressure on building homes and other buildings in Sweden today, the risks will increase to be exposed by a burglary or a theft. This is an important factor that makes the topic interesting for companies in the industry so that they can get well prepared for each construction site in terms of prevention measures.

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  • 27.
    Ekberg, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Granqvist, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Maskinhantering: Köpa kontra hyra maskiner och hjälpmedel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates when it is economically most profitable to buy or rent machines or other equipment, the survey takes place on two of Skanska Sweden AB’s project around Stenungsund. To find out when a machine or other equipment becomes more viable to invest in, the authors designed a calculating spreadsheet in Excel. The calculation computes the total price for both rent and investment, but also after how many days a particular machine or equipment will be more viable to buy. By using the calculating spreadsheet, the projects most common machines and equipment have been studied to find out which machines and equipment that is economically viable to invest in or to rent.

     

    The aim of the project is that through interviews and comparisons between different machines and equipment provide suggestions for the economically most profitable option for investment and/or rental in machinery.

     

    The goal of the project is to educe the economically most profitable option for Skanska site manager concerning to purchase or rent different machines or other equipment. Moreover, the aim of the thesis and for Skanska district manager Malin Dahlstedt, which is the external supervisor for the thesis, to create a calculating spreadsheet which compare the cost of investment and renting different machines and equipment as well as calculating how many days it takes before an investment is economically viable.

     

    The calculator takes the base price of rent, number of days of rental, number of machines, discount rates and a surcharge, in percent, in regards for the calculations. The discount rates are taken from “Skanska Maskin” rental template and the surcharge, which are added to the investment price, includes repair-, maintenance- and storage costs.

     

    An example of the results is screwdrivers that costs 20 Swedish crowns a day to rent by “Skanska Maskin” and has an investment cost of 2 372 Swedish crowns. This leads to that after 279 days, it is economically viable to invest in a screwdriver according to the calculation compute. In Per-Olof’s project in Spekeröd a screwdriver were used in 245 days, which in throughout the project, this means that it is more viable to rent that screwdriver during this project. Per-Olof has, however, invested in screwdrivers because he knows that they will be used in his upcoming projects, which also means that he always has screwdrivers on site whenever they are needed.

     

    The machines and equipment that earliest becomes viable to invest in are the machines and equipment used daily out on the sites, such as nailers and screwdrivers. The remaining machines and equipment are more viable to rent by “Skanska Maskin” since the occupancy rate is not high enough.

     

    To investigate the cost and profitability of machines and other equipment in project are important because it is a relative large expenditure of each project. It is interesting when Skanska wants to win the offers and should therefore have the lowest expenses possible in every project. The study is also interesting for the authors because they will probably have great use of the results in their future engineering professions.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    LEED Commissioning: Hur man i Sverige kan uppfylla dess krav2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet visar hur den svenska byggprocessen stämmer överens med Commissioningprocessen i det amerikanska miljöcertifieringssystemet för byggnader kallat LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). Examensarbetet går igenom de 12 stegen som LEED Commissioning är uppbyggt efter och förklarar varje steg i detalj.

    Commissioning är en kvalitetskontroll av byggnadens installerade system. LEED Commissioning fokuserar på energisystem och de system som är relaterade till dessa.

    LEED Commissioning tillför inga nya processer till den svenska byggprocessen men det skapas en ny roll, ett antal nya dokument och det måste även genomföras ändringar i existerande dokument.

    Varje steg av LEED Commissioning har blivit analyserade. Detta har resulterat i en beskrivning avde dokument som ska skapas vid varje tillfälle, länkat till den svenska byggprocessens motsvarighet. Denna analys förklarar även den uppgift som den nya rollen Commissioning Authority (CxA) skall/kan utföra.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Michaela
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Arbetsberedningar i produktion: En analys av arbetsberedning med syfte att effektivisera och förbättra produktionen på Peab2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that good planning reduces operating coasts and costs for change and additional work. It means that thoughtful planning becomes a more important factor in reducing waste costs and achieving efficient production and good quality. A tool to achieve this is work preparation.

    Work preparation is a concept that, through planning, facilitates the performance of an activity. To achieve the desired result and quality, the choice of the performance method, workforce, materials, machines and other tools must be decided in good time before the work begins.

    The purpose of this graduate project is to make a status analysis of how Peab's work preparations are used in production. Identify errors or deficiencies and to investigate the possibility of streamlining. The objective is to get the work preparation more efficient and to suggest improvements.

    The study has been made in cooperation with Peab Region middle and the current building projects in Karlstad in spring 2017. It comprises a case study (on/at Talldungen preschool) and an interview study where site managers, supervisors and construction workers have been interviewed.

    The result shows that Peab has a structured work preparation and that the employees find the toolset useful. Working preparation clarifies requirements and any questions can be resolved before the start of the activity. During the preparation, the construction workers actively participate and can influence the choice of working methods, machines and tools. This results in a positive attitude and is perceived to provide better teamwork.

    One reoccurring problem is that time for work preparation is not prioritized, which means that the follow-up after a completed activity becomes insufficient and the documentation is often missing.

    Based on the conclusions drawn from the analysis, education, a bank of experience and also a drawing and instructional station are recommended as arrangements. Peab should be better at informing the employees about the available tools and should also be investing in developing the use of BIM.

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    Examensarbete Peab
  • 30.
    Erlandsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bolstad, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mariebergsskolans nya idrottshall: Utformning, dimensionering och jämförelse av stomalternativ i limträ2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Karlstad kommuns ägor finns 26 idrottshallar var av en är Mariebergsskolans idrottshall som är belägen 50 meter från Karlstads centralsjukhus. Idrottshallen har fuktskador och är för liten för sitt ändamål vilket lett till att flertalet förslag för renovering har funnits på agendan genom åren. Det senaste beslutet som tagits genererade i att en ny idrottshall ska börja byggas under våren 2016.

     

    Karlstad kommun uttrycker att de vill använda mer trä vid nybyggnationer men saknar i dagsläget en utarbetad träbyggnadsstrategi. Socialdemokraterna har lagt en motion om att kommunen ska arbeta fram en strategi med Växjös strategi, ”den moderna trästaden” som förebild.

     

    Målet med examensarbetet har varit att dimensionera och granska olika stomalternativ i limträ för hallbyggnaden över Mariebergsskolans idrottshall och sedan jämföra dessa i avseende materialåtgång samt materialkostnad. Val av stomme har gjorts efter att materialkostnad och materialåtgång vägts samman och det mest fördelaktiga stomalternativet tagits fram. Den valda konstruktionen har slutligen använts för ritningar och 3D-modellering av hallen.

     

    Stommen till Mariebergsskolans idrottshall består av treledstakstolar i limträ, vilande på limträpelare, med en fri spännvidd på 27 meter och en takhöjd på 7,2 meter. Den valda stommen var den mest fördelaktiga både gällande pris samt materialåtgång vilket gjorde treledstakstolen till det självklara valet.

     

    Idrottshallen har utformats med tillgänglighet och funktionalitet som grundtanke för idrottsutövare såväl som publik.

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  • 31.
    Fermhede, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Effektivisering av klimatskärm: åtgärdsförslag för bostadsföreningen Stocken2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 32. Flodell, Tilda
    et al.
    Aronsson, Nathalie
    Exploring Networking Barriers for Excavated Soil Management: A case study in the construction industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is today one of the greatest consumer of natural resources, and considering the current construction rate, the resource efficiency are to be a challenge. The complexity and uniqueness of the industry create barriers for managing resources efficiently. Construction entails excavation of soil, and from a resource perspective, the excavated soil can be managed more efficiently. The purpose of the study is to examine the network of excavated soil management and how different actors and their roles are intertwined with each other and how they are related to environmental aspects in construction projects. A qualitative case study with a systematic combining approach has been conducted, where semi-structured interviews, observations and secondary documentations were used to collect data. The collected data were further analysed using the ARA-model and the iron triangle. The results generated five main networking barriers for managing the excavated soil more efficiently; communication, co-operation and willingness to compromise/collaborate, unified vision, commitment and structure. However, the analysis resulted in two concluding barriers with the most substantial impact on the excavated soil management. First, the public procurement act which limits the opportunities for early involvement of the contractors, and second, the lack of unified vision regarding the responsibility of the excavated soil. Further, commitment among all actors is required for a joint long-term management. The findings are specific to the case, due to the complexity of the industry. Further research is required to make the results more generalizable.

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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Fredriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Ask, Fredrik
    Karlstad University.
    GC-bro med limträstomme: Dimensionering av Nya Älvbron med hjälp av datorbaserat dimensioneringsprogram2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the world today and are in great need of change and improvement. A building material that if handled properly, can contribute to reducing emissions is wood as it is the only renewable building material we have available.

    Wood has been the dominating material in bridge construction throughout history, until the last 200 years which have been characterized by concrete- and steel constructions. The relatively (relative?) new glulam can often compete with steel and concrete an make wood an attractive choice of material for example bridge constructions.

    In Karlstad a bridge of 280m for pedestrian traffic is planned to run over Klarälven and this bridge is the basis of our thesis. The bridge extends from Råtorp to Färjestad and is planned to have a frame of steel. The goal of this thesis is to design the same bridge, according to the eurocodes, with a supporting glulam frame using the computer-aided design software Robot Structural Analysis and the CAD-software Revit Structure. The bridge is sized for deadloads, snowload, windload and trafficloads both moving and static.

    The results shows that computer-aided design software can be used to great effect when sizing wooden bridges with glulam as a supporting frame, for example by calculating the results of all the possible positions of moving loads in an instant. It also shows that it is fully possible to construct a 280m long bridge made out of wood.

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  • 34.
    Frid, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eurokod1: Laster på bärverk - hur skiljer de sig från Boverkets konstruktionsregler?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Grenegård, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nygård, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    BIM inom yrkesutbildningar på gymnasienivå: En undersökning om behovet av BIM inom yrkesutbildningar på gymnasienivå2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization in the construction industry has not progressed as far as it has for other industries. But in recent years, digitization in the industry has accelerated. One reason for this is that more construction companies have started using BIM. BIM, which is an abbreviation of Building Information Model, is used throughout the construction process. BIM involves the creation and use of a digital model of a building.

    For BIM to achieve its potential, it is required that the tools work and that the people who will use the tools have the necessary knowledge. To get the knowledge needed, you need training in BIM. Today, the high school program Technology - Community Building which is a college preparatory program has courses that incorporate BIM, while vocational education programs have no introduction to BIM.

    The purpose of this report is to increase knowledge about BIM among the professionals in production. As well to investigate whether the implementation of BIM in vocational education and training is a way to increase knowledge about BIM among skilled workers in production.

    The method for this work consists of two parts, a literary study and a questionnaire survey. Students, teachers, craftsmen and officials from four upper secondary schools and three large construction companies in Sweden, participated in the survey. The survey was designed to investigate whether BIM is used, what the knowledge of BIM is like and how BIM is used in production and in schools.

    The result and conclusion of the work show that one can increase knowledge about BIM by implementing BIM in vocational training, something that craftsmen and officials are positive about. The results also show that there is a need for more knowledge in the construction industry. Obstacles to being able to implement BIM are that there are no directives from the Swedish National Agency for Education if BIM can be used in teaching and what students should learn about BIM. Teachers' competence about BIM is low and not all teachers have the time to educate themselves about BIM.

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  • 36.
    Gros, Leon
    Karlstad University.
    Problem och utmaningar i arbetet med APD-planer: En studie med fokus på fel, brister och slöseri i arbetet med och hantering av APD-planer.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis – What is being investigated?

    The thesis work examines the obstacles that exist in the case company's work with and management of construction site plans during production that lead to errors, shortcomings and waste. Furthermore, why these obstacles arise. In conclusion, the study presents the necessary changes that must take place within the fall company to improve the current work of the operations and management of construction site plans.

    The study delimits itself within housing construction technology and only processes house construction projects.

    Purpose – Why was the study conducted?

    The purpose of this thesis is to give the case company a better insight into the extent to which current problems occur and how the company's employees experience these.

    Method selection - How was the study performed?

    Studies in the thesis are carried out with the help of questionnaires, interviews, literature studies in the area and observations at workplaces. In the work, three observations are carried out on three different projects of varying size and scope.

    Questionnaires were sent out within the business to a selected group (supervisor, site managers, virtual design and construction engineers, etc.). The total number of respondents who participated in the first questionnaire was nine. The total number of respondents in the second questionnaire was 13.

    In the thesis work, a total of five interviews were performed, the interviews were recorded and took between 20 and 50 minutes. In addition to this, three site visits were carried out where the work on the construction site plan was examined. An interview with the work management was also connected to each site visit, the examinations were concluded with a roundabout at the respective construction site.

    Results - What did the study come up with?

    The three biggest causes that lead to errors, deficiencies and waste of the fall company in the work with and management of construction site plans during production are:

    1. Incomplete construction site plans

    2. Poor update of existing construction site plans

    3. Lack of use of the construction site plan during production

    The three main reasons why these errors occur are:

    1. Lack of knowledge

    2. Time pressure & stress

    3. Unstructured working methods

     

    In order to minimize these problems, the following changes should take effect:

    • The importance of the construction site plans must be raised within the company.
    • A better understanding of the area is required, education and courses should be introduced.
    • The existing information on construction site plans on the company's intranet must be updated, it is currently too bad.
    • Documentation and experience feedback and work with construction site plans during production should be made compulsory.
    • The case company should carry out more in-depth investigations in the subject area to highlight the potential of construction site planning.
    • The development team must focus more on basic problems instead of only focusing on the technical development in the area

    The default way of thinking “it must go fast” must change.

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  • 37.
    Grönqvist, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Förstärkning av bro 17-803-1: En jämförelse av förstärkningsmetoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    OskarGronqvist
  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan fyra olika energisystemlösningar: För ett hus byggt efter passivhusstandard i Karlstad2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Gäwerth, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Alipour, Jamal
    Dimensioneringsdifferens mellan hand– och databeräkningsmetoder: En jämförelse mellan hand- och datadimensionering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology is in full progress, much is increasingly becoming computerized and automated. This is a process that is constantly evolving to get better solutions to various problems. In the concrete industry, there are technical solutions that make the production more efficient. One of the main reasons that these solutions are made is to save an important resource, time. These solutions include computer programs that facilitate various stages during production.Computer programs are getting more used in the dimensioning stage in the concrete industry. Structural engineers have for many years carried out their work with traditional hand calculations. Lately computer programs, including WIN-Statik has changed the working procedures in the dimensioning stage. Previous comparisons between existing dimensioning programs have proved that there are differences in reinforcement consumption. This leads to the issue: If there are marked differences in material consumption when comparing different dimensioning programs, then how much will the difference in material consumption be when comparing one of the widely used design software WIN-Statik against hand calculations?To implement this research, an existing building has been selected as the calculations shall be based on. Both calculation methods are conducted under the same conditions regarding the external dimension measurements. Other common conditions are the lifetime of the building, the concrete quality, reinforcing thickness for both pillars and beams, and last but not least the value of the crackangle (cot).The results from hand calculation equalize about 55 801 kg reinforcement that is required for the building, while the calculations from WIN-Statik requires 51 516 kg. This difference of 4285 kg means it requires 8.32 percent more reinforcement with hand calculation, which is equal to a cost increase of 35 000 (SEK) in only material consumption.

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  • 40.
    Göthlin, Emil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlström, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur används 5S i byggbranschen?: Hur kan metoden implementeras i NCC:s dagliga arbete?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is an accident-prone industry. It is the third worst affected sector after transport and production/extraction of energy and environment. The average was, according to Arbetsmiljöverket's most recent statistics, 11 work accidents leading to absence per 1,000 active workers. All the major corporations in the industry suffer from accidents during production. The following report includes the vigorous effort made on the issue in 2014 by NCC, one of the leading construction and property development companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Safety and work environment are high priority topics within NCC and the goal is that all employees should thrive and work in a safe workplace. A long-term goal is the vision for zero accidents that apply to the entire company. In an effort to reach this vision and continually work to improve working conditions at NCC’s workplaces, various initiatives is carried out on a directorate level. One of these initiatives, which began in 2014, is to implement 5S in the organization and make the method a natural part of the daily work. The intention is that the method will improve orderliness at NCC’s workplaces, thus increasing safety, efficiency and collaboration.

     

    5S is based on the production philosophy Lean Production and intends to systematically improve the working environment and increase efficiency and collaboration. The improvements are achieved when systematic work with the five S’s coherently creates order. The method originates from the car manufacturer Toyota, but has been transformed and evolved into several other sectors and industries, including the construction industry. The five S’s for the construction industry can be termed as: sort, set in order, standardize, shine and sustain.

     

    Since the production in a construction project often differs from production in the manufacturing sector NCC had to develop a customized method for 5S before starting the implementation. The customized method for 5S includes new documents, education and presentations to reach out to the entire organization. The custom method also includes appointing a 5S responsible and a 5S team that plans the work before every project start. When production starts it’s the site managements responsibility to distribute work and ensure its execution.

     

    This thesis aim and objectives is to improve the work environment on NCC Örebro/Värmlands work sites by examining and evaluating the department’s current work with 5S as well as the method's implementation. The evaluation was conducted using a quantitative and a qualitative method in form of a questionnaire and interview study that combined generated reliable result.

     

    The result of this thesis shows that the effort, which began in 2014 to implement 5S in the organization, is neither completed nor executed in the best possible way. The effort has not been extensive enough to have a successful outcome, much due to the fact that most projects have been ongoing since before the venture. However, there are good materials available for continued work in the projects now starting up. It applies to the entire department to further inform and involve all personal in the work. Professional workers need more education, preferably together with officials and executives so that everyone's opinions will be regarded.

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    Hur används 5S i byggbranschen - Emil Göthlin & Emil Karlström
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  • 41. Hallström, Elias
    et al.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Utvärdering av förstärkningsalternativ för pappregel2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 42.
    Hamarashid, Ramyar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Mojab, Sayed Reza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Effektivisering av produktionssystem: En fallstudie på Derome Plusshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This work will be carried out in cooperation with Derome Plusshus which has a factory in Kristinehamn with approximately 40 employees and produces modular home. On behalf of the company, we have taken on the challenge of identifying improvement opportunities in the production process in the workshop, where through consultation with the company, it was decided that the focus should be on the module-line, which is the bottleneck in the production process. The aim of this work is to identify improvement opportunities that exist for the production process in the Assembly station, with a focus on the lead time. As well as providesuggestions on improvement measures will lead to an increase in production capacity, which is also the goal of the work. This will be achieved by eliminating non-value adding activities. This is a development which also contributes to a sustainable production system. In essence, the observation in the workplace, which served as the material for the work in which the latter were analyzed for a better understanding of the situation. It gave a refined material that is then analyzed based on theories lean production and 5S. It helped that the suggestions could be presented divided into share increased production capacity. The used theories at work complement each other as lean production, minimize wastage in production such as; over-production, inventory, over work, transport, wait, wrong & rework, movements and untapped creativity. Then lean production processes production supplemented it with 5S that minimize disruption to the production process. 5s consists of five key words that are logical and are based on each other, the five words reads; sort, systematize, sweep, standardize and ensure systematic review. The result was an increase in production capacity by about 25 percent, however, with the condition that all the improvement proposals, which are designed for the improvement opportunities that are recurring, is implemented. Where improvement proposals range from minor adjustments in the production process to the investment of new tools and machinery which means a cost to Derome Plusshus.

  • 43.
    Heidari, Ali masih
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hashemi, Ehsan
    Karlstad University.
    Förekomsten av tungmetaller i Grön betong: En studie om tungmetaller i grön betong jämfört med Naturvårdsverketsriktlinjer.2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The degree project, which includes 22.5 higher education credits, has been carried out as the final part of the higher education engineering program in construction technology, majoring in building construction at Karlstad University.

    Sustainability is an important topic that affects companies of all kinds. No industry can avoid thinking about how they can promote sustainability. The question of how each industry can do this is always important. Through the government's proposals and agreements, it is clear that carbon dioxide emissions are to be halved by 2030. However, it is not clear how carbon dioxide emissions are to be halved.

    Green concrete is a type of environmentally friendly concrete where part of the cement is replaced by blast furnace slag or fly ash that has been produced by Cementa and Swecem. The two most common types of cement used in green concrete are Merit and Anläggningscement FA. Merit comes from Swecem, while Construction cement AF comes from Cementa. The goal of this type of concrete is to reduce the construction industry's carbon dioxide emissions. The report aims to give readers an overview of the different types of cement used in the production of green concrete and its environmental consequences.

    The report is based on a lot of literature research and dialogue with experts from Swecem and Cement to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of green concrete. It also takes into account how its product contributes to sustainability. A lab study compared the levels of heavy metals in different types of cement, especially green concrete versus conventional concrete. The S1 titanium detector is used to measure and collect data, the detector uses X-ray fluorescence(XRF) as the measurement method.

    The study found that both the products Merit and Anläggningscement AF contained lower heavy metals than the Environmental Protection Agency's limit value. Residual green concrete can be recycled in the same way as ordinary concrete for aggregate or road-filling material. Residual green concrete only contains heavy metals found in the cement itself. Green demolition concrete that contains waste such as fire protection, thermal insulation, foam plastic, electrical installations, grouts, and pipes can potentially contain higher levels of heavy metals and can lead to the potential leaching of hazardous substances into nature.

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    Förekomsten av tungmetaller i Grön betong
  • 44.
    Hellsing, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mård, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Bostadshus från Miljonprogrammet med påbyggnad i trä: En jämförelse mellan KL-träelement och BoKlok-moduler ur bärighets- och klimatsynpunkt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and large carbon dioxide emissions are a few of today's major challenges, and the construction industry is a major contributing factor to these emissions. In Sweden, the industry accounts for 10 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year, which is equal to the emissions from all passenger cars in the country per year. A large part of the emissions can be traced to the materials in a building. By using wood instead of other materials, the emissions can be reduced since wood binds coal throughout its lifetime. Other challenges today are housing shortage, urbanization and urban densification. Housing shortage is an issue throughout Sweden, and the Swedish National Board of Housing estimates that approximately 700,000 new homes need to be built within the next 10 years. A part of the solution may be to renovate old buildings and, in addition to renovations, adding floors to create more housing. Additionally, using wood in these superstructures is beneficial both from a climate perspective and because wood is a lightweight material.

    The challenges of climate change and urban densification is in accordance with Skanska's goals and visions for the future. This report is written in collaboration with Skanska and we are looking closer at one of the company's projects in this study. The building is a concrete construction from the so called Million Programme and is located in Södertälje outside of Stockholm. Skanska is carrying out a complete renovation of the building and is adding a wood-framed top floor.The purpose of this degree project was to highlight how the choice of material can affect the emissions from future build-up projects.

    The purpose was also to develop a basis where the number of theoretical floor plans and the generated carbon dioxide emissions for the two alternatives are presented. Questions answered in this report were which alternative of the wooden construction that theoretically make the most amount of floors possible when building onto an existing building. Which one of the alternatives that leads to the lowest climate impact in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents is also answered.

    The two materials in this study were cross-laminated timber elements from Martinsons and BoKlok-modules, which are volume elements of wood stud frames from Skanska and IKEA. The climate impact of the different alternatives was based on categorization A1-A4 in the system boundary describing the material production as well as transportation from supplier to construction site. StruSoft FEM-Design has been used to model the existing concrete building. The two different attachments have been placed out as line loads on top of the model. Analysis and strength calculations have been carried out for the various additions. This is to determine the load bearing capacity of the concrete structure and the ground as well as the size of impact loads.

    The results showed that the concrete building could carry five floors of both CLT elements and BoKlok-modules. Despite this, the conclusion is that CLT is heavier. From a climate perspective, the CLT building is the one that generates the least carbon dioxide emissions in terms of production and transport of materials.

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  • 45.
    Hofvander, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Berger, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Minskad klimatpåverkanfrån kataloghus: En fallstudie om hur klimatavtrycket från byggnadsmaterial kanreduceras vid uppförande av kataloghus2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the summer of 2019, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning wascommissioned by the Government to begin preparatory work on climate declarations.Climate declarations are a compilation of the building products' fuel and energyconsumption used to build the building. The Act on Climate Declaration for Buildingsentered into force on 2022-01-01, where the purpose of the Act is to both increaseknowledge and reduce the climate impact on buildings that are constructed. The lawonly covers certain parts of the building and the emissions in the construction phaseup to the finished building but will gradually be developed and changed to lead theindustry in the right direction towards a net zero climate footprint by 2045. The study analyzes the possibility of climate efficiency in buildings through newmaterial choices and new design solutions. The goal of the work is throughcollaboration with Myresjöhus to produce a climate declaration for one of their cataloghouses and then develop alternative solutions in the design that have a positive impacton the climate declaration. The survey is based on a catalog house called Smart 150 from Myresjöhus where a climate declaration is constructed by the catalog house in theConstruction Sector's environmental calculation tool. Calculations in BM areperformed according to the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning'srecommendations, where the program's generic values are replaced by productspecific values with the help of EPDs. The emissions from the Smart 150 house modelwere calculated up to 99,08 kg CO₂e per m2. The alternative materials examined weregreen concrete, Foams Glass T3 +, Cellulose insulation wall, fiber gypsum, Recomapackwall and Cellulose insulation in attic.  The conclusion of the study is that the alternative materials green concrete, celluloseinsulation in walls and ceilings and Recoma packwall climate-efficient buildings by35%.

  • 46.
    Holmsten, Felicia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Etableringsbodar - köpa kontra hyra: Studie för NCC Construction Karlsta2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work is done for NCC Construction AB in Karlstad and all input is based on NCC's previous projects in Värmland. Most entrepreneurs rent their establishment sheds with the knowledge that it costs more than investing in sheds, but without studies that it is more profitable to buy the sheds. This study is based on energy efficient sheds from Cramo.

    The energy consumption for the production of a building is 15% of the building's life cycle, which leads to high costs. A large part of the energy in the production stage goes to the establishment sheds, studies has been made on sheds to produce energy efficient shed and therefore, expenditure on establishments has decreased. There is another way to save money regarding the establishment, and that is to own their own establishment sheds. The purpose is to show what is most profitable, renting or buying establishment sheds. In view of the assembly, disassembly, storage and maintenance a calculation was set up that shows input costs and conditions.

    If you have utilization on the sheds over 50%, it is more profitable for NCC Construction to buy their establishment sheds than renting them. What makes the biggest difference is the number of movements of the sheds. The price per build day can be halved if you have a high occupancy rate. Between 50% - 90% of the rental price will it cost to own their own sheds, based on occupancy days.

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    Etableringsbodar - köpa kontra hyr
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  • 47.
    Häggman, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Söder, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete med hjälp av BIM: Hur kan arbetsmiljöarbetet integreras i BIM? En studie utförd hos ByggDialog AB2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie har bedrivits på uppdrag av ByggDialog AB och med utbyggnaden av kraftvärmeverket i Karlstad, Hedenverket Etapp 3, som referensobjekt. Målsättningen har varit att utforma ett för ByggDialog anpassat förslag för hur det sytematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet kan integreras i BIM.Efter att ha undersökt hur ByggDialogs arbetsmiljöarbete bedrivs i dagsläget kan slutsatsen dras att det är ett över lag väl fungerande arbete med god struktur. Dock har brister inom bland annat dokumentation och kommunikation uppdagats, vilket borde kunna avhjälpas med hjälp av integrering i BIM. Målet med de i studien givna förslagen har varit att tillgodose de behov som påträffats under intervjuer med företagets personal. Förslagen har strukturerats i kortsiktiga förslag som kan genomföras i det aktuella projektet, och långsiktiga förslag som kräver viss omstrukturering och mer planering för att kunna genomföras.På kort sikt kan BIM användas vid bland annat arbetsberedning, lagbasmöten och skyddsronder. Precis som ByggDialog själva nämner i handlingsplanen kan modellen användas för visualisering men dessutom bör arbetssättet BIM användas för kommunikation och dokumentation av momenten. Det finns ett flertal applikationer i dagsläget som kan användas för det syftet.På längre sikt kan en så kallad K1-modell användas. Det är en version av bygghandlingsmodellen som används i allt arbetsmiljöarbete genom hela byggprocessen. Att även ha modellen kopplad till tidplanen, en så kallad 4D-modell, ger bäst förutsättningar för användning i arbetsmiljöarbetet. Till exempel kan identifierade risker markeras grafiskt i modellen vid den inledande riskanalysen. Modellen kan då användas vid arbetsberedning och lagbasmöten för att med hjälp av simuleringar och tidigare identifierade risker kunna planera arbetet och förutse kritiska moment. Slutligen kan K1-modellen även användas vid skyddsronder och vid tillbudsrapportering. Platser kan markeras i modellen och kopplas till foton och beskrivande texter.Ytterligare en slutsats från studien är att även om det finns en uttalad välvilja att använda sig av arbetssättet BIM hos ByggDialog, kommer det krävas en tydlig plan för hur förslagen skall genomföras. Det handlar framförallt om tydliga ansvarsroller, utbildning och att de inblandade ges tillräckligt med tid för att komma igång med de för företaget nya arbetssätten.

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  • 48.
    Höij, Daniel
    Karlstad University.
    Energieffektiva bodetableringar i byggbranschen: Fallstudie om energieffektiva byggbodar baserat på Kvarteret Fören i Karlstad2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pace of Sweden's construction is at a level that has not been relevant since the 1970s. The high pace of construction together with an increased environmental awareness is a major challenge. The Swedish construction and real estate sector accounts for about 40% of the total energy use used for electricity and heating. In Sweden, there are between 50,000–60,000 construction site facilities and the majority have poor energy performance. The major players for the rental of construction site facilities in Sweden have a wide selection and offer energy-efficient solutions but also alternatives with poorer energy performance. According to earlier studies of energy consumption for a building during its life cycle, it has been reported that construction production accounts for 14% and operation for 85% of the total energy consumption. Recent studies have shown that a larger percentage of energy use is consumed in the production- and demolition stages. The new energy-efficient houses have significantly lower energy use in the user phase, the operation cost is lower than for older buildings. This in turn means that energy use during production can vary between 12-34%. The purpose and goal of the work are to investigate different actions and solutions that would mean a more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly establishment of construction site facilities. The work also addresses information with conditions regarding energy-efficient housing establishments. Based on the results that are worked out, a final proposal will be presented to presenters on the type of construction site facilities that Consto should aim to use to achieve ecological and economic sustainability. Methods that have been applied in the work were a case study of Kvarteret Fören in Karlstad, cost of living analysis (LCC), climate calculation, and literature study. Based on the study that has been carried out, the calculations from the reference object Kvarteret Fören have shown that there are cost incentives for the use of energy-efficient construction site facilities. Consto should aim to use Miljö A or construction site facilities with poorer energy performance and extra insulation in all projects to achieve financial sustainability. When using Miljö A there is potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by about 40%. With solar cells, there is the opportunity to make booth establishments completely self-sufficient. As a result, it would lead to a reduced operating cost and a lower climate impact. But in the current situation, there are some obstacles for companies to take this step. Finally, it can be said that ecologically and economically sustainable solutions can be combined. Investments in construction site facilities can provide short - or long-term profits

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  • 49.
    Höij, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nulägesanalys och förbättringar inom Veidekkes anläggningsprojekt: Veidekkes fortsatta utveckling av anläggningsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen står i nuläget för utsläpp av cirka 11 miljoner ton koldioxidekvivalenter per år och av dem står anläggningsbranschen för 6 miljoner ton koldioxidekvivalenter per år. Alla aktörer i branschen står inför en tuff uppgift att minska de totala utsläppen tills 2050 då målet i Sverige är att minska energianvändningen med 50%. 

    Genom att certifiera anläggningsprojekt fås en positiv utveckling av branschens miljöarbete. Då CEEQUAL är det enda certifieringssystem som finns översatt till svenska och att de har mest erfarenhet i branschen är CEEQUAL det populäraste valet för att certifiera anläggningsprojekt. I CEEQUAL bedöms beställarens, projektörens och entreprenörens miljöarbete i projekten. De delar som bedöms är projektstrategi, projektledning, människor och lokalsamhälle, markanvändning och landskapsutformning, kulturhistorisk miljö, ekologi och biologisk mångfald, vattenmiljö, fysiska resurser- användning och hantering samt transporter.

    Examensarbetes syfte och mål var att undersöka skillnaderna i arbetet med hållbarhet inom verksamhetsområdena Anlägg och Bygg i Veidekke genom en nulägesanalys av arbetssättet i projekten, samt bidra till ökad förståelse för hur certifieringssystem förbättrar ett projekt.  Genom att visa hur hållbarhetsarbetet mellan anlägg och bygg skiljer sig åt, visa vad man förbättrar genom att införa ett certifieringssystem samt ta fram alternativa metoder för att utföra delmoment i projekten på ett hållbarare vis. Undersökningen genomfördes med en litteraturstudie, nulägesanalys med tre olika projekt som jämfördes samt att förbättringsförslag presenterades och där CEEQUAL fokuserades mest på.  

    Resultatet från undersökningen visade att grundidén i Veidekke Bygg och Anlägg är lika och i detta fall var enda skillnaden att bygg har kommit längre med certifieringssystem än anlägg samt att dokumentera projektet digitalt. 

    Förbättringsområden som föreslogs var enligt följande:

           1.           All dokumentation bör vara digital

           2.           Storstadskraven ska uppfyllas

           3.           Bör vara krav på användning av biodiesel

           4.           Byte till energisnålare personalbodar

           5.           Dokument för att få en bättre CEEQUAL bedömning

           6.           Bör använda hjälpsystem för grävmaskiner

           7.           Bör använda Eco asfalt

    Resultatet av CEEQUAL bedömningen visade att projekt Edsvalla VA skulle klara bedömningen ”Pass” med 27% vilket är precis på gränsen för att bli godkänt. De främsta förbättringar som bör ske för en klassning av CEEQUAL kapitel 4 och 8, anses vara:

    • Livscykelanalys av området
    • Vattenresursanalys
    • Analys av omkringliggande landskap 
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  • 50.
    Ivarsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Materialhantering på byggarbetsplatser: Vilka aktiviteter anser olika arbetsgrupper vara de största problemen beträffande materialhantering?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How building materials are managed on a construction site is today important as the cost of materials and the management of it accounts for approximately 50% of the construction costs of a building project. Material logistics is not always easy to deal with when materials come to a project with many different professionals from many different suppliers. This thesis has covered Skanska Värmlands construction site at the Central Hospital in Karlstad, where they expand and rebuild the hospital with an estimated value of 1.35 billion Swedish crones. They are aware of the existing problems with the material flow at the construction site and they know that there are improvements to make. Therefore, the questions were asked which activities are the most critical in the material managing and what changes would be achievable to get an efficient material control, both at the current site and future construction sites.

    The chosen methods to answer the question were a combination of interviews and a field survey. The interviews were used to obtain the activities that different individuals within the organization considered to be the most critical. The people interviewed were both civil servants and workers, and what everyone considered was the biggest problem in the workplace was the large amounts of material being delivered prematurely. This means that it is stored in the building, which means that materials often are in the way of the workers. To validate the performance, there was a field study which examined the proportion of working time was spent moving materials which proved to be 38% of the total time.

    To make an improvement and to get a more efficient material management four suggestions were made:

    • Material that will not be used within a day or two should be stored in a temporary logistic facility.
    • Use the calendar for deliveries stricter with the help of management policies.
    • Evaluate the ability to transport the material into the building during non-working hours.
    • Cooperation between Skanska and suppliers to get more reliable deliveries. 
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    Materialhantering på byggarbetsplatser - Thomas Ivarsson
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