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  • 1. Aboona, Yousi
    et al.
    Tummings, Alexander
    Effektivisering inom bygglogistik: En fallstudie över bygglogistiksproblem under produktionsprocess2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction sector there are currently high demands regarding short project times. As a result of this, the constructer demands lower costs, which in itself leads to challenges to meet the requirements. Other contributing factors to difficult-to-achieve requirements are changed project conditions and varying material flows. As a result, the majority of all recent reports have been identified as logistics-related problems.

    In order to streamline the production process and meet the planned requirements, it is required to logistically plan the project at an early stage by having good planning, good communication and cooperation at the construction site. A large part of logistics is covered by planning and utilizing transport and material deliveries in an efficient way.

    The purpose of this degree project is to investigate how construction logistics work at Veiddekkke's workplaces, where one of their ongoing projects includes OKQ8 in Karlstad. This is to be able to identify the logistics problems that may arise during the project and for what reasons.

    After identifying the logistical problems that may arise at the construction site, the goal is to develop proposals and implement these proposal solutions in order to avoid these problems recurring in future construction projects.

    At the beginning of this thesis, an extensive literature study was conducted based on various books, reports and research articles to obtain as much knowledge as possible in the field. To gather the necessary information about the OKQ8 project, a case study was conducted at the construction site. The methods used for data collection were surveys, interviews, observations, and work diaries. Site manager and supervisor were interviewed, and different types of observations were made at the workplace.

    The results show that the construction logistics at Veidekke work well in general, but sometimes problems arise during the production process which can affect the project. The two major types of problems identified are transport and material deliveries. However, there are also other types of factors that can affect construction logistics, such as poor communication and poor planning.

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    Effektivisering inom bygglogistik
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    de Bourgh, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hållbarhetscertifieringssystem i anläggningsbranschen: En studie om upphandlingskrav kopplat till hållbarhetscertifieringar i offentliga upphandlingar2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability rating schemes has come to be used extensively since it´s arrival to Sweden during the 21th century. Today, the number of sustainability certifications increases for projects in the construction industry while only a few projects has been certified in the civil engineering industry. The reasons of the interesting development has been studied by investigating how the construction industry clients in the public sector should be able to claim use of sustainability rating schemes without infracting the Swedish public procurement act.

    The study has been conducted by literature- and interview research. Interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in the industry. The purpose was to obtain an unambiguous opinion of how clients should require use of sustainability rating schemes in public procurements. The study also discussed how stakeholders monitor and evaluate their work. The literature research analyzes previous work in the topic and evaluates procurements which contains requirements of sustainability rating schemes.

    The overall conclusions from this study is:

    • The industry demands a standardized framework about how to phrase requirements. Public clients should procure likewise, regardless of their location in Sweden.

    • More pilot projects must be implemented to find out how to achieve maximum benefit with sustainability rating schemes.

    • The industry wants more clear and measurable requirements.

    • Not to be contrary to the Swedish public procurement act, clients can phrase functional requirements based on the manual of the sustainability rating scheme they wish to use.

    • The clients should not worry about appeals, since appealed procurements because of sustainability requirements is rare. It is important to have clearly phrased requirements where the choice of sustainability rating scheme, specified criteria and level is clarified.

    • By the new EU-directives comes an update of the Swedish procurement act, which will enforce in 2016 with the intention of making it easier to set requirements for sustainability rating schemes.

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    Hållbarhetscertifieringssystem i anläggningsbranschen
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    Arkivfi
  • 3.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, .
    Interaction between rivers and morphology of cities in Sweden2014In: Our common future in urban morphology: Urban Transformations in the Medieval Town of Monção / [ed] Virgillio Torres, Joaoa Delgado, Porto: FEUP edições (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto Edicoes) , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers as one of the most important topographic factor have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper I intend to find out the influence of rivers on the morphology of a cities and discuss that how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. My study area is river-cities in Sweden in which they have not received much attention in this issue. To this purpose I use space syntax method integrating with geospatial analysis and extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, choice value and so on. Comparing the states of presence and absence of rivers in these cities as well as evaluating the effect of rivers on the morphology of areas located in different banks of rivers are also part of interest in this paper. The primary result shows that although a river is not comparable to a city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of a city in both global and local properties. In addition, tracking the pattern of river-cities and their interaction to rivers may lead us to interoperate the physical form of these cities in terms of structured and distributed cities.

  • 4.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Resilience, space syntax and spatialinterfaces: The case of river cities2017In: A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, ISSN 1303-7005, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience defined as the capacity of a system to manage impacts, keep its efficiency and continue its development has been scrutinized by researchers from different points of view over the past decades. Due to the prominence of resilience in urban planning, this paper intends to find out how the spatial structure of cities deals with disturbances, and if geographical phenomena such as rivers affect the resilience in cities. Using the space syntax methods syntactically analyze the resilience in cities, we innovatively introduce two measures; similarity and sameness. These measures are in relation with the syntactical properties of cities and compare the degree of resilience between different groups. Similarity measures the degree to which each city retains the relative magnitude of its foreground network after a disturbance and sameness is the degree to which each city retains the same segments as its foreground network after a disturbance. Likewise to network resilience studies, we apply different disturbances on cities and explore the reaction of cities to disturbances in terms of size of the foreground network and which segments are parts thereof. We then compare different groups based on these measurements as a method to analyze sameness and similarity. The results show that the resilience, in the way we define it, is different in different cities depending on in which view and based on which parameters we are discussing the resilience. Additionally morphological phenomena such as rivers have a great impact on the structure of cities and in turn on their resilience.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH, Geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Rivers as integration devices in cities2016In: City, Territory and Architecture, E-ISSN 2195-2701, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As dynamic systems rivers and cities have been in interaction under changing relations over time, and the morphology of many cities has risen through a long and steady struggle between the city functions and the river system flowing inside. This makes river cities an interesting case to study how the presence of geographical features interacts with spatial morphology in the formation of cities.

    Methods: The basis of this research is enabled by utilizing a novel model for cross-city comparison presented by Hillier in his Santiago keynote in 2012 called a “star model”. This is done on large samples of cities investigating concurrent configurations, as well as how the properties in this star model react to specific forms of disturbance.

    Results: Results illustrate that the foreground network as identified through maximum choice values in cities are more vital to the structure of cities than the bridges. The overall syntactic structure tends to retain its character (degree of distributedness) and the location of its foreground network (which street segments constitute the foreground network) even when bridges are targeted. Furthermore, counter to the initial hypothesis, river cities tend to change less than non-river cities after targeted disturbance of the systems. Finally, the results show that while there is a statistical morphological difference between river cities and non-river cities, this difference is not directly explained through the bridges.

    Conclusion: Integrating space syntax with statistical and geospatial analysis can throw light on the way in which the properties of city networks and urban structure reflect the relative effect of rivers on the morphology of river cities. The paper, finally, contributes through offering one piece of a better perception of the structure of river-cities that can support strategies of river-cities interaction as well as enhance our knowledge on the constraints and limits to that interaction.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

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    fulltext
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    Arkivfiler
  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jönsson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Är SundaHus materialklassning kompatibel med Miljöbyggnads, BREEAMs och LEEDs materialkrav?: En studie om SundaHus miljöklassningar.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a society where there is a shortage of housing and the demand for new and sustainable buildings is growing. The houses that are being built today are focused on being energy efficient to save resources. Something that is forgotten is the choice of materials to house constructions. Materials can affect nature and people from the cradle to the grave by for example material hazardous components. The certification systems Miljöbyggnad, BREEAM and LEED have been checked and their material criteria have been defined. Through a selection of construction materials taken from SundaHus a review has been made of these materials towards the certification systems´ criteria on materials to see if they are compatible. The minority of the criteria were reviewed to separate materials and could be verified in SundaHus. Almost all materials passed the criteria that could be used of Miljöbyggnad and BREEAM regardless of classification in SundaHus. None of the LEED criteria were compatible with SundaHus for separate materials. The fact that the worse classifications in SundaHus could pass the criteria that were reviewed indicates that the requirements in environmental certification systems are too low. Higher and more demands should be made on individual materials and the hazardous substances in them.

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    fulltext
    Download full text (pdf)
    Arkivfil
  • 8.
    Ahremark, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Nicole
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bjälklag av limträdäck: En jämförelse av handberäkningar och databaserat verktyg för dimensionering av bjälklag i kontor och lager med hänsyn till svikt och vibration2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demands on reducing the environmental impact while establishing new buildings lead to an increased focus on environmentally conscious choices of material. Achieving a sustainable construction requires replacing carbon dioxide-laden materials, such as concrete, with renewable materials like wood, of which there are large resources in Sweden. Glulam is primarily used for load bearing constructions and the advancing technique of wood construction has led to a new type of joists on the European market, made of glulam decking elements. However, this product has not yet reached the Swedish construction market. There is a lack of span tables based on Swedish standards and reliable controls of vibration.

    This thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Moelven Töreboda and the purpose of the study has been to develop a foundation for a new type of glulam product, applied to floor structures of office buildings and storage areas. Using structural calculations and the design software Statcon, the study has established spans for floor structures of glulam decking elements. Subsequently proposals for a topping slab and a suspended ceiling have been developed, that meet the requirements of sound classification C.

    In this work, the span of the glulam decking elements for strength classes GL24h and GL30c have been ascertained. The width of the elements is 585 mm, with varying heights in the range 90-215 mm. The study has included load categories for office buildings and storage areas.

    The result of the construction calculations is presented in various tables depending on strength class and load category. The span tables are based on three types of profiles, which present similar results. All three profiles stated a span of 7,6 m in offices for strength class GL30c for the cross-sectional height 215 mm, whereas strength class GL24h reached 7,3 m in the same load category.

    In the load category storage areas, profile 1 reached a span of 6,5 m for GL30c and 6,3 m for GL24h. The spans of profile 2 and 3 increased in length by 0,1 m for each strength class. It can be ascertained that the varying profiles do not have a significant effect on the span lengths.

    All three profiles have been verified given spring and vibration. The smallest cross-section, 90x585 mm, was the most critical in meeting the requirements due to the low mass. To meet the requirements of vibration, the cross-section need a sub floor or topping slab with a minimum load of 20 kg/m2. A conclusion is that sound class C is achieved through a topping slab on top of the joist and that the sound class improves when a suspended ceiling is added to the construction.

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    Bjälklag av limträdäck
  • 9. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci.
    A free-boundary problem for concrete carbonation: Front nucleation and rigorous justification of the root t-law of propagation2013In: Interfaces and free boundaries (Print), ISSN 1463-9963, E-ISSN 1463-9971, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Large-time behavior of a two-scale semilinear reaction-diffusion system for concrete sulfatation2014In: Mathematical methods in the applied sciences, ISSN 0170-4214, E-ISSN 1099-1476, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1451-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

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  • 12.
    Albinsson, Eric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Från deponi till lösullsisolering: En undersökning av återbrukspotentialen för isoleringsspill i en husfabrik2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Befolkningen på jorden ökar idag i en ohållbar takt. Dagens samhälle är inte förenligt med den naturresursbas som jorden besitter. Byggbranschen står för en stor del av de utsläpp som bidrar till den globala uppvärmningen. För att minska dessa krävs åtgärder där klimatet sätts i första hand. En del i att minska byggbranschens klimatpåverkan är att återbruka de produkter som redan finns. Den här studien undersöker klimatbesparingen som kan göras genom ett återbruk av isoleringsspill.

    Syftet med arbetet är att öka förståelsen för återbruk och cirkulär ekonomi inom byggprocessen. Studiens mål är att redogöra för den klimatbesparande och ekonomiska potentialen för att förädla mineralullsspill från en husfabrik. I studiens mål ingår det också att utvärdera möjligheterna till en implementering på Häggmarks husfabrik i Sunne.

    Resultatet av studien visar på att det finns flera goda möjligheter till en implementering av processen i en husfabrik. Studien har genomförts med Häggmarks AB i Sunne och Västra Ämtervik. Häggmarks har goda förutsättningar för ett återbruk av isoleringsspill. All byggnation sker inomhus skyddat från fukt. Det finns stora ytor att använda som förvaring samt lokal för en förädlingsprocess.

    Den återbrukade lösullsisoleringen visar på god isoleringsförmåga, en stor klimatbesparing samt en ekonomsik nytta för Häggmarks.

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  • 13.
    Alfalah, Ranim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ammouri, Zainab
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ekonomisk lönsamhet för solceller installerade på tak och fasad för flervåningsbyggnader2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to evaluate different combinations of solar panels on roofs and facades for multistorey buildings to identify the most cost-effective options. The goal is to compare the economic viability of solar panels installed on roofs and facades for two rental properties with different heating systems. One building consists of seven floors, and the other has four floors. The subject of the study is based on limited roof areas relative to floor area and electricity demand, and combined solar panel installations on roofs, facades, and other building parts can contribute to an efficient solution.

    The calculations are performed in the VIP-Energy program to determine electricity demand, the produced solar energy, self-consumption of solar energy, sold electricity, and purchased electricity. This information is used to conduct a life cycle cost analysis in Excel, where various installations and combinations of solar panels are compared for each property over a 25-year period. The analysis is conducted with two heating systems: district heating and geothermal heat pump.

    By combining the VIP-Energy program to obtain energy-related data and the LCC tool for analyzing life cycle costs, a comprehensive assessment of the economic benefits and profitability of solar panels for each property over a 25-year period can be made. This provides valuable insights for making well-informed decisions regarding the installation and use of solar panels while considering different heating systems and their impact on the investment's payback period.

    The results show that the combination of solar panels on roofs and facades offers the most cost-effective solution for both buildings, regardless of the heating system used. However, the profitability varies between the two heating systems, with the geothermal heat pump system proving to be the most advantageous. This is due to its higher savings and shorter payback period. The results indicate that the geothermal heat pump system has a maximum payback period of 8 years in house 4 and 7 years in house 5, while the district heating system has a maximum payback period of 14 years in house 4 and 11 years in house 5. This means that the investment is recouped faster in the geothermal heat pump system compared to the district heating system.

    The seven-story building has an advantage as it has larger areas for facade installations, increasing its potential to generate electricity through the facade compared to the four-story building that was also studied.

    Nearly all combinations of solar panels in both buildings show reasonable payback periods relative to the solar panels' warranty period of 12 years, and the investment in solar panels proves to be profitable with significant potential for future gains.

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  • 14.
    Alfredsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Haeffner, Fredric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag för erosionsskador i Kölaälv2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Al-Hazmi, Hussein E.
    et al.
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Hejna, Aleksander
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Majtacz, Joanna
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland.
    Esmaeili, Amin
    University of Doha for Science and Technology (UDST), Qatar.
    Habibzadeh, Sajjad
    Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran.
    Saeb, Mohammad Reza
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland.
    Badawi, Michael
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Lima, Eder C.
    University of Rio Grande Do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil.
    Mąkinia, Jacek
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland.
    Wastewater reuse in agriculture: Prospects and challenges2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 236, article id 116711Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable water recycling and wastewater reuse are urgent nowadays considering water scarcity and increased water consumption through human activities. In 2015, United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 (UN SDG6) highlighted the necessity of recycling wastewater to guarantee water availability for individuals. Currently, wastewater irrigation (WWI) of crops and agricultural land appears essential. The present work overviews the quality of treated wastewater in terms of soil microbial activities, and discusses challenges and benefits of WWI in line with wastewater reuse in agriculture and aquaculture irrigation. Combined conventional-advanced wastewater treatment processes are specifically deliberated, considering the harmful impacts on human health arising from WWI originating from reuse of contaminated water (salts, organic pollutants, toxic metals, and microbial pathogens i.e., viruses and bacteria). The comprehensive literature survey revealed that, in addition to the increased levels of pathogen and microbial threats to human wellbeing, poorly-treated wastewater results in plant and soil contamination with toxic organic/inorganic chemicals, and microbial pathogens. The impact of long-term emerging pollutants like plastic nanoparticles should also be established in further studies, with the development of standardized analytical techniques for such hazardous chemicals. Likewise, the reliable, long-term and extensive judgment on heavy metals threat to human beings's health should be explored in future investigations.

  • 16.
    Al-Hilfi, Muna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Daniels, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Grönområdens betydelse i en förtätad stad: Vilken påverkan har förtätning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 17.
    Ali Mahmood, Chro
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Yousefi, Leyla
    Karlstad University.
    Självdrag eller FTX?: En jämförelse av ventilationssystem2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractIntroduction: Since the year 2000, the number of buildings in Sweden has seen a significant increase. According to the Statistics Sweden (SCB), there were over 5 million dwellings in Sweden at the end of 2021. Out of these dwellings, approximately 42% are single-family houses, 51% are multi-family buildings, and the remaining is apartments in specialized housing. The energy consumption in single-family houses has increased by around 22% since the 1970’s, primarily due to the increased use of circulation pumps, underfloor heating, and ventilation. This has resulted in an increased environmental impact from the construction sector.

    Efficiency improvements in ventilation systems have been a longstanding focus due to the high energy consumption and significant environmental impact associated with their operational phase. A study reveals that HVAC systems impact the environment both during the manufacturing and the operational phases. Furthermore, new low-energy buildings have a higher environmental footprint during the construction phase due to the increased use of materials aimed at reducing operational energy consumption.

    The choice of a ventilation system is crucial for homes, as an efficient ventilation system not only improves indoor air quality but also reduces the risk of health problems that can arise from inadequate ventilation.

    Keywords: Life Cycle Cost, LCC, Ventilation System, Self-Exhaust Ventilation, Supply and Exhaust Ventilation, VIP-Energy, Supply and Exhaust Air System, Heat Recovery.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to demonstrate that the choice of ventilation system has a significant impact on reducing environmental emissions during the manufacturing and operational phases over a 30-year period.

    Goal: The objective is to determine which of self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery is the most cost-effective and has the lowest climate impact based on a life-cycle perspective for a single-family building over a calculation period of 30 years.Questions:

    Which of self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation is the most efficient in terms of energy consumption during the manufacturing and usage phases?How do self-exhaust ventilation and supply and exhaust ventilation affect the heating costs for a single-family building assuming that heating is provided through district heating?Which of the two ventilation systems is most economically viable according to a comparative Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis, based on a single-family building with a calculation period of 30 years?Which of the two ventilation systems causes the greatest climate impact?

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  • 18.
    Almqwist, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Olsson, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Val av fönster med hjälp multikriterieanalys: Forshaga vårdcentral2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är tänkt som ett hjälpmedel vid fönsterprojektering och berör de aspekter som är av intresse vid val av fönster. Målgruppen är Landstingsfastigheter i Värmland (LIV) samt alla som har intresse av ämnet. Huvudsyftet är att förenkla för LIV i deras arbete att välja fönster och att lämna förslag på den bästa fönster-/solskyddslösningen till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

    Målet med rapporten är att skapa ett verktyg som hjälper LIV att på ett objektivt och enkelt sätt välja sina framtida fönster-/solskyddslösningar.

     

    Med hjälp av en multikriterieanalys (MKA) i samverkan med uppställda mål och syften har en mall arbetats fram, där fönster/solskydd kan utvärderas på ett objektivt sätt. MKA:n fungerar bra vid jämförelse av fönster men inte vid solskydd. Detta eftersom LIV har satt upp tydliga mål och syften för sin solskyddslösning. Därmed har en undersökande metod med hjälp av LIV:s uppställda krav använts som hjälpmedel vid val av solskyddslösning. MKA-metoden tillämpades för att finna det bästa fönstret till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

     

    Rapporten visar att med LIV:s förutsättningar är den bästa lösningen ett PVC-fönster med isolerglas. PVC-karmen är den lösning som ger lägst U-värde samt kostar minst i sammanhanget. Trots att PVC-fönstret redovisas som vinnare var det inte bäst i alla avseenden. Aluminiumfönstret är genomgående bra och bäst ur säkerhetssynpunkt men tillverkarna har svårt att minska de naturliga köldbryggorna som uppstår i karmen. Lösningarna blir dyra och fönstret är svårt att motivera ekonomiskt när säkerhetskraven är normala. Fönster med trä respektive trä-/aluminiumkarm får också ett genomgående gott betyg. Ur underhållssynpunkt har träkarmen svårt att mäta sig med de underhållsfria alternativen.

     

    Eftersom LIV har tydliga krav och mål uppställda på sina solskyddslösningar och på deras funktion, sorterades många lösningar bort. Skärningspunkten för alla kriterier föll på en fast solavskärmning som inte kräver något underhåll, eller vars funktion förändras av väder och vind. Solavskärmningen bör kombineras med en persienn för att möjliggöra ett gott insynsskydd.

    En slutsats vid val av fönster är att det är viktigt att ha tydliga mål och syften, först när det är färdigställt kan man gå vidare med vilken funktion och krav fönstret/solskyddet bör uppfylla.

  • 19.
    Almrin, Tim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering och införande av ANN-modell tillförnyelseplanering av vattenledningsnät: Samarbete med Eskilstuna Strängnäs energi och miljö, ESEM2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Structured and long-term planning is an important part of the work with the renewal of water supply networks. This requires well-founded assessments and methods for evaluating the annual need for renewal for a sustainable and healthy future. Evaluating the condition of a management object has been a complex task. This is due to limited accessto the various parts of the water supply network and the fact that physical, operational and environmental factors affect pipelines in different ways. Since experience and knowledge have been developed about, for example, joint methods or the durability of pipe material, this has meant that several different pipe materials are underground. There are various useful methods for evaluation of the condition of the water supply network. Recently, mathematical models have begun to be used to analyse the status and estimated lifespan of lines through data on pipes and external factors. In this study, an ANN model from Svenskt Vatten was used to evaluate the organization’s geodata for the model and to study the relationship between risk management that models calculate and reported operational disruptions. The use of the model requires that large amounts of data need to be compiled and adapted to valid values.The results show that most of the water supply network in the study area can be used to set prediction values with the model by compiling and adapting attribute values. Several objects were excluded due to deficiencies in management attributes. Some comparisons can be made between estimated risk water pipes and reported operational disruptions. The conclusion of the study is that the model could be an important complement to future renewal planning. Assessed risk water pipes can provide a good indication of which parts of the pipeline network need to be evaluated in more depth for possible renewal.

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  • 20.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Betongkonstruktion2021 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok behandlar dimensionering och analys av betong­konstruktioner enligt Eurocode 2. Boken består av en teoridel som innefattar: • Böjning och böjning med normalkraft • Tvärkraft • Förankring, avslutning och skarvning av armering • Pelare och väggar • Genomstansning • Plattor • Beräkning i bruksgränstillståndet Bokens konkreta pedagogiska värden är, utöver ett stort antal övnings­exempel med lösningar och svar, ett avsnitt med utvecklande övningsuppgifter som studenterna kan lösa själva. Svaren till dessa uppgifter finns i boken och utförliga lösningsförslag finns att tillgå på webben, www.studentlitteratur.se/39041. Till boken finns även en formelsamling. Den är framtagen för att användas som hjälpmedel vid examination i högskole- och universitetskurser inom betongkonstruktion. Målet med boken är att täcka behoven på de flesta akademiska grundkurser i ämnet, i första hand på de tekniska högskole- och universitetsprogrammen för väg- och vattenbyggnad, samhällsbyggnad samt byggteknik. Boken vänder sig även till yrkesverksamma som handbok eller fördjupning.

  • 21.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Betongkonstruktion: Formelsamling2021 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Betongkonstruktion – formelsamling är ett komplement till boken Betongkonstruktion. Formelsamlingen är framtagen för att kunnaanvändas som hjälpmedel vid examination i högskole- och universitetskurser inom betongkonstruktion.

  • 22.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Bio-Ecological Sustainable Windows2005In: The International Conference Sustainable Building 2005 SB05, Tokyo: SB05Tokyo National Conference Board , 2005, p. 31-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Window is a vital part of any house they permit natural light into the house as long as views and fresh air. In the same time we can consider that the window is an extremely influential factor in climatic design, as the weakest climatic element of the building envelope. Well designed and protected windows improve comfort year round and reduce the need for heating in winter and cooling in summer. Aesthetics appearance, view, and optical performance, are usually quite important to the occupant. In reality, the serious lighting designer cannot take any notice of the energy implications of window choices. New technologies help to resolve the historic problem of the transaction between windows that reflect unwanted solar gains in the summer and those that admit a maximum quantity of useful light. Well-designed windows and shading devices allow solar heat gain in winter and shade and ventilation in summer while providing enough day lighting. Solar gain achieved by heaving 60% of the building’s windows orientated correctly can reduce the heating load of  house by _22%.In houses, low solar heat gain coefficient glazing should be used on east and west orientations, while high glazing should be used when passive solar and day lighting are being utilized.

    Today’s window technologies can replace more primitive strategies for shielding interior spaces from unwanted sunlight, such as tinted windows and curtains.

  • 23.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Efficient daylighting approach by means of light-shelve device adequate for habitat program in Aarhus City2014In: International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, ISSN 2315-4462, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 441-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of light shelves consist of windows that have face towards the sun, which receive a vast quantity of energy that could be used for healthy day lighting. This paper debates a main assessment, investigates the optimization of daylight requirement by means of light shelves system. An experimental test was carried out assessing the measurements and lighting simulations of a model of a building in order to elucidate the characteristics of indoor lighting. Light shelf is an architectural element that permits daylight to enter deep into a building. It constitutes an optimal solution for an incorrect building orientation and less sunny days. The essential objective of this study is to highlight the vital role of light shelves in residential buildings in northern Europa where the requirement is to improve the daylight in the interior functional spaces. The main objects of this paper are to investigate the effect of daylight in the interior functional spaces using light shelves, the effect of natural light diffusion in interior space in the period of low daylight season, and glare effect in this field. This paper investigates a procedure for analysing the daylight performance using software habitat function

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  • 24.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Green housing: The optimal Solution To Combat The Negative Effects Of Global Climatechange2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No Architectural concept is complete without green areas. The vital mission of biophilic architecture is to revised conceptualization of architecture in response to a myriad of contemporary concerns about the effects of human activity. Our earth is warming more rapidly than it has in the past according to the research of scientists. The green building of biophilic architecture combines the interests of sustainability, environmental consciousness, green areas of the large nature, and organic approaches to evolve design solutions from these requirements and from the characteristics of the site, its neighborhood context, and the local microclimate and topography. The biophilic concept provides us with the opportunity to reach extremely low levels of energy consumption by employing high quality, cost-efficient measures to general architectural components - such measures are in turn off advantage to the ecology and economy sector. Our essential task of this research is to make of the green covering a human strategy in urban and architectural manner and to be a human culture with helping of local governments; we can acquire the competent legislation, which protect our life and environment.

  • 25.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Jönköping universitet / Department of Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Housing Policy Matters2018In: Housing / [ed] Amjad Almusaed & Asaad Almusaed, London: INTECH, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is proposed as both a general reading of the discipline for students in architecture and urban planning, and offers a variety of materials for professionals of local and international organizations. It brings together studies with new perspectives and relevant subjects from different geographical areas. The book gathers the contributions of international researchers and experts. It is divided into three parts and eight chapters: Part I, "Introduction to Housing Affairs," includes a chapter that discusses a general reading of housing as meaning and action in social, economic, and environmental city life. Part II, "Case Studies Upon Housing Policies," includes four chapters. It consists of many examples from different geographical areas and domains. Part III, "Housing Quality and Affordability," includes three chapters; housing quality, sustainability, and development are the main subjects for this part.

  • 26.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Jönköping university.
    Quality assurance in a sustainable architecture creation process2020In: Technology Reports of Kansai University, ISSN 0453-2198, Vol. 62, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creativity of modern architects and urban planners, engineers and technologists working in various fields of design and construction activities as well as the creation and production of new materials, structures and technologies are inextricably linked with general trends in socio-economic development. It can effectively support the importance of architecture as a product in the sense of social response. The marketing activities are those activities that suffer adjustments due to the continuous changes in the users' needs to their behavior. In another hand, the subject of sustainable architecture and marketing became an important issue within design and construction process, where the application of the sustainable concept in design and execution process is rescuable, and it is not clear, therefore a clear reading of the building production by a clear strategy put sustainable architecture in a right way towards salability and it will be clear. The aim of this study is to create an evident comprehension, of the correlation between the phenomenon of marketing, supported by the concept of quality in sustainable architecture, and what it represents for the building users today. The method in this article takes two kinds of approach, the first is a literature study the other one is a semi-structured quality method, where an involved person has to create a hierarchy of priorities of many factors, related to the sustainable architecture factors. The study offers a clear reading of the most required factors of building users for getting a high-quality sustainable architecture.

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    sustainable architecture
  • 27.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, AmjadJönköping University.
    Sustainable Cities: Authenticity, Ambition and Dream2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book has been written to represent the efficient applications of sustainability in urban areas. The book intends to illustrate various techniques of action on sustainability on city conception, functions and conformation. This book is divided into four parts and nine chapters: Section I is entitled "Introduction to Sustainable Cities Concept" and contains one chapter "Introductory chapter: Overview of Sustainable Cities Theory and Practices," which discusses sustainability in cities in conception and practice. Section II is entitled "Energy and Environmental Analysis of Sustainable Cities Models." This includes four chapters. It expresses the effect of the environment and energy embodiment on city configuration and function. Section III is entitled "The Role of Transport in a Sustainable City." This part includes two chapters. Section IV is entitled "The influence of Social and Economic Factors in Urban Space Conception." It includes two chapters.

  • 28.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Jönköping University.
    Homod, Raad Z.
    Basrah University for Oil and Gas, IRQ.
    Masonry in the Context of Sustainable Buildings: A Review of the Brick Role in Architecture2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 22, article id 14734Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of combining various parts to create a structure is called building. The most effective and significant component of any construction is masonry. The Colosseum, buildings from ancient Greece and Rome, Central American buildings, and Mycenaean structures all used this material as one of their primary building elements. The oldest form is dry masonry of irregularly shaped stones. The ecological qualities of masonry, as a restorative material with a low impact on the environment, as well as the environmental control capacity of the massive wall, bring masonry back to attention as a suitable material for sustainable building in the context of current concerns for sustainable architecture. This article takes the form of a review of the journey of masonry as the primary construction material—from prehistoric structures to modern-day edifices. This article will go through the fundamentals of masonry construction to support its usage in structures throughout history and in many architectural styles, as a crucial representation of human construction in architectural history. This article aims to create a historical review, presenting masonry as an essential building material and assessing its role in the history of building materials

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  • 29.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Kalil Almusaed, Zaki
    Heat Island Effects Upon The Human Life On The City Of Basrah2007In: Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century: 2nd PALENC Conference 28th AIVC Conference / [ed] M. Santamouris, P. Wouters, Crete island: University of Athens , 2007, p. 45-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the terrible consequence of the Iraq –Iran war and recently USA attack over Iraq the urban green covering disappeared from large areas of the city, beside the extension of the building over the green areas. The negative effects of this phenomenon over human’s thermal comfort become more perceptive. Today we can observe clearly the negative effect of urban heat island in the center of Basra city, precisely in physical frameworks of the city; we can observe a typical phenomenon with a large negative effect for the period of summer heating that is a natural thermodynamic phenomenon. In the surfaces of physical framework, in the core of day between 12-15 pm, the sun is shining perpendicular above the earth surfaces (framework physic). Consequently the temperature on the earth surfaces increases surprisingly up to 60 ºC. Therefore there occurs a difference of temperature between the earth surfaces and cosmos space which conduce to generate a gigantic colonization of air from the earth surface to cosmos space, such resultants of this phenomenon is no air zones and under pressure on earth surfaces, with the intention of making a nasal bleeding, which seeking for a medical intervention aide.

  • 30.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Alasadi, Asaad
    The University of Basrah, Iraq.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    A Research on the Biophilic Concept upon School’s Design from Hot Climate: A Case Study from Iraq2022In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2022, article id 7994999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been solid global trends and severe attempts by ministries of education in the world to improve the reality of educational institutions and schools through the design and construction of schools and educational systems that meet the requirements of the age by applying the concepts of sustainable and effective systems to the new generation. They called for a promising future and hence the need to activate the applications of the biophilic schools. The theme of the biophilic schools is closely related to the concept of sustainable environmental structures that deal with the surrounding natural environment with intimacy, which is one of the most important new methods of design and construction at present, where ecological challenges are powerfully evoked in the making of their design decisions. Biophilic schools are an essential part of a new concept that wants to design revolutionary educational systems with new economic outputs that are valuable but do not depart from the idea of sustainable schools in general. It represents an expression given to schools designed to be environmentally sensitive and healthy for their occupants and educational systems based on experience, humanity, and attraction. Indeed, many architects have begun to explore and develop new architectural designs linked with the concepts of biophilic schools. Through the researchers’ awareness of the negative circumstance experienced by school buildings in Iraq and by investing in the recommendations of an applied field research, it was reached to crystallize the research problem represented in the obstacles that schools suffer from, which calls for the search for developmental solutions for an efficient educational environment, and in order to reach this goal, by informing researchers about new global experiences in this field, the research presented its hypothesis in choosing the model of biophilic schools that exist in many countries in the world, because of what it can provide from successful and fruitful educational and urban components. The researchers reached many conclusions and recommendations aimed at applying the research hypothesis and achieving its goals.

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  • 31.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Bioclimatic Interpretation Over Vernacular Houses From Historical city Basrah.2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture., Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 87-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basrah’s climate is hot, dry summer, mild to cold winter, and a pleasant spring and fall. The old builders from this region putted a big effort to create passive bioclimatic houses that corresponds the negative effects Basrah’s macroclimate. The courtyard is the central and dominant space in the house plan with a direct access to the living spaces. Houses from the city are compact with interior courtyard; the streets are sinuous and pass through houses volumes. The shady interior courtyard has the effect that the rooms do not communicate directly with the overheated air outside, but through intermediate buffer spaces. In the mean time between courtyard and street at least a wall or a building is always interposed. The House plan had an endomorphic form, (open tree form). The volumes were concept to create shadow which helps to move the air by natural movement to the deep superior side, that can be achieve through special holes. The architectural elements are strongly decorated, reproducing special typologies and traditional houses. Open spaces, covered by large roofs, are interesting due to the mix of diffuse light and shade that are an essential aesthetic factor in these buildings.

  • 32.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Biophilic Architecture,: The Concept Of Healthy Sustainable Architecture,2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passiveand Low Energy Architecture, Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 383-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, upon reflecting on the various settings and experiences of our lives, we should be able to find some fairly close matches between characteristics we like and characteristics that would have improved our chances of survival. In our course we perceive that the natural contiguous keeps us healthy and in turn, probably promotes physical performance as well. Occupants of built environments don’t want simply to work, play, eat, or sleep in a functional building. They want to be inspired, invigorated, comforted, and reassured by their surroundings. They want spaces that will make them more appropriate, comfortable. Biophilic architecture offers an exciting opportunity to achieve environmental, moral, social and economic benefits. Much remains to be understood about energy, environmental and life-cycle processes to engage young and enthusiastic researchers in the world-wide greenly architecture community and for those interested in biophilic architecture. The concept of biophilia deserves a deeper explanation. The hypothesis is that this affiliation leads to positive responses in terms of human performance and health even emotional states. The new movement aims to create environmentally friendly, energy-efficient buildings and developments by effectively managing natural resources.

  • 33.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Biophilic Habitat: Environment Adaptability In Context Of BioEcological Architectural Conception2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vital objective of biophilic habitat is to outline attributes and put them into a clear, sensible, organized format so developers, designers, planners, and architects can learn about the importance of a connection to the natural environment in all their building projects. Renew ability is the key to our human range and our prime resource for architecture. Every site is definite as to its location, natural relief, local vegetation, and its macro-microclimate.

    Biophilic habitat becomes an original utterance in social requirement. Moreover, this concept becomes a truly new orientation of human cultural life. Biophilic habitat is a part of a new concept in architecture, that work intensive with human health, ecology and sustainability precepts, such a integrate part of architectural formation which must be in optimal proportion with other buildings material. The position of green covering and its area depend basically on the category of functions that occur under this area. Biophilic habitat produces buildings that use less energy to operate because they feature efficient designs, materials and systems. The majority biophilic architectures have highly competent heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting systems, and appliances. In addition, these biophilic restructures are built of energy-efficient materials carefully installed to prevent the loss of conditioned.

  • 34.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Building materials in eco-energy houses from Iraq and Iran2015In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 1, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Builders from the Western part of Asia are trained to make buildings that can fulfil certain required functions while giving full consideration to all sites and environmental conditions. The research covers the zone between Iraq and Iran. The first investigated region is the ‘‘Mesopotamian Marshes’’ or Iraqi-Iran Marshes, a wetland zone situated in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran. The other region is a desert district, which includes a prominent part of the southern and western parts of Iraq and part of Iran. The last is the centre city of Basra. The building materials were the most important building element that affected the conformation of vernacular habitats from the western part of Asia in general and the Iraq–Iran area in particular. In this study, we needed to focus on the effects of ecological and energy-efficiency processes in creating vernacular habitats and the selection of optimal building systems and materials in this part of the world, which can be an essential point for sustainable environmental building processes in the future. Reeds, clay, straw, bricks, and wood were the most popular building materials used by builders from this region. The impact of building material on the environment embodies the essential method implicitly significant in this research to effectively determine traditional building materials in the environment, in addition to comparative analysis. This presents an essential factor of our analysis, in addition to the impact of environments on building systems. The main target of this study is to benefit designers and building engineers in their pursuit to find optimal and competent solutions suitable for specific local microclimates using traditional methods in the design process that are sustainable and ecological.

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  • 35.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    City Phenomenon between Urban Structure and Composition2020In: Sustainability in Urban Planning and Design / [ed] A Almusaed ; A Almssad ; L Truong - Hong, UK: InTech, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are not just a sum of buildings, but especially a set of social relations that their inhabitants develop. Cities are characterized by a wide variety of social groups and lifestyles. An urban composition represents a form of the city in which it gets a formal order, so that the shape of any urban ensemble is not linked to a random phenomenon, but to an intervention mastered and understood as such. For the city, the urban composition represents what the architectural composition represents for a building. This concept regarding the composition is common both to the architecture and to the city. The main property of the composition is that it transforms a possibly dispersed ensemble into a whole, resolving the contradictions that arise when the requirements and conditions of the project are numerous. Spatial forms and urban compositions are built over time, longer than that of architectural composition. On the other hand, “design of the urban environment” is understood by us as a complex formation of public spaces of the city, located on the ground floor level of the city building and ensuring the vital activity of the urban community. This chapter will study the city phenomenon on a large scale.

  • 36.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, AsaadKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Housing2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is proposed as both a general reading of the discipline for students in architecture and urban planning, and offers a variety of materials for professionals of local and international organizations. It brings together studies with new perspectives and relevant subjects from different geographical areas. The book gathers the contributions of international researchers and experts. It is divided into three parts and eight chapters: Part I, "Introduction to Housing Affairs," includes a chapter that discusses a general reading of housing as meaning and action in social, economic, and environmental city life. Part II, "Case Studies Upon Housing Policies," includes four chapters. It consists of many examples from different geographical areas and domains. Part III, "Housing Quality and Affordability," includes three chapters; housing quality, sustainability, and development are the main subjects for this part.

  • 37.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Umeå Unversitet.
    Improvement of Thermal Insulation by Environmental Means2012In: Effective Thermal Insulation: The Operative Factor Of A Passive Buildning Model / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Croatia: InTech, 2012, p. 3-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Bricks between the Historical Usage and Sustainable Building Concept2022In: Masonry for Sustainable Construction / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, UK: INTECH, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bricks are the most frequent ceramic product and may be found in antique and modern structures. Together with stone and concrete, they are among the most used building materials. Reading through history, we may see that throughout the Stone Age, cave dwellers erected structures for a variety of reasons out of fragments of rocks and boulders of various shapes; Menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs have survived to this day—stone constructs used for religious purposes. Dwellings and fortresses were constructed from unhewn natural stone, the shards of which were piled on each other without any order. Brick is a common antique building material that has been used from ancient times, such as in Egypt’s ancient dwellings, Rome’s Colosseum, and many sections of China’s Great Wall. One of the earliest construction materials is brick. It was utilized in Mycenaean civilization, ancient Greece, Rome, Central America, and other ancient constructions. The oldest, used in prehistoric times, is dry masonry of irregularly shaped stones. Soil is a natural building material that can be seen everywhere, and it also has its unique style in traditional architecture. Like wood, stone has been the primary building material since ancient times. It has been used as a construction material since prehistoric times. The actual art of brickmaking may be observed in the great range of textures and surface treatments, which constitute a distinctive mark of each maker. Brick is now employed for resistant buildings, regular internal walls, interior or outside surface decorating, pavement, and even modern art installations. No other building feature provides as many opportunities for producing one-of-a-kind architectural effects.

  • 39.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Overview of a Competent Sustainable Building2018In: Sustainable Buildings: Interaction Between a Holistic Conceptual Act and Materials Properties / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad, Kroatia: INTECH, 2018, p. 399-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    etween the human being and the protective building space, always a relationship with a reciprocal character a permanent arrangement, where the human being interest is to create the necessary poise to his different well-unfolded activities, under that cover as space. The building is a major element of human life. It is a major concern, a major purchase, and has a major effect upon our lives [1]. We spend over 90% of our time indoors. Today, the technological archetypes of the modern buildings are formed of a mixture of many components such as materials, energy, and construction configuration systems, which influence directly on human life and health. In marketing vision, architectural product being creations of the human work, a time-consuming good, as any other manufacture, it has not only to be produced but also to get the user’s disposal [2]. Although in sustainable design, the building becomes the system, subsystem should be examined. The climate has a solid impact on the conceptions of habitat forms and configuration of internal space [3]. While the holistic integration of systems is critical to sustainable building, every system within the system has its climatic advantage or disadvantage. The human being entered the third millennium without the hope of achieving permanent peace on our beautiful earth, sustainable development, and equality for all, where the earth is our sustainer, the chain of ecological survival. In the future, sustainable considerations will be a regular part of our basic beliefs and knowledge. Both of our norms and behavior as the physical environment must be automatically based on an environmentally balanced mind-set, not alone but along with many other considerations. Within planning, means that the green will be taken far to be more seriously that reuse of our cities will gain even more importance that green areas will be actively involved and that traffic patterns will be turned upside down. Reliability is the key to our human continuum and our prime resource for building. Earth sheltering, earth handling, and earth escaping are more clearly pronounced in the vocabulary of architectural planning and design. Trees for shade and windbreak can bear a consideration in architecture and landscaping. But general landscaping is regarded apart from the architecture, whereas in intelligent bioclimatic design, it is most effectual as an integral part of the architecture and interresponsive with its inland farming and landscaping. The building experience managed to isolate the building from the unfavorable climatic conditions, determining an inside microclimate able to provide for physical comfort. At lower latitudes, the climate moderates and summer heat, as well as rain, becomes significant. Windows are designed to admit the winter sunshine while excluding it in the summer. Insulation is used to minimize heat loss, and ventilation helps to counteract heat gain. Sustainability is an overall vision of creating quality in all parts of the building by making a whole positive in building manipulation, where an appropriate balance must be ensured between the environmental, social, and economic considerations, but also with the context in which the building is part—the city and society. In other words, the overall construction industry faces a significant transformation. A change that really matters to the development community, that keeping in mind that ecology means the doctrine of keeping communities, so take care of things. Sustainability is not mysterious, but requires common sense, consideration, and action. It became clear to understand that sustainable building is a designation of the edifice that meets UN criteria for sustainability [4]. A sustainable city is organized so as to enable all its citizens to meet their own needs and to enhance their well-being without damaging the natural world or endangering the living conditions of other people, now or in the future [5]. The concept of “sustainable building” comes from the concept of “sustainable development.” It was coined in the Brundtland Commission’s report after the first green conference in the UN’s Director had taken place in Stockholm 1972. The main task, of sustainability in building design, is to a great extent reduce the energy consumption of other buildings and other environmental loads, which has also been the cause of the authorities since the oil crisis in 1973. Since the oil crisis, there are still tightening rules for building energy consumption through the building regulations; but new rules in building regulations only apply to the new construction, which is limited in number to the total building stock. Therefore, in the case of renovations and extensions to existing buildings, it is up to the homeowner to take into account the environment. Sustainability in building sector means that account should be taken of the construction on the environment, both in the long term and in the short term. In addition, through all phases of a construction process, from the production of building materials until it returns as waste. But also the environmental burden that settlement means in the form of property, where building sustainable is to build for the future. In this concept, it is necessary to meet our generation’s needs without destroying the ability of future generations to meet their own necessities. That is, a building is sustainable in both environmental, economic, and social terms. In other words, it means that a building is responsible for the environment as little as possible, that the building’s overall economy from construction to demolition is as good as possible and that construction is as good as possible for people to live. In pursuit of sustainable solutions, there are many examples of choices and solutions that can immediately be sustainable, but which cannot be considered sustainable in the full perspective. For example, a unilateral focus on energy savings without regard to the indoor climate can result in imbalances between environmental and social quality, thus resulting in a nonsustainable solution. Another example is an unqualified requirement to use locally produced materials to minimize transport without looking at the energy used for the production of the materials. There has been a tendency for sustainability in construction to be perceived and introduced as single measures that can make the building sustainable. However, sustainable construction implies that planning and decision-making are based on an overall perspective, which cannot be ensured by individual measures. Low-energy buildings, environmentally friendly construction, green construction, and sustainable construction—are these all the same concepts? The answer is no—although they all aim to reduce energy consumption and to some extent limit environmental impact, sustainability differs significantly from the others [6]. The basic quality requirements for buildings will be expanded to include low resource consumption, recycling building materials, etc. In the sustainable building, planning and decision-making must be based on an overall perspective, which aims not only at low energy consumption, a good economy, or a good indoor climate. Instead, it should be said that the construction as a whole is sustainable and contributes to solving the environmental and societal challenges that we face. 

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  • 40.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Overview of Sustainable Cities, Theory and Practices2019In: Sustainable Cities: Authenticity, Ambition and Dream / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, Kroatia: INTECH, 2019, p. 2-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Introductory Chapter: Sustainable Housing – Introduction to the Thematic Area2022In: Sustainable Housing / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, London: InTech, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lessons from the World Sustainable Housing: (Past Experiences, Current Trends, and Future Strategies),2021In: Sustainable Housing / [ed] Amjad Almusaed; Asaad Almssad, London: InTech, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term vernacular architecture is widely accepted by architects and derives from the Latin “VERNACULUS”, which means “domestic, native, indigenous”, local. So vernacular architecture designates the entire culture built from a particular place. In modern housing design, the inheritance and development of traditional architectural culture is reflected in the inheritance of classic architectural forms and craftsmanship and the rational application of traditional building systems. With the progress of social civilization and the improvement of technological level, various innovative building systems emerge in an endless stream and are widely used in modern housing design. In today’s rapid social and economic development, housing changes are coming quickly, sometimes even seeming a bit rough. At present, more attention is paid to the construction of new residential areas. As far as the field of urban architecture is concerned, the human settlement environment can be understood explicitly as people’s living and living environment. Today architects need to design a settlement that balances all social functions between meeting current needs and future development, designing energy and material-saving buildings, so that it is in harmony with the environment, and is conducive to the physical and mental health of the human body. In other words, the planning process requires attention to human behavior, psychology, emotions, and interpersonal relationships.

  • 43.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Umeå universitet.
    Passive and Low Energy Housing by Optimization2012In: Effective Thermal Insulation: The Operative Factor Of A Passive Buildning Model / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Croatia: InTech, 2012, p. 23-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Passive And Low Energy Housing: In The Context Of “Archie-Metrics”Concept"2010In: lmssad, Rhodes Island: University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The house is not only a roof, but also a home, the place where it is formed the moral climate and on which lasts the family spirit. The architectural product, being a product of the human work, a long time user product, like any other product it has not only to be produced but also to get the user’s disposal. The passive and low energy housing represents one of the most consistent concepts of sustainable building and brings with consideration of energy saving concept.

    Presently becomes incorrect work manner when we take the building phenomenon such as (passive and low energy building), detached from the large concept of architecture. Energy in

    passive and low energy building is an important factor; but it has an abstract act without human sentiments. Economy is other factor; all these factors classified such constant value. The human comfort is a vital aim of architecture, and it classified such variable level. The interaction always appears between the energy such abstract act and human comfort such human feeling. The balancing condition is extremely complex. Our job in this investigation is to establish a commune area by architectural conjecture over passive and low energy building.

  • 45.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, AsaadKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainable Buildings: Interaction Between a Holistic Conceptual Act and Materials Properties2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book has been written to represent the efficient applications of sustainability upon building designs. The book intends to illustrate various techniques of action of sustainability on building conceptions. The book is divided into four parts and eight chapters. Part I "Introduction into Target Theme" includes a chapter with title "Introductory Chapter." It makes an overview of the meaning and the target of sustainable building and sustainable building material. Part II "Sustainable Building Design, Process, and Management" discusses many forms and concepts of sustainable building and includes three chapters. Part III "Sustainable Building by Using Energy Efficiency in Building Design" includes one chapter. Part IV "Sustainability in Building Materials: Study Cases" includes three chapters.

  • 46.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almssad, AsaadKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustainable Housing2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable housing is generally used to describe housing that is environmentally friendly and resource-efficient over the lifetime of the building. Homes are designed to have the least possible negative impact on the environment. This means energy efficiency, avoiding environmental toxins, and responsibly using materials and resources while having positive physical and psychological effects on inhabitants. This book presents a comprehensive overview of sustainable housing, starting from legislation and ending with the design and configuration of homes.

  • 47.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Jönköping university.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Urban Social Sustainability - Case Study; Gellerupparken—Denmark,2020In: Sustainability in Urban Planning and Design / [ed] A Almusaed; A Almssad; L Truong - Hong, InTech, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban social sustainability represents a more specific part of urban development. Citizen involvement is a vital element of any future urban social development and helps to maintain the vision of human and diverse cities because it provides vibrant and sustainable cities in which everyone has a seat and can speak. Gellerupparken, as something new, also meets all five criteria for when an area is a ghetto during a given year. The criteria generally consist of income, ethnic origin, level of education, crime, and employment. The study’s aim is to present an objective means, to the reactivation of a passive multicultural zone in Aarhus city of Denmark to integrate it in the social life city by using the appreciative inquiry method by an introduction of new city functions. The study will assume the effect of sustainability in an urban social area, in a case study using the application of the pedagogical method, namely, the “appreciative inquiry” method

  • 48.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Vernacular Passive Houses From Aarhus City2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture., Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 91-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Danish landscape and Danish building are inseparable. Aarhus is a beautiful city situate in the western part of Denmark, and the eastern part of Jutland. Long house or one wing house is a traditional type of house that is dominant in Aarhus city, and other parts of Denmark, which goes back to the Iron Age, c.2000B.C. The aggressive effect of wind obliges builder to find a practical solutions to combat the negative effect of strong wind. Wind breaks around houses is a widespread tradition for determinate a better comfort around house and to save energy. The thermal influence on the built form and orientation of buildings has the strongest influence in the countryside.

  • 49.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Basra University, IRQ.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Alasadi, Asaad
    Basra University, IRQ.
    Analytical interpretation of energy efficiency concepts in the housing design process from hot climate2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 21, p. 254-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical understanding of an architectural product shows architecture as a series of complex activities, which aims to create an optimal material framework with well-organized functional spaces that can meet the material and human spiritual requirements. The vision of a multifaceted architecture shows that it is necessary to design and work cooperatively with an architectural theory to transform the lateral conceptual viewer of the multilateral design process. The effort has to focus on ensuring the active collaboration of sciences and techniques with the creative building design process. The real stages of house design theory still insufficiently incorporate natural phenomena such as thermography, climatology, aerodynamics, and thermodynamics in the building design approach. The primary target of this research is to define an efficient method of building design in which essential aspects are considered during the first phase of design ideas. The study concluded that using a classical design model is respectable. However, it can bring many mistakes in the confirmation of a holistic design assignment related to energy, thermal comfort, and economic factors that represents an essential tool for architectural creation products where the innovative model proceeds with all design elements, activities and space roles which can reunify in the interpretation of functional spaces by creating an interspace with a consistency habitat environment.

  • 50.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Almusaed, Ali
    Towards a Zero Energy House Strategy Fitting For South Iraq climate2008In: Passive and Low Energy Architecture 2008 Conference / [ed] Paul Kenny, Vivienne Brophy, J. Owen Lewis, Dublin: University College Dublin , 2008, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 500
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