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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    de Bourgh, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hållbarhetscertifieringssystem i anläggningsbranschen: En studie om upphandlingskrav kopplat till hållbarhetscertifieringar i offentliga upphandlingar2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability rating schemes has come to be used extensively since it´s arrival to Sweden during the 21th century. Today, the number of sustainability certifications increases for projects in the construction industry while only a few projects has been certified in the civil engineering industry. The reasons of the interesting development has been studied by investigating how the construction industry clients in the public sector should be able to claim use of sustainability rating schemes without infracting the Swedish public procurement act.

    The study has been conducted by literature- and interview research. Interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in the industry. The purpose was to obtain an unambiguous opinion of how clients should require use of sustainability rating schemes in public procurements. The study also discussed how stakeholders monitor and evaluate their work. The literature research analyzes previous work in the topic and evaluates procurements which contains requirements of sustainability rating schemes.

    The overall conclusions from this study is:

    • The industry demands a standardized framework about how to phrase requirements. Public clients should procure likewise, regardless of their location in Sweden.

    • More pilot projects must be implemented to find out how to achieve maximum benefit with sustainability rating schemes.

    • The industry wants more clear and measurable requirements.

    • Not to be contrary to the Swedish public procurement act, clients can phrase functional requirements based on the manual of the sustainability rating scheme they wish to use.

    • The clients should not worry about appeals, since appealed procurements because of sustainability requirements is rare. It is important to have clearly phrased requirements where the choice of sustainability rating scheme, specified criteria and level is clarified.

    • By the new EU-directives comes an update of the Swedish procurement act, which will enforce in 2016 with the intention of making it easier to set requirements for sustainability rating schemes.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jönsson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Är SundaHus materialklassning kompatibel med Miljöbyggnads, BREEAMs och LEEDs materialkrav?: En studie om SundaHus miljöklassningar.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a society where there is a shortage of housing and the demand for new and sustainable buildings is growing. The houses that are being built today are focused on being energy efficient to save resources. Something that is forgotten is the choice of materials to house constructions. Materials can affect nature and people from the cradle to the grave by for example material hazardous components. The certification systems Miljöbyggnad, BREEAM and LEED have been checked and their material criteria have been defined. Through a selection of construction materials taken from SundaHus a review has been made of these materials towards the certification systems´ criteria on materials to see if they are compatible. The minority of the criteria were reviewed to separate materials and could be verified in SundaHus. Almost all materials passed the criteria that could be used of Miljöbyggnad and BREEAM regardless of classification in SundaHus. None of the LEED criteria were compatible with SundaHus for separate materials. The fact that the worse classifications in SundaHus could pass the criteria that were reviewed indicates that the requirements in environmental certification systems are too low. Higher and more demands should be made on individual materials and the hazardous substances in them.

  • 4. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci.
    A free-boundary problem for concrete carbonation: Front nucleation and rigorous justification of the root t-law of propagation2013In: Interfaces and free boundaries (Print), ISSN 1463-9963, E-ISSN 1463-9971, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Large-time behavior of a two-scale semilinear reaction-diffusion system for concrete sulfatation2014In: Mathematical methods in the applied sciences, ISSN 0170-4214, E-ISSN 1099-1476, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1451-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

  • 7.
    Alfredsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Haeffner, Fredric
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Åtgärdsförslag för erosionsskador i Kölaälv2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Almqwist, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Olsson, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Val av fönster med hjälp multikriterieanalys: Forshaga vårdcentral2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är tänkt som ett hjälpmedel vid fönsterprojektering och berör de aspekter som är av intresse vid val av fönster. Målgruppen är Landstingsfastigheter i Värmland (LIV) samt alla som har intresse av ämnet. Huvudsyftet är att förenkla för LIV i deras arbete att välja fönster och att lämna förslag på den bästa fönster-/solskyddslösningen till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

    Målet med rapporten är att skapa ett verktyg som hjälper LIV att på ett objektivt och enkelt sätt välja sina framtida fönster-/solskyddslösningar.

     

    Med hjälp av en multikriterieanalys (MKA) i samverkan med uppställda mål och syften har en mall arbetats fram, där fönster/solskydd kan utvärderas på ett objektivt sätt. MKA:n fungerar bra vid jämförelse av fönster men inte vid solskydd. Detta eftersom LIV har satt upp tydliga mål och syften för sin solskyddslösning. Därmed har en undersökande metod med hjälp av LIV:s uppställda krav använts som hjälpmedel vid val av solskyddslösning. MKA-metoden tillämpades för att finna det bästa fönstret till vårdcentralen i Forshaga.

     

    Rapporten visar att med LIV:s förutsättningar är den bästa lösningen ett PVC-fönster med isolerglas. PVC-karmen är den lösning som ger lägst U-värde samt kostar minst i sammanhanget. Trots att PVC-fönstret redovisas som vinnare var det inte bäst i alla avseenden. Aluminiumfönstret är genomgående bra och bäst ur säkerhetssynpunkt men tillverkarna har svårt att minska de naturliga köldbryggorna som uppstår i karmen. Lösningarna blir dyra och fönstret är svårt att motivera ekonomiskt när säkerhetskraven är normala. Fönster med trä respektive trä-/aluminiumkarm får också ett genomgående gott betyg. Ur underhållssynpunkt har träkarmen svårt att mäta sig med de underhållsfria alternativen.

     

    Eftersom LIV har tydliga krav och mål uppställda på sina solskyddslösningar och på deras funktion, sorterades många lösningar bort. Skärningspunkten för alla kriterier föll på en fast solavskärmning som inte kräver något underhåll, eller vars funktion förändras av väder och vind. Solavskärmningen bör kombineras med en persienn för att möjliggöra ett gott insynsskydd.

    En slutsats vid val av fönster är att det är viktigt att ha tydliga mål och syften, först när det är färdigställt kan man gå vidare med vilken funktion och krav fönstret/solskyddet bör uppfylla.

  • 9.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Bio-Ecological Sustainable Windows2005In: The International Conference Sustainable Building 2005 SB05, Tokyo: SB05Tokyo National Conference Board , 2005, p. 31-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Window is a vital part of any house they permit natural light into the house as long as views and fresh air. In the same time we can consider that the window is an extremely influential factor in climatic design, as the weakest climatic element of the building envelope. Well designed and protected windows improve comfort year round and reduce the need for heating in winter and cooling in summer. Aesthetics appearance, view, and optical performance, are usually quite important to the occupant. In reality, the serious lighting designer cannot take any notice of the energy implications of window choices. New technologies help to resolve the historic problem of the transaction between windows that reflect unwanted solar gains in the summer and those that admit a maximum quantity of useful light. Well-designed windows and shading devices allow solar heat gain in winter and shade and ventilation in summer while providing enough day lighting. Solar gain achieved by heaving 60% of the building’s windows orientated correctly can reduce the heating load of  house by _22%.In houses, low solar heat gain coefficient glazing should be used on east and west orientations, while high glazing should be used when passive solar and day lighting are being utilized.

    Today’s window technologies can replace more primitive strategies for shielding interior spaces from unwanted sunlight, such as tinted windows and curtains.

  • 10.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Efficient daylighting approach by means of light-shelve device adequate for habitat program in Aarhus City2014In: International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, ISSN 2315-4462, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 441-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of light shelves consist of windows that have face towards the sun, which receive a vast quantity of energy that could be used for healthy day lighting. This paper debates a main assessment, investigates the optimization of daylight requirement by means of light shelves system. An experimental test was carried out assessing the measurements and lighting simulations of a model of a building in order to elucidate the characteristics of indoor lighting. Light shelf is an architectural element that permits daylight to enter deep into a building. It constitutes an optimal solution for an incorrect building orientation and less sunny days. The essential objective of this study is to highlight the vital role of light shelves in residential buildings in northern Europa where the requirement is to improve the daylight in the interior functional spaces. The main objects of this paper are to investigate the effect of daylight in the interior functional spaces using light shelves, the effect of natural light diffusion in interior space in the period of low daylight season, and glare effect in this field. This paper investigates a procedure for analysing the daylight performance using software habitat function

  • 11.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Green housing: The optimal Solution To Combat The Negative Effects Of Global Climatechange2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No Architectural concept is complete without green areas. The vital mission of biophilic architecture is to revised conceptualization of architecture in response to a myriad of contemporary concerns about the effects of human activity. Our earth is warming more rapidly than it has in the past according to the research of scientists. The green building of biophilic architecture combines the interests of sustainability, environmental consciousness, green areas of the large nature, and organic approaches to evolve design solutions from these requirements and from the characteristics of the site, its neighborhood context, and the local microclimate and topography. The biophilic concept provides us with the opportunity to reach extremely low levels of energy consumption by employing high quality, cost-efficient measures to general architectural components - such measures are in turn off advantage to the ecology and economy sector. Our essential task of this research is to make of the green covering a human strategy in urban and architectural manner and to be a human culture with helping of local governments; we can acquire the competent legislation, which protect our life and environment.

  • 12.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Archcrea Institute.
    Kalil Almusaed, Zaki
    Heat Island Effects Upon The Human Life On The City Of Basrah2007In: Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century: 2nd PALENC Conference 28th AIVC Conference / [ed] M. Santamouris, P. Wouters, Crete island: University of Athens , 2007, p. 45-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the terrible consequence of the Iraq –Iran war and recently USA attack over Iraq the urban green covering disappeared from large areas of the city, beside the extension of the building over the green areas. The negative effects of this phenomenon over human’s thermal comfort become more perceptive. Today we can observe clearly the negative effect of urban heat island in the center of Basra city, precisely in physical frameworks of the city; we can observe a typical phenomenon with a large negative effect for the period of summer heating that is a natural thermodynamic phenomenon. In the surfaces of physical framework, in the core of day between 12-15 pm, the sun is shining perpendicular above the earth surfaces (framework physic). Consequently the temperature on the earth surfaces increases surprisingly up to 60 ºC. Therefore there occurs a difference of temperature between the earth surfaces and cosmos space which conduce to generate a gigantic colonization of air from the earth surface to cosmos space, such resultants of this phenomenon is no air zones and under pressure on earth surfaces, with the intention of making a nasal bleeding, which seeking for a medical intervention aide.

  • 13.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Bioclimatic Interpretation Over Vernacular Houses From Historical city Basrah.2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture., Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 87-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basrah’s climate is hot, dry summer, mild to cold winter, and a pleasant spring and fall. The old builders from this region putted a big effort to create passive bioclimatic houses that corresponds the negative effects Basrah’s macroclimate. The courtyard is the central and dominant space in the house plan with a direct access to the living spaces. Houses from the city are compact with interior courtyard; the streets are sinuous and pass through houses volumes. The shady interior courtyard has the effect that the rooms do not communicate directly with the overheated air outside, but through intermediate buffer spaces. In the mean time between courtyard and street at least a wall or a building is always interposed. The House plan had an endomorphic form, (open tree form). The volumes were concept to create shadow which helps to move the air by natural movement to the deep superior side, that can be achieve through special holes. The architectural elements are strongly decorated, reproducing special typologies and traditional houses. Open spaces, covered by large roofs, are interesting due to the mix of diffuse light and shade that are an essential aesthetic factor in these buildings.

  • 14.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Biophilic Architecture,: The Concept Of Healthy Sustainable Architecture,2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passiveand Low Energy Architecture, Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 383-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, upon reflecting on the various settings and experiences of our lives, we should be able to find some fairly close matches between characteristics we like and characteristics that would have improved our chances of survival. In our course we perceive that the natural contiguous keeps us healthy and in turn, probably promotes physical performance as well. Occupants of built environments don’t want simply to work, play, eat, or sleep in a functional building. They want to be inspired, invigorated, comforted, and reassured by their surroundings. They want spaces that will make them more appropriate, comfortable. Biophilic architecture offers an exciting opportunity to achieve environmental, moral, social and economic benefits. Much remains to be understood about energy, environmental and life-cycle processes to engage young and enthusiastic researchers in the world-wide greenly architecture community and for those interested in biophilic architecture. The concept of biophilia deserves a deeper explanation. The hypothesis is that this affiliation leads to positive responses in terms of human performance and health even emotional states. The new movement aims to create environmentally friendly, energy-efficient buildings and developments by effectively managing natural resources.

  • 15.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Biophilic Habitat: Environment Adaptability In Context Of BioEcological Architectural Conception2010In: 3rd International Conference Palenc 2010 jointly organised with EPIC 2010 & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vital objective of biophilic habitat is to outline attributes and put them into a clear, sensible, organized format so developers, designers, planners, and architects can learn about the importance of a connection to the natural environment in all their building projects. Renew ability is the key to our human range and our prime resource for architecture. Every site is definite as to its location, natural relief, local vegetation, and its macro-microclimate.

    Biophilic habitat becomes an original utterance in social requirement. Moreover, this concept becomes a truly new orientation of human cultural life. Biophilic habitat is a part of a new concept in architecture, that work intensive with human health, ecology and sustainability precepts, such a integrate part of architectural formation which must be in optimal proportion with other buildings material. The position of green covering and its area depend basically on the category of functions that occur under this area. Biophilic habitat produces buildings that use less energy to operate because they feature efficient designs, materials and systems. The majority biophilic architectures have highly competent heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting systems, and appliances. In addition, these biophilic restructures are built of energy-efficient materials carefully installed to prevent the loss of conditioned.

  • 16.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Building materials in eco-energy houses from Iraq and Iran2015In: Case Studies in Construction Materials Journal, ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 1, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Builders from the Western part of Asia are trained to make buildings that can fulfil certain required functions while giving full consideration to all sites and environmental conditions. The research covers the zone between Iraq and Iran. The first investigated region is the ‘‘Mesopotamian Marshes’’ or Iraqi-Iran Marshes, a wetland zone situated in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran. The other region is a desert district, which includes a prominent part of the southern and western parts of Iraq and part of Iran. The last is the centre city of Basra. The building materials were the most important building element that affected the conformation of vernacular habitats from the western part of Asia in general and the Iraq–Iran area in particular. In this study, we needed to focus on the effects of ecological and energy-efficiency processes in creating vernacular habitats and the selection of optimal building systems and materials in this part of the world, which can be an essential point for sustainable environmental building processes in the future. Reeds, clay, straw, bricks, and wood were the most popular building materials used by builders from this region. The impact of building material on the environment embodies the essential method implicitly significant in this research to effectively determine traditional building materials in the environment, in addition to comparative analysis. This presents an essential factor of our analysis, in addition to the impact of environments on building systems. The main target of this study is to benefit designers and building engineers in their pursuit to find optimal and competent solutions suitable for specific local microclimates using traditional methods in the design process that are sustainable and ecological.

  • 17.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Umeå Unversitet.
    Improvement of Thermal Insulation by Environmental Means2012In: Effective Thermal Insulation: The Operative Factor Of A Passive Buildning Model / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Croatia: InTech, 2012, p. 3-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Umeå universitet.
    Passive and Low Energy Housing by Optimization2012In: Effective Thermal Insulation: The Operative Factor Of A Passive Buildning Model / [ed] Amjad Almusaed, Croatia: InTech, 2012, p. 23-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Passive And Low Energy Housing: In The Context Of “Archie-Metrics”Concept"2010In: lmssad, Rhodes Island: University of Athens, Greece , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The house is not only a roof, but also a home, the place where it is formed the moral climate and on which lasts the family spirit. The architectural product, being a product of the human work, a long time user product, like any other product it has not only to be produced but also to get the user’s disposal. The passive and low energy housing represents one of the most consistent concepts of sustainable building and brings with consideration of energy saving concept.

    Presently becomes incorrect work manner when we take the building phenomenon such as (passive and low energy building), detached from the large concept of architecture. Energy in

    passive and low energy building is an important factor; but it has an abstract act without human sentiments. Economy is other factor; all these factors classified such constant value. The human comfort is a vital aim of architecture, and it classified such variable level. The interaction always appears between the energy such abstract act and human comfort such human feeling. The balancing condition is extremely complex. Our job in this investigation is to establish a commune area by architectural conjecture over passive and low energy building.

  • 20.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Vernacular Passive Houses From Aarhus City2006In: PLEA 2006: 23rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture., Geneve: Universite de Geneve , 2006, p. 91-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Danish landscape and Danish building are inseparable. Aarhus is a beautiful city situate in the western part of Denmark, and the eastern part of Jutland. Long house or one wing house is a traditional type of house that is dominant in Aarhus city, and other parts of Denmark, which goes back to the Iron Age, c.2000B.C. The aggressive effect of wind obliges builder to find a practical solutions to combat the negative effect of strong wind. Wind breaks around houses is a widespread tradition for determinate a better comfort around house and to save energy. The thermal influence on the built form and orientation of buildings has the strongest influence in the countryside.

  • 21.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Basra University, Iraq.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Alasadi, Asaad
    Basra University, Iraq.
    Analytical interpretation of energy efficiency concepts in the housing design process from hot climate2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 21, p. 254-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical understanding of an architectural product shows architecture as a series of complex activities, which aims to create an optimal material framework with well-organized functional spaces that can meet the material and human spiritual requirements. The vision of a multifaceted architecture shows that it is necessary to design and work cooperatively with an architectural theory to transform the lateral conceptual viewer of the multilateral design process. The effort has to focus on ensuring the active collaboration of sciences and techniques with the creative building design process. The real stages of house design theory still insufficiently incorporate natural phenomena such as thermography, climatology, aerodynamics, and thermodynamics in the building design approach. The primary target of this research is to define an efficient method of building design in which essential aspects are considered during the first phase of design ideas. The study concluded that using a classical design model is respectable. However, it can bring many mistakes in the confirmation of a holistic design assignment related to energy, thermal comfort, and economic factors that represents an essential tool for architectural creation products where the innovative model proceeds with all design elements, activities and space roles which can reunify in the interpretation of functional spaces by creating an interspace with a consistency habitat environment.

  • 22.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Almusaed, Ali
    Towards a Zero Energy House Strategy Fitting For South Iraq climate2008In: Passive and Low Energy Architecture 2008 Conference / [ed] Paul Kenny, Vivienne Brophy, J. Owen Lewis, Dublin: University College Dublin , 2008, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, Asaad
    Nathir, Ameer M
    Shading Effects Upon Cooling House Strategy In Iraq2007In: Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century: 2nd PALENC Conference 28th AIVC Conference / [ed] M. Santamouris, P. Wouters, Crete island: University of Athens , 2007, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroclimatic forces have been important factors ever since man first constructed shelter. Throughout architectural history, local buildings have used great in providing the most comfortable internal conditions possible within the exigencies and constraints of local climate. The habitual living way in Iraq is accurately reflected in the households’ organization, in their volumetric configuration, in the forms of useful locations they engender. Houses are compact with interior courtyard; the streets are sinuous and pass through houses volumes. The shady interior courtyard has the effect that the rooms do not communicate directly with the overheated air outside, but through intermediate buffer spaces. In the mean time between courtyard and street at least a wall or a building is always interposed. This isolation from the street indicates concerns for defense. The architectural elements are strongly decorated, reproducing special typologies and traditional houses. The socials relations are strong, a situation which leads to personal-social spaces. The shadow is wanted to create both by means of architectural details and volumes, which have become a landmark of the local architecture specific character, and by means of natural elements (vegetation, water, etc.). The northern orientation is perfect for the summer functional rooms.

  • 24. Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Almusad, Asaad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Natural Lighting Efficiency By Means of Sun- Skylight-Tubes2014In: International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, ISSN 2249-8958, E-ISSN 2249-8958, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of comfort a luminous ambience refers to the distribution of luminance and chromatic ties on the interior envelope of a space that is one of different fields of vision for a subject within an ambience. Luminance and chromatic ties are at present not often studied as far as comfort in buildings is concerned. Sun lighting and bioclimatic concept is inseparable considerations when designing a building because of the historical and practical significance of natural lighting in architecture. Sunlight is as old as architecture itself. Human life gets sufficient sunlight, in fact, we use more of 90 % of our day indoor, for this reason, specialists are now seeing how architecture can ameliorate the indoor-outdoor links. At present, by biological and technological investigation the trend is to search backwards towards the previous philosophies and advantages of more indoor / outdoor relationship. Plus homeowners who want to have healthy home environments might want to renew the most relevant facts of technology and biology.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sociala krav i byggentreprenader: En tillfällig trend eller här för att stanna?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has, since the economic crisis of 2007, gained increasing social segregation. The gap between rich and poor has increased and the large number of hidden statistics regarding people excluded from the labor market is greater than in many years. Social exclusion has thus taken a toll on community groups that already before the crisis had a hard time getting included. Groups such as young, elderly, immigrants and people with mental of physical disabilities. To curb this development, the European Commission have, since the 2004 directives, enabled public sector clients to, through procurement of goods, services and contracts, include measures that promote social consideration.

    Social consideration is a term that have been a part of Swedish procurement legislation since 2007, and was updated in 2010. This update meant that the meaning of this term was given greater weight and that clients were more clearly encouraged to use the term.

    The term social consideration have proven to be an unclear term, both in European tutorials and governmental investigations. Investigators describe the possibility as difficult to interpret and legally complex. To enable a smooth implementation, an open dialogue between clients and contractors have been recommended. A dialogue which, according to this study based on personal interviews, is being missing, partly or completely, in many places around central Sweden.

    The goal and purpose of this study is based on a range of issues surrounding the concept of social consideration and its impact on the public sector in Sweden. What is being done, what is wanted and why. The personal interviews where conducted with municipal housing companies and municipalities in order to reconcile the current state of the new contract term.

    These interviews clearly show that the term social consideration is known by the majority of public clients in central Sweden. However, only one out of seven interviewees have hitherto pushed through a work contract with predetermined requirements on social considerations. Notable though, is that three out of seven interviewees where in the process of publishing work contracts with the instituted social demands criterion.

    The justification for why the remaining parties did not, or where not planning to, set social standards in public work contracts was motivated mainly by the absence of knowledge in the subject. Clearer evidence and better guidance was considered a linchpin for future implementation. It was consistently put forth that social responsibility can lead to good future synergies for both society and their own company. But the design of how to set the requirement or requirements and in what stage, is something that every interviewed party had its own opinion about.

    Despite divided opinions on how and at what stage social considerations should be included in public procurement, there is a unified voice among the interviewed parties saying that the concept of social responsibility and consideration is here to stay.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Fukt i passivhus i relation till väderlek: Alsters förskola2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennät: Underlag för framtida åtgärder i Fengersfors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater contains elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus which the treatment plants are forced to deal with. If the purification in the plant are substandard these substances is emitted in lakes and streams, which can lead to eutrophication. The small village of Fengersfors, in the province of Dalsland, uses two small stabilization pounds to cleanse their wastewater. These stabilization pounds do not meet the authorities’ treatment requirements, which have led the municipality to upgrade the facility. Before expanding the treatment plant, today’s volumes of extraneous water must be reduced to be able to dimension the new pounds, in proportion to the size of Fengersfors. Extraneous water is clean water that reaches the treatment plants in addition to water from baths, showers, washing machines and toilets. Examples of additional water can be storm water and groundwater. It is desired to minimize the percentage of extraneous water in wastewater systems to avoid costly purification processes.

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the flow of extraneous water which transports to the stabilization pounds. What sources to extraneous water is there in Fengersfors and which actions should the municipality take to achieve their goal of reduced flow of extraneous water to the stabilization pounds?

    To identify seepage of extraneous water in wastewater systems is a time consuming job. To address the problem, without being forced to duplicate the system, it is important to first build an image of the area. In this study this is done by four examinations: field inventory of residential areas, field inventory of transfer schemes, investigation of groundwater levels and dye tracing of bad connections. These steps are easy to preform, requires no large financial means and need not to be performed by individuals with special skills. The survey is completed in two overview maps, Fengersfors Norra and Fengersfors Södra. These are then used for basic calculations to point out areas which are contributing large volumes of groundwater, trough foundation drainage, to the treatment plant.

    Several properties in Fengersfors have their roof surfaces connected to the wastewater system. Simple measures, such as switching to drain spouts with dense water deflector, can reduce the volume of rainwater that reaches the stabilization pounds. General for the area is that ditches have been neglected for a long time, resulting in drums and wells clogged. A functioning ditch system is necessary for transport of storm and drainage water to the recipient. During the dye tracing process parts of previously unknown storm water systems were found. Sewer system maps can now be updated and become an important part of future actions. The study provides an indication of which areas need to be addressed or further investigated by the municipality.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tillförlitlig försörjningskedja: En fallstudie på Saabs projektprocess2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Uggla, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nya Orangeriet - En länk mellan staden och vattnet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad is a city with an interesting history. After the great fire in 1865, the new Karlstad began to take its form. The cultural heritage that the city carries must be managed with care. Therefore, objectives and guidelines for the city were created to help preserve it. These are summarized by the township in three words: manage, improve and innovate. 

    South of the railway is the Stadsträdgården, a well preserved historic park with rich flora. The park has an English Victorian style with protective vegetation, which separates the garden from the city. A few buildings are found in its vicinity. One that is called the Orangery has a particularly interesting heritage. It’s a grand building with elements of carpentry and contemporary decoration. Up until 1876 the Orangery was conducting plant related activities, but then the extent at which the activities were committed decreased. 

     In close proximity to Stadsträdgården is the lake Vänern. Despite the park's central location and the city's close relationship with water in the other directions; there is no obvious link to the south. Such interlocking functions, would be filled if the park would provide a greater variety of attractions. 

    The purpose is to link Karlstad’s central core to Vänern in the south and thus broaden the city and expand its capabilities. The goal is to find a natural meeting place that connects the center parts of Karlstad with the more southern located residential areas and at the same time linking the water with the city.  The work process includes literature studies, visits to relevant activities, SWOT analysis and modeling in Revit. The results are presented in the form of a proposal including a potential meeting place and additional measures for the given area. 

    The orangery in Stadsträdgården exhibit particularly good qualities regarding recreation. With some changes, the building can be used to attract people from the city and create the needed link between the city and the water. A proposal for such development is visualized in 3-dimensional models with associated explanatory text.  The result is illustrated in the form of the Orangery building; a proposal on an extension on this house, greenhouses in Stadsträdgården, a stage and a new plan for the park. These are presented in the form of 3-dimensional images. 

    In the conclusion to be reached, it appears that Stadsträdgården is the area best suited as a natural meeting place, as well as to connect the city with the water and its more southern neighborhoods. To achieve the set goals, some changes are required to the park. The extension of the Orangery is meant to compose as the entrance to Stadsträdgården and act as a main attraction for the area. Complementary works in the form of the greenhouse, stage and multi-functional furniture are meant to create a varied environment that appeals to a wide variety of people.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Bygga hus i traditionell härjedalsstil2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Andersson, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bergstrand, Ann-Charlott
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Höjdbestämningsmetoder vid upprättande av nybyggnadskartor: Jämförelse mellan nätverks-RTK och trigonometrisk höjdmätning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Levelling and trigonometric height measurements are the methods that are mostly used today for height determination, as the standard error with these methods is in the magnitude of millimeters, as long as the view length is less than 50 m.

    When creating a new construction map the requirement on standard error differ from 1 (Fredriksson, 2011) to 10 cm (www.arvidsjaur.se) depending on which municipality it concerns.

    When using network RTK for measuring, the accuracy in height can fall below 3 cm when the conditions are optimal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if network RTK can be used as an alternative to determinate height when accuracy under 10 cm is requested.

    Five points at locations with different conditions for accuracy got their height determined with the three methods mentioned above. Positional accuracy was formed for each point and method. The result from levelling was used as reference for the calculations. To compare the result with the requirements extended standard uncertainty, 2covering 95 %, was used. The result from trigonometric height measurement shows a position accuracy of 4 mm. From the network RTK, the points that were positioned without interference got a positional accuracy of 3.3 to 5.5 cm, while the points that were influenced by their environment, multipath interference and obstructions, got a positional accuracy of 123.3 cm and 234.4 cm. Positional accuracy of this method became 127.4 cm.

    The result from the height determination with network RTK shows big difference in accuracy for the different points. The conclusion is that network RTK measurement would not be a sufficiently accurate height determination method for preparation of a new construction map in an area similar to the one used for this test. Conversely, a construction map drawn up in an open area free from interference obstacles the results show that the network RTK is an approved method for determining height, depending on the requirements of the municipality.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Berglund, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Förbättra lågenergihusens materialval ur ett hållbart perspektiv: En studie hur man kan förbättra valet av isoleringsmaterial till vägg och tak samt material till grundkonstruktionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Andrén, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Päbel, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Materialval i byggprocessen: Utvärdering av ”metod för val av sunda ytmaterial”2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All construction has an impact on the environment in some way but with a good method which is also easy to use, the construction industry´s environmental impact could be reduced. When comparing different materials there are many factors to consider if a good health and environmental choice are to be made. In the year 2012 two construction engineering students at Karlstads University developed a method to compare different surface materials from an environmental, health and function perspective for public areas. This report is an evaluation of the method by relating to a real project. The method consists of a multi-criteria analysis which relates to environmental, health and function aspects. In the multi-criteria analysis (the MCA) the various criteria are evaluated and scored for each material and then sums up so that the materials can be compared. When the MCA is completed the economic aspect are then considered. Using a formula where different ratios are calculated and compared.

    In this report the method is tested on a real renovation project and together with people working in the construction industry the report will show if the method is useful and comprehensive enough to produce an environmentally sustainable result. The project that the method has been applied to is a reconstruction of Hagfors old station house to an office building. Twelve different flooring materials for office, hall and common room were developed and calculated using the method. The usefulness of the method was discussed in a workshop with participants from the architect office which was involved in the renovation project.

    The method for selecting good surface materials proved difficult to put into the implementation of the method. It also took time to complete because of all the data that had to be prepared for each material option. The economic aspect of the method was difficult to implement in a realistic way when prices for flooring usually are obtained by quotation regarding the purchase price and installation cost. If the method is to be attractive to the construction industry it must be simple to use and not time consuming because the cost can be difficult to justify to the client. According to the workshop participants the criteria needs to be revised, partly because the thought that some criteria were missing for the method to be more environmental friendly and partly because it would not be possible to compare the performance standards in this way in reality.

    In the construction industry, there is an interest in a working method where similar materials can be compared in an environmental and health point of view. The method presented in this report in neither developed nor easy enough to use in real projects.

  • 34. Annas, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Niklas
    Effektivisering av byggproduktion: vid byte av fönster2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Anneli, Delang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Livscykelekonomiska kalkyler (LCC) som beslutsunderlag i praktiken: - hos Landstingsfastigheter Värmland och Dalarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det går att spara mycket energi i befintliga offentliga fastigheter och lokaler. Sveriges landsting har under 2009-2016 sparat omkring 180 miljoner kronor i minskade energikostnader på årsbasis (SKL 2016). Livscykelkostnadskalkyler (LCC) lyfts fram av forskare som del i svaret för att överkomma brister och/eller identifiera framgångsfaktorer för hållbart byggande (Gluch 2014). Landstingen i Värmland och Dalarna är bäst i Sverige på energieffektvisering (SKL 2016) och har arbetat strategiskt och framgångsrikt med energifrågor sedan 1990 talet och har använt sig av LCC i omkring 10 år. Hur arbetar de med LCC i praktiken?

  • 36.
    Anukam, Anthony
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). University of Fort Hare, South Africa.
    Okoh, Omobola
    University of Fort Hare, South Africa.
    Mamphweli, Sampson
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A comparative analysis of the gasification performances of torrefied and untorrefied bagasse: Influence of feed size, gasifier design and operating variables on gasification efficiency2018In: International Journal of Engineering & Technology, E-ISSN 2227-524X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 859-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducted a comparative assessment of the gasification performances of torrefied and untorrefied bagasse with emphasis on feed size, gasifier design and operating conditions that would influence gasification efficiency. Torrefaction greatly improved the characteristics of bagasse and had significant impact on its gasification performance. The gasifier design parameters studied were throat angle and throat diameter. Temperature of input air and feed input were the gasifier operating conditions examined in the course of the gasification processes of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse. These parameters were considered the most critical operating parameters that affect gasifier performance and, correlation between the parameters was established in the course of gasification. The results obtained showed higher gasification efficiency for torrefied bagasse in comparison to untorrefied bagasse under varied conditions of gasification, which was attributed mainly to changes in the characteristics of the torrefied material.  

  • 37.
    Ariyanti, Octaviani
    et al.
    Ministry of Communication, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Response of Fuel Subsidy Removal as Sustainable Transport Policy: Case Study: Workers in Jakarta Metropolitan Area2016In: Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum, ISSN 2581-1037, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motorization in urban areas contributes several problems such as congestion, accidents, gas emissions, noises, and infrastructure breakage. Meanwhile, most of the developing countries cannot overcome such growth activities, as well as in Jakarta. By December 2013, Vice Governor of Jakarta proposes fuel subsidy removal policy as one of sustainable transport policy. This study is intended to understand and investigate how fuel subsidy removal policy scenarios (25%, 50%, and 100%) in Jakarta affects travelers’ behavior and analyze such policy to support sustainable transport by using qualitative research methodology. Interviews and questionnaires survey is conducted to workers in Jakarta, which includes ranking scale question for traveler response options. The result shows that half of the respondents are not affected and will only respond to fuel price increasing at IDR 31,400 for gasoline price and IDR 26,300 for ADO (Auto Diesel Oil). Moreover, there is a tendency of respondent's to the response by changing their travel mode choices into more fuel efficient private vehicle.

  • 38. arnaya, i wayan
    THE TRANSFORMATION OF PRIVATE VEHICLE USERS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT USERS (CASE STUDY : BALI, INDONESIA)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Arndtsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University.
    Optimeringsflöde av modelleringsprogram vid broprojektering: Analys av de tre modelleringsprogrammen Tekla Structures, Revit 2013 och Rhinoceros2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Aronsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bidrar GLONASS till bättre positionering?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Från den 1 april 2006 gavs möjligheten att använda GLONASS-systemet vid NRTK-mätningar som dessförinnan enbart använde sig av GPS-systemet. Allt fler inbyggda positioneringstjänster i vår nya teknik går nu mot att börja använda sig av både GPS och GLONASS-systemen. Tillgången till både amerikanska och ryska satelliter borde göra att vi får bättre, mer exakta och stabila mätningar vid dåliga förhållanden. Men är verkligen följden av att använda fler satelliter lösningen, eller räcker det i vissa tillfällen med enbart GPS-satelliter. Är den mer utbreda användningen av GLONASS-satelliter bara marknadsföring från företagen för att få sälja mer, dyrare och nyare produkter och därmed lura konsumenten att den är i behov av uppgraderade produkter som har GLONASS-stöd.

    Syftet var att undersöka om GPS och GLONASS förbättrar mätningarna och tillgängligheten i öppna respektive störda miljöer eller är det bara onödigt för konsumenten att sträva efter att positioneringsverktyget i ny teknik ska stödja båda satellitsystemen.

    En annan fråga är om det finns viss ny teknik som är tillämpade för olika områden där behovet är antingen större av GPS och GLONASS eller de områden där enbart GPS räcker till och ger minst lika goda mätningar och positionering.

    I detta examensarbete gjordes NRTK mätningar mot SWEPOS på ett antal kända punkter vid Karlstads Universitet där punkterna hade olika förutsättningar så som öppna och störda miljöer. Mätningarna gjordes med enbart GPS- respektive med GPS och GLONASS-satelliter påslagna. De bestämda koordinaterna i plan för de kända punkterna jämfördes med koordinaterna från mätningarna med enbart GPS respektive med GPS och GLONASS.

    De extra GLONASS-satelliterna är bra att använda sig av när man ska mäta i störda miljöer, de hjälper till att få en bättre noggrannhet. När man dock är i icke störda miljöer med fri sikt mot satelliterna räcker enbart GPS-satelliterna långt. Med den nya tekniken som kommer så finns ofta GLONASS-systemet inbyggt och är i de flesta fall är ingen ytterligare kostnad som konsumenten behöver ta utan är endast ett bra komplement oavsett användningsområde.

  • 41.
    Augustson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Stanser, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Projektutveckling av kvarteret Ärtan: Marknadsanalys2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Skanska Hus Väst is planning to construct condominiums in an area called Ärtan which lies in Karlstad, in the city district of Romstad. To be able to construct condominiums in this area a market analysis is needed. The market analysis describes the most appropriate type of residence to construct depending on ground conditions, public demand, the surrounding buildings and environment, the pattern in which the inhabitants move in the rural- and in the city district and how much the customer is willing to pay for a condominium on Ärtan. This means that relevant statistics of income, employment, prices on equal objects and more is needed to forecast the housing- and property market.

     

    The first part in the project development of Ärtan is to make a market analysis. The market analysis includes the city analysis, the object analysis and the business intelligence, figure 2.  

    The business intelligence is not included because the report is demarcated to the city- and object analysis only. The city- and object analysis will result in the determination of a suitable target group and how much the customer will be willing to pay for a condominium in Ärtan.  The purpose of this study is to determine these two and also decide the methods most appropriate for analyzing and determining the will of payment for the project.

     

    Business intelligence

    MARKET ANALYSIS

    City analysis

    Object analysis

    A short description of the city

    Business sector and employment

    Housing - and property market

    Population

    Supply and demand

      The state of the Property market

    A short description of the object

    Location analysis

    Equal objects

    Incomes and profitability

    Figure 2. Layout of the market analysis.

     

    The methods used for analyzing and making a conclusion in the report are:

    • Tobins Q
    • Business sector specialization quota
    • Regression analysis
    • Multiple Regression analysis
    • The method of location and price (Ortprismetoden)
    • Demand with the help of elasticity's.

     

    With these methods and with a great amount of collected data we have drawn the conclusion that the conditions for constructing condominiums in Ärtan are not optimal but still profitable. We have tried to make this judgment as objective as possible and we have looked at all the advantages and disadvantages of the area. Karlstad's business sector and employment have increased during the last years and are displaying good conditions to withstand these troubling financial times.

    We found good conditions to invest in the real estate market in Romstad, due to the lack of condominiums in the area and due to a higher level of incomes compared to the rest of the inhabitants of Karlstad.

               

    After the traces from the financial crises we assess that the will of payment on condominiums on Ärtan should be about 22 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area) in the interval of 20 500 - 23 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area). Suitable target groups for the product are people which have a good and firm will of payment and are in their thirties or forties. A good thing to do is also to adjust parts of the condominiums for older inhabitants. Our opinion is that a mix of younger and older people creates charm, comfort and a sense of safety in the neighborhood which is needed to get the area more attractive on the market.

     

    All the methods that were used in this analysis showed similar results which led us to the conclusion that all of the methods used are suitable for this assignment. However, the combination of the multiple regression analysis and the brokers' opinions is the most suitable one for the assignment because the combination can be executed easy, swift and true.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Åtgärder för minskad klimatbelastning i anläggningsprojekt: Trafikverkets ökade krav på klimatgasreducering genom Klimatkalkyl2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction processes in the construction industry account for emissions of approximately 6 million tonnes CO2e per year in Sweden. This means a significant proportion of about 10% of the climate-related emissions in Sweden. Climate impact in the construction industry is mainly due to the consumption of fossil fuel in work machinery and transport vehicles, as well as steel, asphalt and concrete production (IVA 2014).

    The Swedish Transport Administration, which manages the infrastructure in Sweden, orders annual construction work for the amount of SEK 60 billion in investment and maintenance. The Swedish Transport Administration has been assigned by the government to contribute to the transport policy consideration for environment and health. This means a climate-neutral infrastructure by 2050 and reduced climate impact by 2020 by 15% compared with 2015. To achieve this, the Swedish Transport Administration has developed a tool called Climate calculus to calculate and define a starting point for climate-related emissions in the projects. By means of Climate calculations, the Swedish Transport Administration requires projectors and contractors to reduce the climate impact of the projects in relation to the initial situation.

    The assignment for the degree project is NCC Infra Service Middle. The Swedish Transport Administration is one of NCC's most important customers, which means that the increased demands concern them to the highest extent. The idea behind the thesis is to study a suitable project where potential climate-saving measures are calculated. The project chosen for the study is an 11 km long road project on the highway 63 outside Karlstad, which NCC Infra Service began at the end of 2016. The project is interesting to study because it could potentially be covered by the new requirements. The aim is to provide NCC Infra Services with increased knowledge and better prerequisites for meeting tomorrow's tougher requirements. A Climate calculation has been prepared for the project to identify climate impacts and materials and calculate a starting point for the project's climate impact. Investigations for the purpose of mapping options have been implemented. Finally, it has been calculated how climate impact is affected if the proposed measures are taken.

    In total, the project generates emissions of 1 433 tones CO2e. Bituminous layers, asphalt, have the greatest impact, about 40%. Diesel consumption in work machines and transport vehicles generates about 27% of total emissions. Steel in the form of rails and felt fence accounts for about 19%. Remaining is distributed on concrete, explosives and rock crushing. If all proposed measures were implemented, a 47% reduction would be achieved. Most importantly, there is a shift from diesel to Hydrogenated vegetable oil. The reduction is 23% in relation to the initial situation, or 15% if the other measures are implemented simultaneously. Using Green Asphalt-made asphalt instead of conventionally manufactured would reduce the climate impact of the project by about 13%. Crushing rock materials on-site would reduce the overall climate load by about 10%. Using only wire rods instead of beam rods would give a reduction of about 5%.

    Several of the changes should also lead to an economic saving of about 1.4 MSEK. If the Swedish Transport Administration bonus of 3% of the contract sum, in this case about 2 MSEK, also would be distributed the financial outcome would be a profit of approximately 3.4 MSEK compared to the economic outturn.

    The conclusion is that the Swedish Transport Administration's demands are fully achievable. There is a great potential to reduce emissions from the construction industry. NCC's focus should be to switch to HVO fuel, always use Green Asphalt, try to crush rock material on-site and minimize material use, especially asphalt, steel and concrete.

  • 43.
    Aziz, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dimensionering av högprofilerad plåt: Analys av tillgängliga programvaror2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Aziz, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dimensionering av högprofilerad plåt: Analys av tillgängliga programvaror2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Backman, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindefelt, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Mångfaldens Jakobsberg: En plats för alla2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Modeling displacement path dependence in nailed sheathing-to-framing connections2017In: CompWood 2017 - Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: Programme & Books of Abstracs / [ed] Josef Füssl, Thomas K. Bader, Josef Eberhardsteiner, Vienna: TU verlag , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Path dependence in OSB sheathing-to-framing nailed connection revealed by biaxial testing2018In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 144, no 10, article id 04018197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OSB sheathing-to-wood framing connection, as typically used in light-frame shear walls, was experimentally examined in a novel biaxial test setup with respect to possible path dependence of the load-displacement relation. The connection with an annular-ringed shank nail was loaded under displacement control following nine different displacement paths within the sheathing plane, which coincided at a number of points. In intersection points, resultant connection force, its orientation and work performed on the connection system to reach the specific point were calculated and compared. Evaluation of experiments revealed significant path dependence with respect to orientation of force resultants at path intersection points. However, magnitude of the forces and the work carried out showed relatively small dependence of the displacement path undertaken. Comparison of uniaxial connection tests with the European yield model demonstrated strong contribution of withdrawal resistance of the ringed shank nail to its lateral strength. Results of this type are a valuable basis to build better models when simulating such connections in wood structures.

  • 48.
    Beiron, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Drifterfarenheter från en energieffektiv skola: Vargbroskolan i Storfors2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vargbroskolan i Storfors kommun har byggts med ambitionen att minimera energianvändningen utan att ge avkall på inneklimatet. Byggnaden är mycket välisolerad och har ett hybridventilationssystem. Denna rapport redovisar erfarenheter från de inledande två driftåren med fokus på energianvändning och inneklimat.

    Rapporten ingår som del i redovisningen av Demonstrationsprojekt 2006:05,Vargbroskolan, vilket är finansierat inom ramen för Energimyndighetensprogram för Passivhus och Lågenergihus.

    Vargbroskolan är en grundskola för årskurs 4-9 med ca 270 elever. Totala golvytan är ca 4030 m2. Byggnaden togs i drift januari 2008.

  • 49.
    Beiron, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Drifterfarenheter från ett superisolerat flerbostadshus: Kv SEGLET, Karlstad2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seglet är ett 12-vånings punkthus med 44 lägenheter beläget i Karlstad. Byggherre är Karlstads Bostads AB. Huset är byggt med mycket höga ambitioner när det gäller kvalitet och resurshushållning och togs i drift i börjanav 2007.

    Denna rapport redovisar klimatskalets egenskaper och funktion samt utformningen av installationssystemen för värme, ventilation och tappvatten.Rapporten beskriver också drifterfarenheterna från de första årens drift samt de förbättringsåtgärder som utförts.

    Seglets lösningar visar att energieffektivisering och inneklimat kan gå hand ihand. Konceptet med en enkel förvärmning av tilluften löser två problem. Dels kan tilluften tillföras lägenheten utan risk för drag och dels saknar det FTX-systemets nackdelar med utökat servicebehov för filterbyten och ökad elanvändning för tilluftsfläkten. Det välisolerade och täta klimatskalet ger en komfortabel inomhusmiljö. Den befarade risken med höga rumstemperaturer sommartid har inte besannats. Tack vare genomtänkta fönsterplaceringar med solskyddsglas där så är befogat samt goda möjligheter till effektiv vädring har lägenheterna samma temperaturnivå sommartid som motsvarande lägenheter i normalisolerade byggnader. Byggnaden är mycket resurseffektiv med låga förbrukningstal på både energi och vatten. Då största delen av värmebehovet täcks med fjärrvärme står sig byggnaden mycket väl i en jämförande miljöbedömning.

    Nyckeltal för klimatskal och energianvändning

    Medelvärde för klimatskalets värmeisolering, Um, W/m2,K ca 0,21

    Luftläckage, läckflöde vid provtryckning till 50 Pa, l/s,m2Aomg 0,13

    Specifik energianvändning, kWh/m2,år 58

     

     

  • 50.
    Berg, Nicklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eriksson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan modulbadrum och platsbyggt badrum vid renovering2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 1960 och 1975 byggdes cirka 1 006 000 nya bostäder i Sverige. Många av dessa lägenheter har idag ett stort behov av renovering. Ett alternativ till att renovera badrummen på traditionellt sätt, där badrummet rivs ut och fräschas upp är att använda ett så kallat modulbadrum som integreras i den nuvarande huskroppen. Målet med arbetet var att med hjälp av kriterierna ekonomi, miljö och kvalitet utreda vilket alternativ som är bäst lämpat vid renovering; att bygga in badrumsmoduler eller att renovera befintliga badrum. Dessutom ska hyresgästernas åsikter i frågan utredas i form av en enkät. Vidare kontrollerades eventuella skillnader i miljöpåverkan samt kostnaderna för att klimatkompensera. Jämförelserna gjordes med hjälp av erhållna handlingar från Con-Form samt uppgifter från kalkylatorer på företag i branschen. Detta sammanställdes sedan i kalkyler i kalkyleringsverktygen BidCon och Sektionsfakta där priset per modul och priset per platsbyggt badrum kalkylerades fram. Denna summa användes för att få fram en pay off-tid för att se hur många år det, vid en hyreshöjning, skulle ta att betala sig. Materialen kontrollerades i databasen SundaHus för att se vilket alternativ som var mest miljövänligt och innehöll minst antal farliga substanser. Enkäten visade att den tänkta målgruppen är negativt inställda till modulbadrumsalternativet. Därför är det osannolikt att hyresgäster i allmänhet kommer acceptera de förändringar som modulbadrumslösningen innebär. Förlusten av ljus och försämringen av planlösningen samt de försämrade möbleringsmöjligheterna är argument tunga nog för att överskugga fördelarna. Pay off-tiden för det högsta hyresökningsalternativet är möjligtvis rimligt, men faller på att målgruppen helt förkastar lösningen. Därför är slutsatsen att modulbadrum inte är ett alternativ till att renovera befintliga badrum eftersom kundernas åsikter och kostnaderna talar emot detta. Platsbyggda badrum rekommenderas i det här fallet.

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