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  • 1.
    Allenby, Patrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Enkelstations-RTK eller Nätverks-RTK: I Naturvårdsuppdrag2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Förutsättning

     

    I examensarbetet har det ingått ett verkligt ärende som handläggs av mig som MBK-ingenjör inom Lantmäteriet. Det är ett naturvårdsuppdrag från Länsstyrelsen och innefattar bl a inmätning och utstakning av gräns på ett blivande naturreservat.

     

    Naturvårdsuppdraget Huskeberget ligger ca 5 km norr om Södra Finnskoga och sydväst om Höljes i norra Värmland. Omkrets 2,38 km. Områdets höjd är ca 550 m över havet och ligger på sydöstra sluttningen av Huskeberget.

     

    Fix

     

    Lantmäteriet använder idag Leica Viva CS15/GS15 mätutrustning vid inmätning av brytpunkter och gränser. I detta fall det blivande naturreservatet. Under vissa omständigheter kan det ta tid att få fix-lösning eller helt utebli. Dessa omständigheter kan bero på ett flertal faktorer bl a kraftiga jonosfärsstörningar och/eller GPRS-nätets täckningsområde för mottagning av SWEPOS nätverks-RTK tjänst.

     

    Inriktning

     

    Fokus har lagts på att utvärdera ett alternativ till nätverks-RTK, en sk enkelstations-RTK med uppkoppling till en tillfällig referensstation.

     

    Närmare undersökning har gjorts på tiden för initialisering vid varje enskild inmätning som sedan jämförts i de två mätmetoderna. Tiden för själva arbetet sätts sedan i relation till resultatet från undersökningen för att ge en helhetsbild av tidsåtgång i arbetet med vardera mätmetoden.

     

    Resultat

     

    Efter alla brytpunkter mätts in visade det sig att i just det här området inte fanns några anmärkningsvärda problem att få fix-lösning med någon av de valda mätmetoderna. Resultatet visar därmed små skillnader i tidsjämförelser.

     

    En oplanerad testmätning med nätverks-RTK gjordes i tät skog alldeles intill en inmätt brytpunkt utan framgång att få fix-lösning. Detta för att belysa problematiken med att få fix-lösning vid mätning i tät skog.

     

    Rapporten innehåller en kortfattad beskrivning av delar av arbetet i Lantmäteriets handläggning av naturvårdsuppdrag.

  • 2.
    Almlöf Ambjörnsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Östberg, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Schenzel, Karla
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Natural Scinence III, Institute of Agriculture and Nutritional Science.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    Innventia AB, Fibre and Material Science Business area Biorefining, Stockholm.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Enzyme pretreatment of dissolving pulp as a way to improve the following dissolution in NaOH/ZnO2014In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Amange, Basil
    Karlstad University.
    Elevernas uppfattning om teknikämnets användbarhet: Exempel på högstadieelevers syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how secondary pupils perceive the usefulness of the subject technology. The starting point is what the School inspection (2014) has pointed out in its review of the subject technology when it comes to offering technology teaching, which secondary school pupils perceive as relevant. The focus area has been the students´ view on the relevance of  subject technology för their everyday lives. The method of this study is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with eight pupils, 4 pupils from class 8 and 4 pupils from class 9. Those pupils are from two suburban schools which are located in Gothenburg, Sweden. My theoretical points have been some relevant research and also two learning theories; the socio-cultural perspective and pragmatism.

    The results of the study show a variation in a small scale between girls´ and boys´ appreciation of the usefulness of technology. The survey shows that all the interviewed pupils want to see the connection between technology education in school and life outside. In other words, one can say that it is significant for the pupils to understand the context in which a technology task may be relevant and productive in relation to humans and society.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Ramona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Självförsörjande småhus med sol- och vindkraft: En simulering av energibehov, analys av miljöpåverkan och ekonomisk hållbarhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of EU´s biggest goals in climate policy is that carbon emissions shall be reduced by 20% before 2020 to inhibit global warming. By combining renewable energy sources with a more efficient energy system, it could go faster to achieve these goals.

    The purpose of this report is to find out if it is possible to construct a self-sufficient house, located in Karlstad, which uses solar and wind power for its energy demand. The house should not be dependent on the district electricity, but should be able to provide its own energy demand, by being equipped with an energy storage system. To reach the goals of the report an examination of the energy demand for an energy efficient house was made. This was done by comparing the house with a passive house. These calculations were simulated in the program VIP-Energy. The calculations of the solar and wind power were based on the energy demand of the house, and it was supplemented with a pellet stove and battery in order to make it self-sufficient. During the report, an investigation has been made as to the environmental impact of the house compared to an equivalent house that is heated by electricity. An economic analysis has also been calculated for the house.

    The project led to a passive house with a total energy requirement of 11.906 kWh per year. The process required a number of assumptions which may have given rise to some uncertainty in the results. In order to provide the energy need for the house a solar panel system with a maximum power of 12 kW and a wind turbine of 10 kW was chosen. This resulted in an excessive energy production during the summer months and yielded a large surplus of electricity. The solar and wind power generated a total surplus of 18.000 kWh per year. The surplus generated was a consequence of the house intending to be self-sufficient, therefore the calculations was made during the time of year when energy demand was greatest. The system was finally outfitted with a pellet stove and seven sections of 24V batteries with 250Ah/battery.

    The cost analysis estimated an initial cost of solar panels, wind turbine, pellet stove and the batteries. The initial cost was estimated to 403 500 kr and a pellet consumption of about 1000 kr per year. It would take a minimum of 25 years to repay the initial cost if the house was compared to an equivalent house that uses electricity for its energy demand. The amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is prevented compared to an electrically heated house is almost 1000 kg per year. This is equal to 266 one-way trips during a 25 year period between Gothenburg and Stockholm with a mid-sized car.

    Conclusions to be drawn from the report are that it would not be economically sustainable to construct a self-sufficient house. Since the house is not connected to the district electricity, it cannot sell the surplus electricity during the summer months. However, further studies could be done to determine the opportunities for the house to be fitted with a charging station for electric cars. In this way the house would be able to provide the intrinsic means of transport that does not give any effect on the climate. That could also save the cost of other fuels for transportation.

  • 5.
    Anshammar, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Intern processkvalitet Region Bygg Mellersta: Totalkvalitetsgranskning på en byggregion i Peab Sverige AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The intent of this study was to contribute to the future quality work in building construction line of business. By making a survey over potential factor that contribute to quality and to evaluate if there are some factors that contribute more than others to achieve quality. The study was done by reviewing a building project and Peab´s internal quality work in Middle Region of Building. There this study is based upon the concept of “Total quality”(Sandholm 2008), when analysing all facts that was confirmed in this survey. The research is based on documentation, company values, own building controls of quality and to do interviews with nine staff members to evalute the internal work at the company. All interview´s is based on the same questions, where some of the questions have different wording between leaders and craftsmen to get all staff to fully participate when answering each question, look at appendix 1 and 2. The documents and interviews where used to investigate what had happened in the construction process at the building site in this project. Where the interviews also contributed to get a clearer picture of what different professions felt during the whole process when building up Hasselbols kindergarten to a finished building.

     

    Purpose:

    • To contribute with analysis to future perspective of quality in the building branch of construction companies. The intention is to establish where it is more important to put in resources to gain a good quality process in the construction process out at building site. This case study is based on the company Peab and their internal work with quality, the research work has been done with the perspective of Total quality.

    Goal:

    • To establish if there are factors that in a higher level influence quality then other factors at Peab in their internal quality work. Overlapping goal is to examine the internal quality work and to give the company suitable improvements to introduce in there working process.

     

    Sub targer:

    • It is to evaluate own controls of quality done by the company and documentation in the building project Hasselbols kindergarten built under the years 2013 to 2014. This is then compared with own demands made by Peab in the building and to evaluate if they succeed with their goals in this building project.
    • It is to examine the quality level in own controls and in documentation that has been done in the project.
    • It is to do the interviews with staff members at the company in this region.
    • It is to analysis the interviews.

    All analysis is based on and compared with company values and goals, visions, policy, strategy & demands of the company and the concept of Total quality.

     

    Method:

    • Studies of Total quality as a concept was done by reading earlier done studies and other documents, to understand how it has been used in different line of business, companies and countries.
    • The projects all documentation was overviewed together with foreman of Hasselbols kindergarten project. Further investigation was done in building controls of the construction, other documentation done in the project tied to quality in construction and documentation of the internal work to establish quality in all steps of the progress in the building project.
    • Staff to Peab was interviewed with semi structured method.

     

    Result of the case study at Middle Region of Building

    • The company managed to fulfill their own demands of quality in the project Hasselbols kindergarten.
    • All internal controls and documentation in the project holds high quality. There were no remarks to be done by the cause of information missing in the project documents.
    • The interview indicates that the employees in Peab stand for the company values in high extent. Two out of four key values is clearly visible in the interview´s that has been done.
    • Interview shows that management for the examined project is better than average in the company for a management which is normal at good standard.
    • Interview gave that the tradespeople are not fully satisfied in there working day at the company. They all share the same feeling of that it is tough to get continual improvements to make a difference in the next building production; it means that the same problems appear at the next building site again and again.
    • The factor that showed up as crucially to gain quality in the building process and in the building is to have committed and skilled leaders in the management of the building project in the company´s organization. This means that if a company is to put in an effort to upgrade quality in the organization even more, the company must invest in their leaders with extension courses to gain higher quality. In the concept of “Total quality”(Sandholm 2008), it is the leadership that holds forward to succeed with continual improvements in the organization. This study shows that the concept of “Total quality” is accurate when pointing out that engaged leaders that drives improvements forward are the best way to drive the organization forward. This is the key factor to succeed with reorganizing the work functions at a company.

     

    Survey over the result at the company:

    It do holds high quality in relation to Total quality(Sandholm 2008) as a concept in leadership, information and analysis, production planning, the employed show a great interest in the company´s working methods and communicate the importance about their personally progress in the company, working process and the end result of the product.

    The leading management in the production line of building in Peab is actively working with quality in different ways, works on improvements on a day to day basis, routines, several of templates, different check list´s, internal education, internal revision, working methods, solutions of technical methods, collection of experience to improve building process, management system and the working environment. These things are all part in the concept that together is called the managements leading system (in Swedish VLS-VerksamhetsLedningsSystem).

    Analysis of the study

    • The analysis show that the building company Peab has in all building projects, high owns demands that should be achieved in every project. When it comes to sustainable environment, energy saving, new building solutions and customers satisfaction.
    • It was high quality in the documentation there it is only positive things to say about the documentation in the project. It was made a considerable amount of documentation in the project and not a single mistake was found in review. The documentation is of good workmanship and utterly done of the management in the project. The project documentation has been influenced from the management leaders in this project already from the very beginning of the projecting time of this project. The management of this project has made all documentation by them self’s in this project. The demands for documentation in Peab are guidelines & must do demands[1], law demands and customer demands.

     

    The pictured image that appear after the interviews are not all the same:

    • The first picture is from leading staff to Peab. They improve even more the picture that the company has made up in their own goals. The staff adequacy, engagement, will of variability, no need for prestige and in their work they have ambitions to lead the company Peab into the future.
    • The second picture is from the craftsmen, that they feel a frustration in their working environment on every day basis. The interpretation is that the craftsmen do not feel that they fully get the opportunity to participate, in the working process at the building site in all building project. The craftsmen felt that everything worked out very well in Hasselbols kindergarten project and there were all satisfied with the construction process at this build. The craftsmen considered this project was made in a higher level of the management then they are used to out at building sites, where the management usually holds a good standard when leading building projects.
    • The third picture is given from all staff members about the company Peab and it is development towards the future. They all have the same opinion about the company that it must develop on an everyday basis, to still be in a key position into the future.

    Overlapping analysis:

    • Peab has good control and there by good opportunities to develop the function and enterprise goals within the company, in those parts there the company has not succeeded in yet. After studying both the documentation and the interviews is the interpretation, that Peab continually works with improvements in the organization of every level in the organization. Middle Region of Building fully works by Total quality model SIQ-model(Sandholm 2008, s. 64).
    • Peab has decided that all project leaders should use procurement of work in the production line out of the building site with the staff. If that was done by every project management in production line in a more visible way to the craftsmen. Could this lead to that misunderstanding in communication can be avoided and even defects in the building under construction time reduces, would this also create a better flow in all parts of the building production?
    • Peab as a company should acquire how the information can be secured, that a procurement of work out at the building site has been done. Peab has already done a guided activity against this procurement of work before 2014 in earlier Region Karlstad in Division West[2], with improved the whole organization when it comes to accounting “Activities cards” of the projects activities.
    • Have all leaders within Middle Region of Building been educated in this quality improvement “Things Done Right by Me”[3]? Yes, through Berg[4] it has been confirmed that all leaders have participated in this material of quality education in the region, there all management shall use the method of procurement of work out in the building production. Peab Sweden AB started to use the method with procurement of work in the 1970´s. The craftsman experience is, that not all leaders of management use the method in such a way that the craftsmen always notice that it has been done.

     

    According to Berg all management of building projects are using the method of procurement of work, it is clear when inspecting each projects documentation that has been done when looking in to if they have done all demands by Peab guidelines that has to be done in all building project. In all procurement of work there is an Activity card tied to each and every one, which has to be accounted for. All managements do not use the same accuracy, when writing down in their Activity cards after that they have done the procurement of work. The craftsmen also think that it is important when the management have done the procurement of work, that they after wards must also do the project control too see how the actives went on during installation time. The craftsmen also ask for that all the procurement of work and project control that have been done, must become more visible and noticeable out in the building production line at the building site for the craftsmen. In particular when the craftsmen come into new building projects, but here they feels that the same problem occur again and again in the following building project that they come into.

     

    Improvements to be done in Middle Region of Building

    They should at Peab:

    • To lift up the procurement of work again in the production line of building, display the benefits and the good use to gain from using the procurement of work. It is important that management use the working method in a clear and visible way during construction time of the building. The crucial is to in an easy way present all coming steps in the construction production that is going to be made by all involved in the project. The essential of having procurement of work shall be mediated out to management in building line of production. There is one suitable example located within this region of the company with leaders of management, that already use this method under construction time there all staff members is satisfied. They can show this procurement of work from a working perspective of opportunities in the construction work.

     

    • Internal search for how many leaders of management in production line there the craftsman do not conceives that procurement of work has been done out in building site, with joined meetings to go through the building project and construction progress with it. Peab has an annual staff question form “Handslaget”, there Peab could put up questions to answer only for the craftsmen for Peab to get a survey over procurement of work. Here could Peab get some answers if the staff are missing something in the procurement of work, how the staff feels about the project control in procurement of work and how the craftsmen thinks about how managements drives this at building sites. It could be used for bringing forward good examples in the organization. Maybe could the question about procurement of work even be asked to staff in management, to get their image of how it works out in the fields of operation? The estimation that is done here is that if all personnel did have the same point of view of the work load of how the procurement of work should be done to get the most out of it for all staff at building site. The company would there by gain efficient and flow in the working process when building.

     

    • To secure that knowledge of experience that has been done is going to be used, in a way that it starts to show at the next building site as well.

     

    • The company should overview the possibility to give the craftsmen the knowledge of experience/feedback in a clearer way then today. This could eventually be done of the project management by making a short summary over the building project and then send it out to all staff member that have been engaged in the building project. All craftsmen are not left in the building project until it is ended, this should make that they all get to take part in the project by getting the same information when it is finally done. Peab has usually only one craftsman together with management that is taking part in making up the final summery of the project. A short summery that is send out to all craftsman involved in the building process, would lead to that all staff will get the same information of the building project. The information should include the outcome of the project building line but also circumstances that influenced the project in a larger perspective, knowledge that has come out of the building project and even key factors to the project success shall be a part of the summary.

     

    • Search for internal factors to what cause there is that makes building project start before all drawings at the building is finished. Is it possible in any way to change something in the planning process of the building project, which could help the client to easier make deliberations of what they want to establish in the new desired building? By doing some changes it could make it easier to achieve drawings in an earlier stage then today.

     

    • Insure that the craftsman get better and clearer feedback on what they done in their work. That the craftsmen can feel that they are valuable for the company and an important part in production line of building. It is desirable that the feed-back is given in a continuous way in the craftsman daily work. It even might be fitted into the procurement of work when feed-back is done over earlier done work stages of installation.

     

     

    • To examine how management leads the process of the project out at the building site under construction. It seems as small changes in management leading would improve the craftsman working day at the building site. How the leading management act in their leading profession out in the production line at site. It is important to create team-spirits where all committed to the project are a part of and includes in the process of construction work, towards the same goal of the project as one unit of a team.

     

    Expected result                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

    The estimated result before reviewing Middle Region of Building was that if there were going to be some absence in information it should have been in the documents of the project and that all earlier surveys should be implemented in Peab.

      After done review the expected results turned out to be

    The documentation had high quality in it is contents and there was nothing to remark on. All studies done at Peab Sweden AB where almost but not entirely implemented in the function at Middle Region of Building. It turned out to be a good result for Peab those things that not were implemented fully is going to be implemented soon at Peab. Only one thing was not implemented it was a working method that Middle Region of Building did not use in the construction work of tool handling in the company.

     

    Keywords:     Total quality, Peab, internal function, own controls.

    [1]Must do demands is marked in red on the map of productions line at Peab, made on the 16th of September 2013.

    [2]In 2014 changed Karlstad Region, West Division to Middle Region of Building (there Central Sweden is the new region).

    [3]The material is about projecting, planning & procurement of work, logistics and team-spirit.

    [4] Jonas Berg Manager of production support, Middle Region of Building, Peab Sweden AB, the interview was made on the 30th of April 2014.

  • 6.
    Berg, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Miljö- och naturvård i förskolans verksamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how preschools work with environmental issues and how the children are involved. The questions are related to the different actors (children, teachers and parents) and how they can influence and participate on the work, with an environmental aspect of the phenomenon of sustainable development. The study show how the educators are experiencing the clarity of the topic in the curriculum and how the pre-schools concrete is working with, for example, recycling and sorting. I have in my study chosen a sociocultural perspective as transparency angle where lessons are created through interaction with each other.

     

    It is a quantitative method that has been used in this study. As the design of data collection I have chosen surveys via the web where the issues are clear and measurable. The survey questions are designed based on a scale with five different degrees.

     

    The study results show that the pre-schools are working with recycling, reuse, outdoor education and forest walks to teach the children the science of environment and nature. Interests of the children control some of the work and the parental influence is in general missing. Early childhood educators are experiencing clarity and know the curriculum guidelines about environmental and nature conservation.

  • 7.
    Bergqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Stockholm universitet.
    The influence of textbooks on teachers’ knowledge of chemical bonding representations relative to students’ difficulties understanding2017In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Textbooks are integral tools for teachers’ lessons. Several researchers observed that school teachers rely heavily on textbooks as informational sources when planning lessons. Moreover, textbooks are an important resource for developing students’knowledge as they contain various representations that in uence students’ learning. However, several studies report that students have di culties understanding models in general, and chemical bonding models in particular, and that students’ di culties understanding chemical bonding are partly due to the way it is taught by teachers and presented in textbooks.

    Purpose: This article aims to delineate the in uence of textbooks on teachers’ selection and use of representations when teaching chemical bonding models and to show how this might cause students’ di culties understanding.

    Sample: Ten chemistry teachers from seven upper secondary schools located in Central Sweden volunteered to participate in this study. Design and methods: Data from multiple sources were collected and analysed, including interviews with the 10 upper secondary school teachers, the teachers’ lesson plans, and the contents of the textbooks used by the teachers.

    Results: The results revealed strong coherence between how chemical bonding models are presented in textbooks and by teachers, and thus depict that textbooks in uence teachers’ selection and use of representations for their lessons. As discussed in the literature review, several of the selected representations were associated with alternative conceptions of, and di culties understanding, chemical bonding among students.

    Conclusions: The study highlights the need for lling the gap between research and teaching practices, focusing particularly on how representations of chemical bonding can lead to students’ di culties understanding. The gap may be lled by developing teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge regarding chemical bonding and scienti c models in general. 

  • 8.
    Bergstrand, Sebastian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Max, Blick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jämförelseanalys av höjdmätning med två olika GNSS – mottagare.: . En komparativ studie av höjdmätning mellan olika GNSS – mottagare.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Health problems during childhood and school achievement: Exploring associations between hospitalization exposures, gender, timing, and compulsory school grades2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 1-14, article id e0208116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To investigate while accounting for health at birth 1) associations between health problems during childhood, measured as hospitalizations, and school achievement in the final year of compulsory school, measured as overall grade points and eligibility for upper secondary education, 2) if and how gender moderates the association between health problems and school achievement, 3) if and how the timing of a health problem during childhood is associated with later school achievement. Methods Analyzes were performed on a population-based cohort (n = 115 196) born in 1990 in Sweden (51.3% boys, 48.7% girls) using data from several national registries. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between study variables. Results Overall grade points and eligibility for continuation to upper secondary school were lower for individuals exposed to hospitalizations. Only the association between hospitalizations and overall grade points was moderated by gender and only for ages 13-16 years. Exposure close to actual grading had worst outcomes. Conclusions Health problems, measured through hospitalizations, was significantly associated with lower school achievements among Swedish children. Girls exposed to health problems requiring hospitalizations had relatively poorer school achievements as compared to boys. Health problems requiring hospitalization during junior high school had the greatest negative association with final achievement at compulsory school.

  • 10.
    Fredlund, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    ”Barnen är uppväxta i den här generationen med IT…”: Pedagogers och föräldrars syn på surfplattor i förskolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Fröman, Emilie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förskolepedagogers arbetssätt i naturmiljö: En enkätstudie med pedagoger i förskolans verksamhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to get a greater understanding of the realities of how preschool assignments are written in the curriculum.

     

    The study is based on a survey where preschool teachers, childcare workers and other personnel have participated. However, I have chosen to use preschool teachers' responses to the survey.

     

    The study shows that the majority of preschool teachers visiting nature sometimes regardless of the preschool teachers age. The activities that typically occur in the natural environment are "free play" and motor activities. There are also elements of example gardening and storytelling of fairy tales. Preschool teachers perception of one's own team's expertise in science is that, the majority of preschool teachers believe their employees have enough knowledge to conduct a meaningful area in nature. To take advantage of children's interests when planning activities that occur in nature based on number of years worked in preschool, one can see that those who worked less than 20 years taking more advantage of children's interests than those who worked 21 years or more. 

  • 12.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of ESD implementation in the Swedish school system on students’ sustainability consciousness2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    he UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) draws to an end. During this decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented Education for Sustainable Development(ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this study, we investigate what impact this teaching approach has had on pupils’ holistic viewpoint of sustainability in comparison with pupils ́ taught in regularschools. In order to accomplish theinvestigation we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousnessto represent the holistic viewpoint of sustainability.

  • 13.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Clemént, Pierre
    University of Lyon, France.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hagman, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Landström, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nyberg, Eva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Castéra, Jérémy
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Dalarna University.
    Teachers' understanding of genetic determinism: A comparative study between Sweden and France2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gälldin, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Att utveckla kompetens genom seriösa spel, ett steg mot hållbar utveckling?: -En studie av kommunala politikers upplevelser av spelet Riskköping2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Göthlin, Barbro
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Uppdatering av gatunamn till NVDB i Örebro kommun: Undersökning av det interna flödet samt ajourhållning år 2011-20132015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Henrik, Eriksson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    NRTK-mätningar och kartering i Borgvik: En jämförelse mellan mätmetoderna snabbpunktsmätning och intervallmätning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Henriksson Severin, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Riskperception vs. beteende: En kvantitativ enkätstudie om riskperception och säkerhetsbeteende2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on theories of risk perception and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The purpose of the study was to investigate individuals' risk perception and safety behavior in relation to traffic accidents, based on theories of risk perception and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The survey also wanted to study whether risk perception and safety behavior vary depending on who is at risk of being exposed to the risk and who should perform a certain behavior. Furthermore, it is linked to background variables like gender and previous experiences. The study was conducted in Swedish context.

    The method was quantitative and data method was questionnaire. The survey was based on the theories and the investigation purpose. Furthermore, the survey was spread on Facebook and had a comfort check. In total, 102 people answered the questionnaire.

    The study found that past experience has a very small impact on individuals' risk perception of traffic accidents, both in terms of the individual's risk but also the risk for people in general. Gender, on the other hand, affects the individual's risk perception to a greater extent. Research also found that previous experiences have a very small impact on the safety behavior of individuals, both in terms of the risk of the individual's own behavior but also regarding the individual's requests for people in general. Furthermore, it has been shown that gender has an influence on safety behavior, both regarding the risk of the individual's own behavior, but also regarding the individual's requests for people in general. Finally, the study found that risk perception and behavior are not independent of each other where one is influenced by the other, but rather they depend on and affect each other.

    One note is that the study showed that laws can create a conscious security work. This means that the new law on mobile use when driving in Sweden is the right way to go to manifest safe behavior.

     

  • 18. Jensen, Annika
    Hur använder pedagogerna och barnen datorn i förskola och i förskoleklass?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with my degree project is to investigate the use of computers within the daily activity in three preschools and one preschool class. I have designed a survey that I distributed to the staff. The purpose of my work is to investigate how a number of preschool teachers and children in a few preschools and one preschool class in a medium-sized Swedish town are using the computer in their activities.

    My study shows that the computer is frequently used, both of the children and teachers, but also together. The children in my study are using the computer to play games, listen to music, and go into the websitewww.youtube.com, but also in order to write and count.  The teachers primarily use the computer to document, check their e-mail and listen to music. But also to check and find out childhood illnesses, check up schedule, find good educational tools or lyrics. My study shows that the teachers readily want to sit by the computer together with the children. On the other hand to protect children from the atrocities available on the Internet, and to support and introduce children in new games, but also to be close children if they have any questions or need help. My issues are; in what way is the computer used in the preschool and preschool class? And what is the computer used for in the daily activities?

  • 19.
    Jingfors, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Broholm, Richard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Tre olika framställningsmetoder för terrängmodellering2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har gått ut på att undersöka vilken metod som är mest lämpad att mäta in ett förutbestämt område. Området som mätts in ligger intill Mjölnartorpet i nordöstra delen av Karlstad. Området är till ytan cirka en hektar. De tre metoderna som har jämförts var inmätning med Nätverks-RTK (NRTK), totalstation samt flygburen laserskanning. Metoderna har varit helt oberoende av varandra. Från de tre inmätningarna har tre olika terrängmodeller skapats i Sbg GEO 2012.

    Området är tänkt att schaktas ner till en plan yta på +66 meter över havet. Varje terrängmodell har jämförts mot en referensyta på +66 meter över havet. En volymberäkning har gjorts för att se hur många kubik som måste schaktas bort. Kostnader för schaktning, instrument, bearbetning av data och timkostnader för personal samt tidsåtgång med respektive metod redovisas.

    Undersökningen har visat att metod 1, inmätning med totalstation, var den metod som i ett tidsperspektiv tog längst tid att utföra på grund av fler delmoment. I ett kostnadsperspektiv var denna metod billigast. Genomförandetiden med denna metod var cirka tre arbetsdagar längre än övriga metoder.

    Metod 2, inmätning med Nätverks-RTK var den billigaste metoden förutsatt att fixlösning erhölls.

    Metod 3, flygburen laserskanning var den metod som visade sig vara mest tidseffektiv. Genomförandet av laserskanningen var dyrast men resulterade i minst arbetstimmar.

    Den metod vi tycker var lämpligast för underlag till en volymberäkning var med metod 3. Metoden ger flest mätpunkter på kortast tid och efterliknar på så sätt den verkliga terrängen på bästa sätt. För att kontrollera och justera höjdvärdena i metod 3 kan mätningar över utvalda punkter göras med Nätverks-RTK för att justera laserdata och få en bättre noggrannhet.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Matilda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    En studie om vilkenundervisningsmetod som ger störst inlärningseffekt hos barn: En jämförelse av kunskapstest före respektive efter undervisning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study the teaching methods that provide the greatest learning effect for children in grades 6 in the subject of physics. One class was divided into three equal groups, each group was educated in a specific way. The three teaching methods that have been investigated are: film with reflection, laboratory work and traditional lecture- teaching. The research question of the study is: "Which method of three selected, causes the greatest understanding of the properties of air?”. To answer this question, the students performed a knowledge test, prior to and after the teaching sequences. The knowledge tests were compared between the groups and the result was that the film- and reflection group had learned significantly more than the other groups, in remarkably less time. This result differs from other research that shows that students get the most understanding through laboratory work in science. In general it probably requires a flexible teacher who sees each individual student and can adapt their teaching accordingly.

  • 21.
    Kjellberg, Klara
    Karlstad University.
    "Någons skräp, en annans skatt": Samspel och skapande med returmaterial i förskolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Lif, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Ökat deltagande för skogens bästa?: En studie om ett ökat markägarinflytande i skogsbruket ur ett naturvårdsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av det tidigare Kometprogrammet som varade under fyra år och slutrapporterades 2014 togs Nya Komet fram. Den kompletterande arbetsmetoden Nya Komet innebär i huvudsak satsningar på information till markägare, både nationellt och regionalt. Syftet är också att det ska vara lättare för markägare att föreslå områden för formellt skydd skapa ett bra samarbete mellan markägare och myndigheter.

     

    Syftet är att undersöka vilka förväntningar, begränsningar och möjligheter som kan uppstå med ett ökat markägarinflytande i skogsbruket ur ett naturvårdsperspektiv. För att göra detta kommer implementeringen av den kompletterande arbetsmetoden Nya Komet att studeras.

     

    Den metod som använts för uppsatsen är telefonintervjuer där både myndigheter och markägare som anmält intresse för Nya Komet har intervjuats. Det empisiska materialet har analyserats med hjälp av tematisk analys.

     

    Resultatet visar att det finns ett visst motstånd hos markägarna att blanda in myndigheterna i hanteringen av sin skog. Här grundar sig oron i att myndigeheterna möjligtvis har andra åsikter gällande hur skogen ska skyddas. Myndigheterna menar i sin tur att informationen kring vilka skogstyper som prioriteras måste komma ut för att inte onödiga resurser ska gå åt. Generellt ser de inblandade aktörerna positivt på att involvera markägare i naturvården.

  • 23.
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Clemént, Pierre
    University of Lyon, France.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hagman, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Landström, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nyberg, Eva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Dalarna University.
    Teachers' conceptions about nature and environment partially contradict ecofeminism theory2013In: ESERA 13 Conference: Science Education Research for Evidence-based Teaching and Coherence in Learning. Nicosia, Cyprus, Sept 2-7, 2013., Nicosia: University of Cyprus , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare ecofeminism theory with teachers’ conceptions about nature and environment. One of the claims of ecofeminism is that women have a special connection to nature, and that women are more cautious than men about nature and nature’s resources. This claim was evaluated from teachers’ answers to a questionnaire about nature and environment. This questionnaire has been used in other studies within the Biohead-Citizen project. Forty-six questions about nature and environment were picked out from a total of 173. Answers from most questions were given on a Likert-scale (four options). A total of 1109 female and male teachers and teacher students from Sweden and France participated. The following analyzing instruments were used: Between analyses, Monte-Carlo permutation test and Pearson’s Chi-square test. Analyses from comparisons between women and men showed that few of the answers significantly differed between the sexes, giving only a little support to ecofeminism theory, while most of the answers expressed no gender difference. Greater differences were seen from the comparison between the two countries. Results presented here indicate that, in Sweden and in France, only few female and male teachers’ conceptions about nature and environment differ significantly, showing a partial accordance with the ecofeminist theory, women being a little more in interplay with nature than men. More results from this study do not support that statement. To our knowledge this is the first time this part of ecofeminism theory is evaluated.

     

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Soldriven kylning i Sverige2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Olsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Research Unit Edubron, Department of Training and Education Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Green Schools in Taiwan: Effects on Student Sustainability Consciousness2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 54, p. 184-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the Taiwanese government has worked actively to implement the concept of a sustainable Taiwan. As an important step in their strategy, the Ministry of Education has decided to promote the Green School Partnership Project in Taiwan (GPPT). However, academic research and critical reflection on the effects of this environmental and sustainability education initiative are lacking. Therefore, this study focuses on filling this gap by means of a nationwide generalizable effect study. The sampling allowed comparisons between the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades in GPPT and non-GPPT schools and considered the geographic location (north, center, and south of Taiwan) as well as socio-economic area of the schools. A total of 1,741 students participated, answering a questionnaire that focused on student sustainability consciousness (SC) and its components (i.e., knowingness, attitudes, and behaviors in relation to sustainability). Data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Our findings make an important empirical contribution, indicating that GPPT schools and non-GPPT schools have a similar effect on the SC of students, i.e. schools engaged in the GPPT do not enhance student SC. In addition, the gender gap regarding SC increased consistently with each increasing grade level, yielding higher mean values for the girls than for the boys. Furthermore, an adolescent dip occurred in the student SC, especially with regard to student sustainability behavior. Given these findings, implications for developing GPPT are discussed; this research could provide valuable informationabout the educational transformation process to enhance environmental and sustainability behavior among students in Taiwan.

  • 26.
    Petersson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Klimatanpassning inom svensk dricksvattenhantering: En analys av existerande arbetsmetoder med hjälp av 4-E strategier2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the problem of low groundwater levels and water shortage by analyzing how Sweden's management and adaptability capabilities work in comparison with risk management strategies. The collected result was analyzed against the so-called 4-E Strategies (Enforcement, Engineering, Education, and Economic) as the main framework. In addition, the study aimed at investigating how the ability can be created through these strategies and which of these the municipalities consider to be most effective. The data collection took place through individual semi-structured interviews with representatives from 5 municipalities. The answers from the interviews were then analyzed with qualitative content analysis, where responses generated from the qualitative content analysis were set against the 4-E strategies. The result shows that the interviewees believe that all prevention strategies may be useful depending on the context and when it is used. In addition, they must also be adapted to the local conditions in the current geographic area. The result also shows that all 4-E strategies are needed to create efficient handling and adaptability for drinking water management. The study's results show that the Swedish municipalities' management and adaptability to these strategies is satisfactory.

    Keywords Risk management, 4-E strategies, 3-E strategies, Drinking water management, Sweden

  • 27.
    Ruuth, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Kontroll av baskartan i Karlstads kommun: En undersökning av fullständighet och prioritering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Sanna, Jonsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Synen på de yngre förskolebarnens lärande inom natur och miljö: Sett ur ett pedagogperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how the educators at a preschool perceive the younger preschool children's learning with the use of the nature and the environmental setting. To find out how the educators view this, the method used for the thesis is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews. The results that emerged from the interviews is compared with the curriculum for the preschool. This method was the best suitable for this thesis, thus the objective of the study was to find out how the educators think of this subject comparing to the curriculum for the preschool. Five educators, from two different departments at the same preschool participated in the interviews. The result from the interviews indicates that the educators who participated in the study believe they have enough knowledge to be able to work with nature and environmental issues with the younger preschool children. The result also shows that the educators feel that they are well aware of what the curriculum for the preschool say about the nature and the environmental issues. The results demonstrate that the educators who works at the preschool believes that the children should be involved and have inputs in how to work with the natural environment. They think that the children can have a big impact on each other while discussing this subject. The educators felt that children sometimes became more interested in the subject when the other children showed interest in the subjects.

  • 29.
    Sundberg, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utomhuspedagogik: En undersökning om pedagogers inställning till utomhuspedagogik i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study where the purpose was to investigate whether preschool teachers have a positive or negative attitude to outdoor education. Their view of outdoors education is also treated. The methods used were questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The survey was sent to all preschool teachers in three municipalities and on a social network. The interviews were conducted at a preschool, which had a form of outdoor profile. The survey shows that preschool teachers mostly have a positive attitude towards outdoor education but that there are also negative connections to it. They use both the material found in nature and takes the finished materials outside. My conclusion is that many see outdoor education as something positive, but it is still not many who consider themselves to use it in the preschool.

  • 30.
    Sundbäck, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Utveckling av arealberäkningsmetod: Utveckling av metod för att beräkna areal efter markberedning hos Stora Enso Skog AB Region Väst2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Soil preparation after final felling at Stora Enso Skog is currently performed by contractors. To follow-up the soil prepared surface the forest machine is equipped with satellite positioning equipment (GNSS equipment). The GNSS-receiver logs the route in track log lines which a program calculates the area of the prepared surface from. The contractors are paid after the prepared surface. The contractors and Stora Enso Skog do not believe that the current method reflects the reality because no respect to the topography and contractors work effort is taken. The track log also comes from different sources. A distance between the soil preparation set and the GNSS-receiver also occurs.

    The purpose of this work is to create an area calculation method who calculates soil prepared surface in a better way than the current method. The questions to be answered in this work are:

    • How can geodata from different sources be threated?
    • How can the distance between the soil preparation set and GNSS-receiver be reduced?
    • How can then ground prepared surface be calculated after the topography?
    • How can the contractor’s work effort be represented?
    • How is the GNSS position affected of the external conditions on a clearing?

    Log tracks from two different sources were the basis for calculations and in ArcGIS 10.1 has the appropriate tools to put together a set of calculation. The results have been validated in the field with accurate measuring equipment. To demonstrate how the GNSS position affects to the conditions on a felling site measure studies where done. In the measure studies five points where measured. Four points have obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions and one point has clear view to the satellites.

    The conclusions of the work are:

    • To reflect the work effort by generalizing the surface shows only in a rough way the work effort.
    • It is possible to calculate the ground prepared surface after the topography by using the height data from NNH (Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen).
    • The position of the GNSS equipment is more affected in points with obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions than in points whit clear view to the satellites. 
  • 31.
    Svedlund, Johanna
    Karlstad University.
    Det skyddsvärda: för vem och mot vad?: En analys av resiliens, sårbarhet och underliggande riskfaktorer i lokala risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about how the concepts of resilience and vulnerability are expressed in local vulnerability analyses. The essay also highlights underlying structures and driving forces to risk and vulnerability in the selected risk- and vulnerability analyses. The purpose is to examine and analyze how resilience and vulnerability in society is reflected in local risk- and crisis management with a selection of municipal risk- and vulnerability assesments as an exempel. The chosen method in this work is qualitative text analysis. The result indicates that the general focus in the analyzed material is on municipal activties and events of chock or crisis. The perspectives on risk and vulnerability that is being used equates risks with events and vulnerability as the effect of those events. In regards of resilience and the 3D Resilience framework from Bené et al.(2012) the risk- and vulnerability analyses are therefore at most related to the first two dimensions: absorption and adaption. Above all the municipalities wants to attain stability and robustness while resisting the effects of chock or crisis events to be able to revert to pre-chock state. Vulnerability is being reflected as a contrast to the abilities the municipalities aim for with their crisis response. That sort of understanding and assessment of risk and vulnerability pays barely no attention at all to underlying driving forces to risk and crisis. Even if in some cases there seems to be a will to try and include issuess like social vulnerability and social inequalities.

  • 32.
    Torstensson, Urban
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ajourhållning av höjdkurvor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetets syfte är att ta fram en metod för att på ett enkelt och effektivt sätt med låg mätosäkerhet ajourhålla höjdkurvor på platser där marknivån har förändrats i en omfattning så att kommunens höjdkurvor behöver revideras. 

    Eftersom det tidigare inte har funnits en utarbetad metod för att ajourhålla höjdkurvor har jag fått pröva mig fram till en metod som har gett tillfredsställande resultat. 

    Metoden som har tagits fram är lätt att använda och gör att man på ett enkelt sätt kan uppdatera kommunenens baskarta med ny information. Genom att mäta in punkter med hjälp av GNSS-teknik och sedan använda programmet AutoCAD Civil 3D, har det gått att få de resultat som eftersträvades. 

    Metoden som tagits fram ger kommunen möjlighet att uppdatera mindre områden i sina kartor på ett enkelt sätt. Det som krävs är en mottagare som en person kan hantera, programmet AutoCAD Civil 3D och ett område som inte är större än att en person på ett rimligt sätt kan mäta in det till fots.

  • 33.
    Väisänen, Lina
    Karlstad University.
    Utomhuspedagogik: lärares uppfattning och användning i förhållande till skolans närmiljö2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when more and more people are moving to big cities and the children are increasingly sedentary, a curiosity is awakened as to how teachers’ perceptions and use of outdoor education is. According to the education act (2018), the education must be equivalent regardless of where in the country it is arranged. The purpose of this study is to find out about teachers in the elementary school’s younger ages perceive and use outdoor education and to investigate whether there is a difference between schools located in and outside the city center. And what obstacles the teachers see to use outdoor education. To investigate this, data was collected by using both surveys and interviews. The results show that teachers outside the city center use a little more outdoor education than the teachers at schools in the city center. Teachers outside the city center also think that outdoor education is a bit more fun and less tedious than the teachers outside the city center. Teachers find various obstacles to use outdoor education such as geographical location, concentration difficulties among the pupils, weather, group size and lack of resources. 

  • 34.
    Wik, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Markförändringsanalys över Karlstad mellan åren 2002 och 2015: En studie baserad på Landsat 7/8 data och bilddifferentiering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Karlstad has a vision to reach 100,000 inhabitants by year 2031, which leads to that more housing is needed. In conclusion, more housing leads to land cover changes in the municipality.

    Remote sensing is one way to discoverer soil biophysical properties and anthropogenic changes. It has even been used to quantify and map ecosystem properties.

    Ecosystem services have a positive effect on people, because they help to reduce stress, depression and have a good impact on recovery. The awareness of ecosystem services has increased, it means that decision makers and the public are now more aware of the significant value of ecosystem services.

    Through remote sensing, land use and land cover changes can be observed in Karlstad’s urban area. As prominent changes, in the areas around Välsviken and Bergviks shopping mall, new buildings were created. At the old airport, a new residential area was constructed. Further changes could be observed in areas around Stockfallet and Campus where more residential buildings were constructed.

    When forests are converted to new residential areas, some natural ecosystem services disappear. The municipality of Karlstad has experienced losses that amount to a total of 1017 ha forest and 154 ha water in 13 years. It has an ecosystem service value of 61 238 Int$/ha/year and that has disappeared from Karlstad. It corresponds a loss of 30 percent of the ecosystem services. While open fields have increased with 6272 ha and has a value of 6272 Int$/ha/year.

    Citizens that are living in the centre is going to have a longer distance to ecosystem services in the forest. Much of the scenic views will disappeared from Karlstad. Because vegetation is included in infrastructures will residents still have access to ecosystem services in the city.

1 - 34 of 34
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