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  • 1.
    Andersson, Fredrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns tankar om den egna kroppen!: Vad vet fyraåringar och sexåringar om sin kropp!2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to investigate the concepts among five and six year old children regarding the human body. Six children were interviewed by means of qualitative interviews. The children's concept regarding the human body differed depending on their age. The six year old children knew more about the body than the four year old children. Spontaneously the children knew we had heart, brain, blood, brain cells, muscles and skeleton

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  • 2.
    Ansmark, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utomhusundervisning och elevers relation till naturen: En intervjustudie med lärare kring deras utomhusundervisning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digitalised society we spend a lot of time indoors, kids included, and not as much time outdoors in nature. Thoughts that might appear because of this include what children’s relation to nature looks like and what we as teachers can do to improve this relation. The purpose of this study is therefore to contribute with knowledge about teachers’ thoughts and use of outdoor education, and how they view pupils’ relation to nature based on their outdoor education.

    The method used in this study was to conduct interviews with five different teachers about their work with outdoor education, along with their thoughts and views on it. A thematic analysis was used to extract different themes from the teachers’ interview answers. This analysis resulted in six different themes covering teachers’ thoughts and outdoor education. The results show that outdoor education often consists of group-based activities with a focus on practical work where many senses are activated and stimulated. According to the teachers, the way that they work with outdoor education also contributes to a more positive relation between pupils and nature, by improving their interest, but also by giving a better understanding of the interaction between humans, animals and plants, as well as our connection to them. Based on these findings, it is important that teachers try to use more of this kind of outdoor education to help develop and improve the pupils’ relation to nature, while ensuring a productive and healthy environment.

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  • 3.
    Backius, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Förändring av kärlväxters artsammansättning vid återupptagen hävd i skogligt avgränsade ängs- och hagmarker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Old agricultural landscapes house a great biodiversity. To conserve this diversity the European Union award financial support in the form of environmental grants to encourage farmers to maintain pastures and hay meadows using old-fashioned methods. But are the measures effective and do they meet their purpose? The purpose of this study was to re-inventory ten sample plots from 2002 on the farm Brofallet to see how species composition of vascular plants had been affected by the nine seasons of using these old-fashioned methods management. The farm is completely surrounded by forest, isolated from other agricultural land. No significant overall change was observed concerning the composition of vascular plant species favored by traditional management. Qualitative observations, however, showed an increase in some species favored by traditional management. The conclusion is that the five-year commitment that farmers make to receive the environmental grants is not adequate enough to be able to detect changes in total diversity of vascular plants on a farm such as Brofallet, but that changes may occur faster at other levels in the ecosystem. Moreover, a ramification of this study is the idea that even environmental measures and documentation should be characterized by diversity. In summary, small-scale extensive farming may prove to be important in the overall quest for a sustainable society, both to exploit land for food production using extensive farming, and to maintain biodiversity at the landscape level.

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  • 4.
    Berggren, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Predatorinducerad fekunditet hos Daphnia pulex vid simulerade årstidsbundna temperaturvariationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Female growth, number of eggs and egg growth of Daphnia pulex were studied at four temperatures, 12, 16, 18 and 20°C. I hypothesized that female growth and number of eggs would be lower and the size of the eggs larger in the presence of a predator (kairomones) than in its absence. This effect was expected to be more evident at lower temperatures. I could not find any effect of kairomones on female growth, number of eggs or egg size, although there was a weak tendency for an effect on number of eggs. There was, however, an effect of temperature, regardless of predator treatment (i. e. presence vs absence of kairomones), on number of eggs, where females produced fewer numbers of eggs with increasing temperature. The effect temperature on the number of eggs was not anticipated. Two of the temperatures, 12 and 18°C, were carried out in darkness due to malfunctioning equipment. In addition, for some unknown reason, a high ratio between the number of ephippia and eggs occurred at at16 and 18°C, regardless of predator treatment. These complicating factors (darkness and ephippia) can have had a negative effect on detecting a response by Daphnia to kairomones.

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  • 5.
    Berglund, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Förskolepedagogers tankar om skogen som utbildningsplats2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an interview study with eleven preschool teachers. The purpose with this study has been to find out teachers view on the forest as an educational resource. The result shows that the interviewed consider the forest as an educational resource. With educational resource means that the pedagogs saw the forest as an access in children’s learning process. They use the forest in the learning of science, but also, for example, Swedish and mathematics. Some difficulties were encountered during the interviews; one was the lack of interest and knowledge of science and the forest. The other thing was that many of the children come from war- torn countries which made it difficult to work with the forest as an educational resource. Because these children and their families found the forest as an insecure and dangerous environment.

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  • 6.
    Bergqvist, Lisette
    Karlstad University.
    Användningen och tolkningen av läroplanen Lgr11 i biologiundervisningen: En undersökning om hur pedagoger omsätter läroplanen i praktiken med fokus på biologiundervisningen för skolåren 4-62017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how teatchers interpret th curuclium Lgr11and how they translate it into biolodgy teaching. In the study ten teachers where interviewed whit diffrent long term experience in teaching. The intervjuewes where based on diffrent parts of the curiclium which are central content, and knowledge requirments linked to the subject of biology. Qestions where asked about how teachers used the curiclium in theri work and how they interpreted the different formulations. The result showed that educators use the curiclium in their work, but to a different extent. Educators rely either on tradition or on different teaching materials in their planning of teaching, thus giving the curiclium a subordinate role. Many educators expressed difficulties in understanding and interpreting curiclium regulations. it was also found that educators feel unsure wheter they interpreted the curiclium as the national agency for educators aim to. 

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  • 7.
    Blad, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Beteenden hos befruktad allmän dammussla (Anadonta anatina) i en stressande miljö: Kritiskt temperaturmaximum (KTM) i relation till befruktning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is expected to increase the earth's average temperature in the future, which means that precipitation patterns will change as a result of droughts and floods. This will pose an increased threat to many freshwater mussels, which are already one of the most endangered groups in the world. Temperature is an essential abiotic factor that controls reproduction, growth and survival. Critical temperature maximum (CTM) is a method that has been developed to be used to gain an understanding of whether organisms can tolerate heat increases. During the process, a gradual heating takes place during a rapid process, and when CTM is reached, the organism is exposed to extreme stress. In the majority of inventories carried out in Sweden, missing rejuvenations of freshwater mussels have been discovered. The purpose is that in this experiment we will see if there are differences in heat sensitivity of fertilized mussels versus unfertilized mussels. The hypotheses are that (1) fertilized mussels reaches their CTM earlier than unfertilized mussels and (2) fertilized mussels relax their foot completely at a lower temperature than the unfertilized mussels. The result for hypothesis (1) shows that fertilized mussels had a significantly higher CTM than unfertilized (t-test, p = 0.039), which is contrary to my hypothesis. Results for hypothesis (2) show no difference between the groups (t-test, p = 0.54). The common duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) was used for the experiment, as it is not in the international red list and is commonly found in Swedish freshwaters. The mussels, which are from the Alsterälven River, were acclimatized for four days in 10 °C river water before the experiment. During the experiment, the water was continuously heated at 0.3 °C/min, until the CTM was reached. Why fertilized mussels achieved a higher CTM could be due to the fact that the glochidians disrupted the filtration, so much so that the gill function was strengthened, which led to them being able to keep the filtration going and their own metabolism at higher temperatures. More studies are needed to gain an increased understanding of mussels' sensitivity to temperature changes.

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  • 8.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Subject- and experience-bound differences in teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development2014In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 526-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describe the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable development. According to the Swedish curriculum all teachers in all subjects should integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development including economic, ecological and social dimensions. This study shows that teachers differ in their understanding of the concept mostly according to their subject traditions. Social science teachers emphasize social dimensions, and science teachers’ ecological dimensions, respectively. Teachers are aware of the relevance of the three dimensions to various degrees, but do not generally have a holistic understanding. The greatest uncertainty in teachers’ understanding is related to the economic dimension. Science and social science teachers are critical of incorporating economic growth into the concept of sustainable development while language, vocational and esthetical-practical teachers are not. No experience-bound differences of the teachers’ understanding could be found, but recently qualified teachers consider their understanding of sustainable development to be poorer in comparison to more experienced teachers’ self-evaluation. The study highlights the need for further training in sustainable development since more than 70 % of the questioned teachers stated that they need such training.

  • 9.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Applied Fisheries Research at Karlstad University2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Applied Fisheries Research in Southern Sweden2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Att arbeta med projekt i reglerade vattendrag2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Fish passage - Where do we stand today2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Förbättrad nedströmsvandring i Klarälven och andra vattendrag2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Förbättrad nedströmsvandring i Lyckebyån och andra vattendrag: Länsstyrelsen Blekinge. Lyckeby, 21 oktober, 2011.2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Passageproblem för fisk i reglerade vattendrag i södra Sverige2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Passageproblem för fisk i reglerade vattendrag i södra Sverige - Erfarenheter av restaurering från Emån och Ätran2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Re-establishing connectivity for fish populations in regulated rivers2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rädda vandringsfisken!: Presentation för allmänheten vid Naturum Ronneby, 20 oktober, 20112011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Salmon Rivers in Southern Sweden2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Smolt migration in the River Klarälven, the importance of food.2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ålens nedströmspassage av vattenkraftverk2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Rivinoja, Peter
    Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö. SLU, Umeå.
    Lindqvist, Krister
    Fiskens vandring i Ätran: Fiskvandringens dag – Living North Sea. The Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme. Falkenberg, 20110514.2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Christiansson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Sahlberg, Tony
    Stein, Florian
    University of Potsdam.
    Olsson, Britt-Marie
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Ål i Ätran: En fallstudie för svensk ålförvaltning2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska ålbeståndet har minskat drastiskt under de senaste årtiondena och år 2007 antog därför EU en förordning, som innehåller åtgärder för återhämtning av beståndet av europeisk ål och som innebar att alla medlemsländer måste upprätta en nationell ålförvaltningsplan. I Sveriges ålförvaltningsplan anges minskad dödlighet i vattenkraftverk som en viktig åtgärd för att öka mängden blankålar som når havet. För att sådana åtgärder ska få stor effekt, måste man veta var mest ål produceras och vilken skada som orsakas av de kraftverk ålen passerar på sin väg mot havet. Denna kunskap är bristfällig för de flesta vattendrag i Sverige.

    Ätran har en lång historia som ett ålproducerande vattendrag soch lämpar sig väl för en fallstudie för svensk ålförvaltning för att belysa ålproduktionens omfattning, dess lokalisering och därmed åtgärdsnyttan. Blankålsfångst på sex platser i Ätrans avrinningsområde under 2010-2011 visade att Ätran prducerar minst 950 blankålar/år och den totala produktionen för hela Åtrans avrinningsområde skulle kunna vara >5500 blankålar/år. Vår studie visar att man utöver redan genomförda och beslutade åtgärder endast behöver åtgärda ytterligare ett kraftverk för att merparten av Åtyrans blankålar ska nå havet.

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  • 24.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Evaluating fishway function in a regulated river2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Evaluating the effectiveness of bypass channels in a regulated river2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Fishways in regulated rivers: Consequences of a remedial measure for a stream’s productivity2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Fiskvandringsproblematik i Emån och Ätran2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rivinoja, Peter
    Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö. SLU, Umeå.
    A historical perspective on downstream passage at hydroelectric plants in Swedish rivers2013In: Ecohydraulics: an integrated approach / [ed] Ian Maddock, Atle Harby, Paul Kemp and Paul Wood, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 1, p. 309-322Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Simon
    School of Civil Engineering & Environment, University of Southampton.
    Hebrand, Mats
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB, Pålsjövägen 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sverige.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    DITAG—Land, Environment and Geo-Engineering Department, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Evaluating technical improvements for downstream migrating diadromous fish at a hydroelectric plant2012In: Ecological Engineering - The Journal of Ecosystem Restoration, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 48, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical improvements to ameliorate downstream passage for diadromous fish have rarely been eval-uated in regulated rivers in northern Europe. The current study evaluated rehabilitative measures for downstream migrating Atlantic salmon, brown trout and European eel at a hydroelectric plant in south-ern Sweden. Smolts (

    N= 66), kelts (N= 20) and silver eels (N= 55) were caught, radio-tagged and tracked whilst passing the facilities in spring (salmonids) and fall (eels) of 2007. A surface gate in combination with a 90 mm-spaced turbine intake rack had a fish guidance efficiency ranging from no effect for eels and trout smolts to 50% for trout kelts. A siphon discharging water from the bottom of the same 90 mm rack did not bypass any tagged fish, and only a few untagged eels. The poor function of the measures was attributed to the failure of the rack to stop smolts and eels from entering the turbines. The kelts, on the other hand, could not pass through the rack, and instead took a long time to locate the surface bypass entrance. The conditions for downstream migrating fish have improved at the hydroelectric plant, but the total losses remain quite high for the studied groups (10–67%), and there is a need for a new rehabilitative measure that effectively allows all fish to bypass the turbines.

  • 30.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rivinoja, Peter
    Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö. SLU, Umeå.
    Upp & Nedströms Passage - Nuläget & Framtida Möjligheter2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Stein, Florian
    University of Potsdam.
    Sahlberg, Tony
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Christiansson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Olsson, Britt-Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Åtgärder för nedströmsvandrande fisk i reglerade vattendrag2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    DITAG—Land, Environment and Geo-Engineering Department, Politecnico di Torino.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rehabilitating the River Ätran for diadromous fish species2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Hebrand, Mats
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB, Pålsjövägen 12, S-223 62 Lund.
    Lindqvist, Krister
    Monitoring Migratory Fish in the River Ätran2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Alenäs, Ingemar
    Falkenbergs kommun.
    Hebrand, Mats
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB, Pålsjövägen 12, S-223 62 Lund.
    Lindqvist, Krister
    Sex års fiskforskning i Ätran - Implikationer för förvaltningen: Hur mår Ätran?2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ett riktigt ålamörker: Barnens universitet, Karlstads universitet, 17 oktober 2011.2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Cassing, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Deciduous tree occurrence and large herbivore browsing in multiscale perspectives2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspen ( Populus tremula), rowan (Sorbus auquparia) and sallow (Salix caprea) are deciduous tree species of low economic value for forestry and contribute to biodiversity of boreal forests. The species are rare in managed forest landscapes, and severely browsed by moose. Their recruitment needs to increase to meet requirements of sustainable forestry to factors that affect occurrence need to be indentified. Paper I is an exploratory study on distribution of these species in relation to natural and cultural factors. In paper II moose browsing on saplings, in young forests and the influence of the landscape at three spatial scales: stand (8.6 ± 0.8 SE ha), winter home range of moose (10 km2) and annual home range of moose (25 km2). Presence of these rare species was depending on a multitude of factors acting at different spatial scales. The most important variables were soil quality, successional stage, and ownership at the stand scale and area of deciduous forest at the landscape scale. Moreover, saplings occurred at low densities in young forests (paper II) and most interestingly, saplings occurred most in middle-aged forests (20-80 years) and less than expected in younger forests (<20y) (Paper I). Browsing intensity on the different species corresponded with moose food preference and annual home range scale was most relevant for understanding browsing. Browsing on rowan was highest where the volume of deciduous food and overall young forest area were low. Browsing on birch increased when pine volume and mean patch size of young forest increased, whereas browsing on aspen was negatively related to the same variables. Thus, my results strengthen the idea that food selection is a scale-dependent process and that trade-offs between food and cover may exist for moose. Moreover, I conclude that the presence of deciduous species was a result mainly of soil quality, forest management intensity, landscape context and that the distribution of food for moose at landscape scales similar to or larger than their home range may be useful for predicting browsing on the stand scale. I propose that deciduous forests may be valuable predictors of regeneration potential in the forested landscape, and that understory deciduous sapling in middle-aged forests may be important to promote restoration and conservation actions.

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  • 37.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Socioscientific argumentation: Aspects of content and structure2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific argumentation has shown to be a feasible educational framework for promoting citizenship and for cultivating scientific literacy. However, there are several aspects of this educational framework that have been shown to be problematic. Consequently, in this thesis I investigated various aspects of quality of socioscientific argumentation from both an upper secondary student and a teacher perspective. By using students’ written argumentation on socioscientific issues (SSI) I studied how they justified their claims. The results showed that different SSI led students to use different subject areas in their justifications. I also compared science majors with social science majors and found that the number of justifications provided by the students is related to their discipline background. In these two studies, a new content focused analytical framework for analyzing content aspects of socioscientific argumentation, the SEE-SEP model, was used and shown to be suitable for this purpose. However, to ensure that students are able to produce high-quality arguments I suggest that both content and structural aspects need to be considered. As a result of this, I have presented a framework based on research literature and the Swedish curriculum, for analyzing and assessing both these aspects of socioscientific argumentation. Moreover, I investigated how science and language teachers assess students’ socioscientific argumentation and found that the science teachers focused on students’ ability to reproduce content knowledge, whereas language teachers focused on students’ ability to use content knowledge from references, and the structural and linguistic aspects of argumentation.

     

    The complexity of teaching socioscientific argumentation makes it difficult to teach and assess comprehensively. In order to promote quality and include both content and structural aspects, I suggest that a co-operation among teachers of different disciplines is beneficial.

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  • 38.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköpings universitet, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN).
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Upper secondary students’ use of scientific knowledge in arguing socioscientific issues2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Classon, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Inventering av lodjur (Lynx lynx), och vilka faktorer som kan påverka lodjursbesök vid kamerastationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att använda sig av viltkameror är ett bra verktyg vid inventering av djur, speciellt för skygga arter som till exempel lodjur. I Sverige baseras lodjursinventering genom spårning i snö, men då varmare vintrar har gjort det svårt kan inventering genom viltkameror ersätta denna metod. I denna studie har 165 kamerapositioner från mellersta Sverige undersökts. Syftet med studien var att se om någon av faktorerna; väg, avverkad skog, blockmark, byggnader, tidigare spårningar, doftstation samt kadaver hade något samband med att fånga lodjursbesök på foto/film, då detta kan ge bättre och effektivare metoder vid lodjursinventering. Koordinaterna över de olika kamerapositionerna har lagts in i ett GIS-program. Utifrån olika buffertzoner runt varje kameraposition, 50 - 500 meter i radie har de olika faktorerna kunnat urskiljas, det vill säga om faktorn fanns eller inte fanns inom kameraområdet. Doftstation samt kadaver var redan en fast faktor för vissa kamerapositioner. Studien visar att det finns ett samband mellan lodjursbesök och doftstation (Chi2 6,606; P<0,05), med större sannolikhet att få ett lodjursbesök vid en kameraplats med doftstation än utan (figur 5). Resultatet visar vikten i att använda sig av lockmedel då syftet är att fånga lodjur på foto eller film, då detta ökar chansen att lodjuret går framför kameran och bilden tas. Resterande faktorer verkar inte ha en påverkan i att få lodjursbesök på bild.

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  • 40.
    Davies, Natasha
    et al.
    University of Sussex, England.
    Janicke, Tim
    Technical University Dresden, Germany; Univ Montpellier, France.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Sussex, England.
    Evidence for stronger sexual selection in males than in females using an adapted method of Bateman's classic study of Drosophila melanogaster2023In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 77, no 11, p. 2420-2430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bateman's principles, originally a test of Darwin's theoretical ideas, have since become fundamental to sexual selection theory and vital to contextualizing the role of anisogamy in sex differences of precopulatory sexual selection. Despite this, Bateman's principles have received substantial criticism, and researchers have highlighted both statistical and methodological errors, suggesting that Bateman's original experiment contains too much sampling bias for there to be any evidence of sexual selection. This study uses Bateman's original method as a template, accounting for two fundamental flaws in his original experiments, (a) viability effects and (b) a lack of mating behavior observation. Experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster consisted of wild-type focal individuals and nonfocal individuals established by backcrossing the brown eye (bw-) eye-color marker-thereby avoiding viability effects. Mating assays included direct observation of mating behavior and total number of offspring, to obtain measures of mating success, reproductive success, and standardized variance measures based on Bateman's principles. The results provide observational support for Bateman's principles, particularly that (a) males had significantly more variation in number of mates compared with females and (b) males had significantly more individual variation in total number of offspring. We also find a significantly steeper Bateman gradient for males compared to females, suggesting that sexual selection is operating more intensely in males. However, female remating was limited, providing the opportunity for future study to further explore female reproductive success in correlation with higher levels of remating.

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  • 41.
    ELIN, GUSTAVSSON
    Karlstad University.
    Lärande för hållbar utveckling i tidig grundskola: En studie om erfarna lärares uppfattningar om hållbar utveckling och lärande för hållbar utveckling2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development and education for sustainable development are something that characterizes our society today. Every day we are fed from different media about the future of our world and that we should think sustainably in everything we do. In the curriculum of the compulsory school it is mentioned in several places that the school should work on sustainable development (Skolverket 2019). Today´s teachers have a greater responsibility to teach students to become democratic citizens who are thinking and acting for sustainable development. Students should think sustainably in everything they do. Everything from sharpening a pen just enough to not throwing away food.The purpose of the study was to illustrate the teachers' perceptions of learning for sustainable development and to see how it is implemented in teaching that is education for sustainable development. Based on the purpose of the study, a qualitative study was conducted. Seven teachers, from a school in a mid-Swedish town, that works expcitly with education for sustainable development.The results indicate the importance of cross-disciplinary work with a certain complexity, where professional development and teachers working teams are important parts of the teaching and learning strategy. It also appears that school cultivation and other practicalities are of great importance to education for sustainable development along with the students' impact on the environment in the classroom and their sustainability thinking in everything they do during the school day.

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  • 42.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Stödmaterial avsett för undervisning om hållbar utveckling i förskolan: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av stödmaterial som syftar till att främja barns handlingskompetens2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching can be perceived as a complex concept, as can sustainable development and what these concepts mean for preschool activities. Therefore, support materials for teaching sustainable development are likely to be used by preschool staff. There is evidence that teachers need to know how to teach in order to promote children’s action competence in sustainable development. Against this background, this study aims to analyse such support materials through a qualitative content analysis. The study’s theory is based on the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) framework and qualifications that characterise teaching that promotes children’s action competence in sustainable development. Collected data consists of parts from three Swedish-language support materials aimed at preschool. The study shows that the support materials generally fulfil the study’s analysis criteria for promoting children’s action competence. These support materials can contribute to the development of knowledge about sustainable development, promote the belief in one’s own competence to change, strengthen courage and commitment and the will to change, and promote responsibility. Furthermore, the support materials are open to different end products and, through their use, enable children to reflect on different ways of acting and reasoning. Differences between the three support materials are that two of them direct opinions towards normalised actions, which according to the study’s theory should not be included in teaching to promote children’s action competence. The support materials vary in the description of the conditions required to use the content in practice, with one of them requiring more subject knowledge from the pedagogue than the others. And one of them contains leading questions rather than open questions. The results show that the three support materials could be used in preschool to promote children’s action competence in sustainable development. The range of available support materials for teaching sustainable development that clearly aim to promote action competence is limited and therefore a challenge may be to find a suitable support material that meets such a purpose.

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  • 43.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Fotosyntesen-Varför behövs kunskapen?2022In: BI-LAGAN, ISSN 2000-8139, , p. 2p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår värld står inför flera hållbarhetsutmaningar som är kopplade till fotosyntes, direkt eller indirekt. Biologisk mångfald och mänsklighetens livsmedelsförsörjning är kanske de mest uppenbara men det gäller också klimat- och energifrågor. Kan hållbarhetsfrågorna ge svar på varför man behöver lära sig om fotosyntesen?

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Sömnens betydelse för hälsa och inlärning: En studie om uppfattningar hos elever i årskurs 62013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep has a substantial effect on health status where good sleeping habits proves positive on learning. The aim of the present study was to map the views and perceptions of sleep and its effects on health and school performance on 12-year olds. The goal is to visualize these views to give teachers the possibility to better plan the education in concordance with the students’ abilities. The study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews where 12 students aged 12 have partaken. The results show that while the majority of children interviewed know how long they need to sleep for optimal performance but many think that they are not sleeping sufficiently due to temptation from digital media. The children have the perception that we need to sleep to gather energy and for the brain to rest. In agreement with this, they are aware that too little sleep can impact school performance in a negative way. However, they are unaware that bad sleeping habits can have a negative impact also on the physical health.

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    Sömnens betydelse för hälsa och inlärning.
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns tankar om den egna kroppen: En undersökning om barns uppfattningar med uppföljning efter 18 månader2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay was to examine how children of the age of four to five years old think about their own body, and their understanding of the body. Seven children have participated through qualitative interviews and a follow-up after about 18 months shows how the comprehensions have changed or developed. The children were also offered to make a drawing that showed the inside of a human body.

       The answers of the children were tied to situations and the comprehensions of the body had evolved since the first interviews, even though some answers were rather similar. The children's spontaneous thoughts about their own body were many; there is a heart, brain, skeleton, and blood, to name a few answers. Some of the children know the function of the heart and brain.

       The children were also asked about what happens to the food we eat, what happens with the human body when you grow old, and about illness. Four children said that the food at first ends up in the stomach and then in the rump/toilet, the other children advocated that the food will stop in the stomach. Some children advocated that you die when you grow old or that the body gets tired and have less energy. The children also talked about different diseases they had or knew about, about medicine and the fact that it's possible to get a disease through contagion.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Undervisning i sex och samlevnad på högstadiet: Har lärarens arbetserfarenhet någon betydelse?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s young people in upper elementary school today are supposed to both find themselves as individuals and find a sexuality they feel safe with, in a society where there are many and often contradictory images of sexuality. In today's school there are concepts linked to sex and relationships which are found in the curricula of several subjects and which should be discussed throughout elementary school. Several studies show that many students feel that sex education is poor, despite the fact that the school has an important role in communicating knowledge. The purpose of my study was to see if there are any differences between teachers with different levels of working experience with respect to how they experience teaching sex education. . The research questions in my study were how teaching of sex education is planned and implemented, when this teaching occurs and how the school´s policy documents related to sex education are interpreted? Four female teachers who are certified teachers and who teach biology, were interviewed. Two of them had worked less than three years as teachers and two had been working more than five years. The results show that there was no difference in how teachers plan teaching, teaching content and when it comes to interpretations of the curriculum related to the teachers´ working experience. In terms of curriculum, however, one individual-based distinction was detected, i.e. the teacher with the longest working experience as a teacher had the greatest knowledge of what is in the curriculum. The main difference between the two groups with different amounts of work experience had to do with the teachers 'own education in sex education and they felt about their own experiences in developing teaching. The educators who worked the shortest time felt that they had very little education in the field as opposed to the more experienced teachers who felt that they had more education in the area. At the same time, the more experienced teachers wanted to develop sex education through the use of better teachers’ materials while the less experienced teachers thought they needed a better education at the university.

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    Sex och samlevnad
  • 47.
    Flodkvist, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Förskolepedagogers uppfattningar om verksamhet kring människokroppen i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out the preschool educators’ perceptions to work with the human body. The method used was semi-structured interviews with a prepared interview-guide as a tool. Six educators were interviewed. The result showed that the educators had experience in working with the human body and that they considered it relevant to include the subject in pre-school activities. It also appears that the educators do not think that they work with the subject, even though the result is that it is something they do almost every day. All the educators have a positive attitude towards learning about the human body in the preschool.

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  • 48.
    Gustafsson Eliasson, Ronnia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Integrering av biologi i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to find out if the work methods differs in work with younger compared to older children. And to see which attitude pre-schoolteachers have to biology in pre-school. The method that is used is surveys, because the purpose was to do a quantitative study to be able to generalize the results.

    The results shows that the pre-schoolteachers have a positive attitude to biology in pre-school, and they see the subject as exciting, fun and interesting. The results also shows that more than half of the respondents seems to have basic knowledge in biology, but a large part want more knowledge of the subject and wishes to get further education in biology. The pre-schoolteachers also considered that the curriculum for preschool clearly explains how to integrate biology and other science subjects to the preschool program. The result also shows that the work method differs depended on the children’s ages, especially when it comes to the use of biological concepts

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  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Ekologisk odling - Ett arbetssätt som har betydelse för en hållbar utveckling: Hur förskolans verksamhet tar tillvara på möjligheterna för odlingsarbete2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 50.
    Hellstrand, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Grön Flagg i förskolor: Hur arbetar förskolor med Grön Flagg?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is divided into three areas, ecological, social and economic sustainability. These three are complementing and supporting each other. The ”Green Flag” method is a tool which is very helpful for teachers at different levels of pre-school and school, to enhance children's understanding of the relationship between nature and a sustainable society in the future. The goal of my research was to find out how preschools work with the ”Green Flag method.

    This report deals with how experienced educators are helping preschool children to understand nature's opportunities through play and exercises. As well as understanding the connection between nature and a sustainable society and its importance to gain a sustainable society for all.

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