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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Nilsson, Anders P.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Individual boldness is linked to protective shell shape in aquatic snails2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 4, UNSP 20150029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold-shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to equivalent fitness outcomes between bold and shy individuals over a lifetime. However, an alternative or complementary explanation may be that bold individuals phenotypically compensate for their risky lifestyle to reduce predation costs, for instance by investing in more pronounced morphological defences. Here, we investigate the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis, i.e. that bold individuals exhibit more pronounced anti-predator defences than shy individuals, by relating shell shape in the aquatic snail Radix balthica to an index of individual boldness. Our analyses find a strong relationship between risk-taking propensity and shell shape in this species, with bolder individuals exhibiting a more defended shell shape than shy individuals. We suggest that this supports the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis and sheds light on a previously poorly studied mechanism to promote the maintenance of personality variation among animals.

  • 2.
    Al- Robeyi, Zainab
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Att uppleva naturen med alla sina sinnen: Hur undersöker och upplever förskolebarnen naturen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This project discusses various aspects of children's way to explore nature with their senses. Therefore I conducted a study in two preschools, one nature-oriented and another preschool. This study was carriedout usien the three metods, interviews, observations and surveys. Interview four children from each preschool, observations of each group outdoors during four different occasions and question forms to teachers.

     

    The result of the study showed that both teachers and children have a great interest in being outdoors in nature, but it is not always possible to take out all children's groups. The reason is large groups and inadequate staff. When you are out in the forest according to teachers, it is important to be attentive, present, and meet the children’s interests. They need to be stimulated with questions and inspire them about what is happening and what might happen in nature plus take natural materials as help in the creative activities of the preschool.

     

    Keywords: Biology, children's perceptions, exploring, outdoor environment

  • 3.
    Almgren Damberg, Ingrid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Nyss så träffa jag en krokodil, som körde runt i en bil": Små barns kompetenser i ämnet biologi2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to show young children's competences in the subject of biology. I hope that my work will lead to that the subject of biology is used more often in the preschool context. In my work I have had an intra-active theory as a base. I have searched for what children are interested in on the subject of biology. Here, I can conclude that animals and plants are major interests for the children. Furthermore, I wanted to explore the ways in which children's knowledge became visible. For the most part, small children (along with educators) use animism and anthropomorphism, however, this is often interwoven with facts. I also wanted to know whether there were factors that contributed to children's learning in biology. It became clear that factors such as outdoor stay and live animals and plants contributed to a fact-based learning in biology. In contrast, factors such as indoor stay and toys were important factors for an animistic and anthropomorphic learning in biology. Educators also have a crucial role in children's learning in biology. Through an intra-active approach, I note that both the factual events of biology and animism and anthropomorphism contribute to the child's creation of knowledge in biology.

  • 4.
    Alvsenius Fransson, Åse
    Karlstad University.
    Behövs det speciella anordningar för att bedriva utomhuspedagogik?2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I mitt arbete har jag genom observationer och intervjuer undersökt om skolskogen och den vanliga skogen är bra komplement när det handlar om utomhuspedagik. De flesta av förskolorna i kommunen har en skolskog att tillgå och har man inte det växer skogen nästan inpå knutarna. De pedagoger som blivit intervjuade anser att det är viktigt att lära barnen tidigtvad man får och inte får göra i naturen och att skolskogen då är ett bättre alternativ. En skolskog skiljer sig från en vanlig skog genom att det finns färdiga vindskydd, eldstäder och hinderbanor. Genom avtal med markägaren har förskolan eller skolan fått tillstånd att tänja lite på allemansrättens gränser Dessutom är det bra för både barn och pedagoger att spendera mycket tid ute i naturen därför att den friska luften gör att det blir färre sjukdomar. I läroplanen står det att förskolan skall lägga stor vikt på natur och miljö, samt att vi ska värna om barnens hälsa. Den litteratur jag använt mig av i arbetet handlar om hur viktigt det är att arbeta med utomhuspedagogik i förskolan och att skolskogen och skogen är mycket bra att vistas i. Litteraturen tar även upp hur viktigt det är att pedagogen har bra kunskap om naturen för att vistelsen ska bli så bra och lärorik som möjligt för barnen.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Catch and effort from a recreational trolling fishery in a large lake2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades recreational fisheries have grown substantially throughout the world. Despite this increase, catches from recreational fisheries have often been ignored in fisheries management, although this is now being remedied. Monitoring recreational fisheries can be expensive, and the primary means used for monitoring is angler (creel) surveys, typically funded from sales of fishing licences. The studies presented in this thesis examine different approaches to monitoring recreational trolling fisheries’ catch and effort, where fishing licenses are not required and there are no reporting requirements. I present results from a complemented roving/mail-in survey undertaken during 2013-2014 to estimate recreational effort and catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in the largest lake in the European Union, Lake Vänern, Sweden. I also evaluate different angler catch reporting methods (mail-in, tournament reports and face-to-face interviews) and compare catch rates within and among spring and fall fishing periods. In addition, mail-in survey data are examined for recall bias.

     

    I estimate that 28.7 tonnes of salmon and trout combined were harvested by the recreational trolling fishery in 2014, more than the commercial and subsistence fisheries combined. Seasonal differences in both recreational effort and catch were observed. Effort, in boat hours, was significantly higher in spring than in fall. Catch rates of trout were higher in fall than in spring, but there were no seasonal differences in catches of salmon. Harvest per boat day did not differ significantly among catch reporting methods, indicating that all three methods could be useful for managers interested in harvest rates. In contrast, total and released catch per boat day differed among reporting methods, with tournament anglers catching more fish in total. Finally, there was little evidence for recall bias in mail-in surveys, indicating that mail-in surveys are useful for collecting unbiased catch data. My study is the most comprehensive angler survey to date for Lake Vänern, and my results should be of immediate use to local fisheries managers and should also be of interest to researchers and managers interested in estimating catch and effort for fisheries at large spatial scales.

  • 6. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 7. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 8.
    Andersson, Fredrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns tankar om den egna kroppen!: Vad vet fyraåringar och sexåringar om sin kropp!2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to investigate the concepts among five and six year old children regarding the human body. Six children were interviewed by means of qualitative interviews. The children's concept regarding the human body differed depending on their age. The six year old children knew more about the body than the four year old children. Spontaneously the children knew we had heart, brain, blood, brain cells, muscles and skeleton

  • 9.
    Andersson, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Vikten av utevistelse inom förskolan: En studie av pedagogers tankar och syften med utevistelse2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I min undersökning har fem pedagoger genom strukturerade intervjuer fått svara på frågor om utevistelsen på förskolan. Syftet var att ta reda på vad pedagogerna själva hade för tankar och syften bakom utevistelsen, samt hur de arbetade med detta. Frågorna gällde både vistelsen i den planerade miljön på gården och i naturen.

    Pedagogerna fann mestadels fördelar med utevistelse på förskolan. Några av fördelarna som nämndes var god motorikträning och social träning. Sedan belystes även vikten av ”frisk luft” och att pedagogerna upplevde barnen som piggare om de vistades utomhus emellanåt.

    Minst en gång om dagen går de ut med barnen på gården och de flesta försöker komma iväg till skogen en gång i veckan. En nackdel kan vara avbrott under leken inomhus för att man ska gå ut.

    Pedagogerna framhåller i sina syften att de vill förmedla kunskap om naturen på ett lekfullt sätt för att stimulera barnens nyfikenhet genom utevistelsen.

    Nyckelord: Lekfullt, nyfikenhet, pedagogers syften, utevistelse

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    A GIS-based landscape analysis of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal catchments, stream water chemistry is influenced and controlled by several landscape factors. The influence of spatially distributed variables is in turn dependent on the hydrological scale. Headwater streams have larger variability of water chemistry, and thus together represent a large biodiversity, and therefore need to be monitored in official environmental assessments. One objective of this study was, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to analyse co-variation between landscape variables and water chemistry and to determine which of the landscape variables have a major influence on the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in headwater streams. Another objective was to find a simple method for predicting sources of DOC, using official map data and publically available GIS applications.

    Totally 85 headwater catchments (0.1-4 km2) in the county of Värmland, western south Sweden, were used in the study. Water chemistry was analysed for water sampled at low, medium and high flows, and landscape variables were extracted from official map data sources: topographic maps, a digital elevation model (DEM, 50 m grid), and vegetation data. Statistical analyses showed that topography (mean slope and mean topographic wetness index (TWI)) and wetland cover often correlated well with DOC in headwater catchments. Official map data could satisfactorily extract landscape variables (mean slope, mean TWI) that were useful in predicting stream water chemistry (DOC).

    A high-resolution elevation model, which was generated by interpolation of photogrammetric data, was used to calculate and evaluate two different wetness indices and their ability to predict the occurrence of wetlands in six catchments of different sizes and topography. The SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index (SWI) gave substantially better results than the TWI. The effects of resolution of DEMs on calculations of the SWI were investigated using 5, 10, 25 and 50 m grids. The results showed that SWI values increased with increasing cell size. The near linear increment of mean values for resolutions 10-50 m suggests a independence of terrain type and catchment size, which supported previous findings that indicated that mean slope and mean wetness index calculated from coarse elevation models may be used for prediction of DOC in headwater streams.

     

  • 11.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    DEM resolution effects on SAGA wetness index in boreal forested catchmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Spatial variation of wetlands and flux of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams2008In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, no 22, 1965-1975 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the relation between water chemistry and functional landscape elements, spatial data sets of characteristics for 68 small (0·2–1·5 km2) boreal forest catchments in western central Sweden were analysed in a geographical information system (GIS). The geographic data used were extracted from official topographic maps. Water sampled four times at different flow situations was analysed chemically. This paper focuses on one phenomenon that has an important influence on headwater quality in boreal, coniferous forest streams: generation and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). It is known that wetland cover (bogs and fens) in the catchment is a major source of DOC. In this study, a comparison was made between a large number of headwater catchments with varying spatial locations and areas of wetlands. How this variation, together with a number of other spatial variables, influences the DOC flux in the streamwater was analysed by statistical methods. There were significant, but not strong, correlations between the total percentages of wetland area and DOC flux measured at a medium flow situation, but not at high flow. Neither were there any significant correlations between the percentage of wetland area connected to streams, nor the percentage of wetland area within a zone 50 m from the stream and the DOC flux. There were, however, correlations between catchment mean slope and the DOC flux in all but one flow situations. This study showed that, considering geographical data retrieved from official sources, the topography of a catchment better explains the variation in DOC flux than the percentage and locations of distinct wetland areas. This emphasizes the need for high-resolution elevation models accurate enough to reveal the sources of DOC found in headwater streams.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Using official map data on topography, wetlands and vegetation cover for prediction of stream water chemistry in boreal headwater catchments2009In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 13, 537-549 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Wetness indices as predictors of boreal wetlandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Karlstad University.
    Påverkan av jakttryck, habitatförlust och populationsstorlek på jaguar (Panthera onca) i Tapajós - Arapiuns Extractive Reservat i centrala Amazonas2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The jaguar is endangered due to hunting and deforestation of rainforests, which in turn reduces the jaguar’s prey. This report is based on a population in the Tapajós - Arapiuns Extractive Reserve in central Amazonia and how hunting pressure, the distribution of sexes killed by hunting, the loss of habitat and population size affect the population during the next 100 years. With the help of previous studies on the hunting pressure and information about jaguar biology in the Tapajos, different simulation models were conducted to gain an appreciation of how the jaguar was affected. A total of thirteen scenarios was made. In the scenarios without hunting and habitat loss, which is not very likely to occur.

    I found that the jaguar has good chances of survival after 100 years. Scenarios with low hunting pressure, with the removal of 3 females and 9 males per year indicated that the population declined but still had a good chance of survival. Survival was less likely when hunting pressure increased to 5 females and 14 males. If habitat loss was added to the high hunting pressure, the jaguars went extinct even faster. Scenarios with a habitat loss of 0.24% or 0.71% represented a low risk of extinction in 100 years, but if hunting was added, the risk of extinction increased dramatically. In scenarios with a smaller population size, with different hunting pressure and habitat loss, the populations were very sensitive to change. In the worst case scenario, with hunting higher on females than males, there were serious negative impacts on the population, which is likely to go extinct very quickly.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns beteenden i naturen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study is based on qualitative interviews with five-year-old children from a nursery school and two teachers with great experience. The purpose with the interviews is to find out what knowledge these children have about the Right of Common and what the teachers think they need to find this knowledge.

    The children didn't know what the word Right of Common stands for but when they got more concrete alternatives they had good experiences. The two teachers had different opinions about what is the most important concerning the stays in the nature. Exercise meant a lot for one teacher. To have fun and to use all your senses were more important for the other one. To give the wooded strolls new permanent experiences it is recommended to use your imagination.

    Key words: The Right of Common, science, process of learning

  • 17. Andersson, Lena U
    Betydelsen av bark pH på lövträd för fyra epifytiska mossor.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Several species of  epiphytic bryophytes in Sweden are endangered because of habitat loss, which in turn is caused by intensified forestry and changes in the cultural landscape. Several species of common deciduous trees have also been threatened by diseases, which has reduced their numbers. A couple of our environmental goals in Sweden address forestry and the conservation of biodiversity. Since it is known that the red listed species are more common on trees with a higher bark pH  I have chosen to compare four common mosses; two that are common in special environments such as tree-lined avenues and parks and two that are common on most trees in western Sweden. This study investigated the difference of bark pH for Leucodon sciuroides, Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum cupressiforme and Ulota crispa on different host tree species in three different study areas. The hypothesis was that preferences for bark pH differ significantly between the different mosses. It was found that Leucodon sciuroides and  Homalothecium sericeum  were more common on trees with a higher bark pH while Hypnum cupressiforme and Ulota crispa grew on tree bark with a lower pH. Furthermore it was found that both Hypnum cupressiforme and Ulota crispa could also be found on tree bark with a higher pH. There was also a difference in terms of tree species. The avenue trees had the most species, especially the ash tree.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Magdalena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering av rörelsemönster hos öring (Salmo trutta) utifrån otolitmikrokemi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The classic view of trout (Salmo trutta) life history is that trout begins its life in freshwater, migrates to the ocean after about 1-4 years and then returns to freshwater to spawn. As trout fry have been caught at the mouth of the River Emån, near the Baltic Sea, researchers have speculated that some trout emigrate during their first year of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the variation in the length of time trout reside in freshwater before they migrate to the ocean for the first time. Another purpose was to investigate whether it was possible to discern where and how long the fish spent in freshwater and saltwater during different parts of their lives. Between 2007 and 2009, 23 adult trout were captured in the River Emån in southeastern Sweden. From each fish, a microchemical analysis of the sagitta otolith was conducted. The analysis focused on measuring the ratio of strontium:calcium from the center of the otolith to its outer edge at 6μm intervals. Based on this analysis, I found that 26% of the trout in the population emigrated to sea before they had reached the age of one. The largest proportion (48%) of trout emigrated between 1 to 2 years of age. The results of my study indicated that there was a significant correlation between age and the number of times that the fish remained in freshwater. I also analyzed the ratio of zinc:calcium and manganese:calcium. The analysis of zinc showed annual fluctuations, including a high value during the fish's first year and a seasonal pattern, with higher values of Zn:Ca in spring and summer. My results also showed some variation of the trace element manganese, half of the fish showed a peak in their first year. The results of this study indicate that by analyzing the concentrations of trace elements in otoliths one can describe individual variation in brown trout movement patterns and life history.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Miljö- och naturarbete i förskolan: en studie om hur pedagoger genomför miljö- och naturarbetet i förskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this survey was to investigate and describe how the work with environment and nature work can be implemented in preschool. The survey is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews, with nine educators from five different preschools, in one municipality in west Sweden. The result of the survey shows that there are many different ways to work with environment and nature in preschool, both practical and theoretical. Working with recycling, composting and discuss the conservation of resources were some of the activities that the surveys educators used to do. It was also revealed in the study that there are some obstacles in the environmental and nature work, such as staff shortages and educators interests.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    The effects of artificial illumination on invertebrate drift2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Andersson, Örjan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur personlighetstyperna modig eller skygg hos oval dammsnäcka (Radix balthica) påverkas av närvaro eller frånvaro av prederande fisk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22. Armstrong, Janet L.
    et al.
    Myers, Katherine W.
    Beauchamp, David A.
    Davis, Nancy D.
    Walker, Robert V.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Haldorson, Lewis J.
    Moss, Jamal H.
    Interannual and Spatial Feeding Patterns of Hatchery and Wild Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Gulf of Alaska in Years of Low and High Survival2008In: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 2008; 137: 1299-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting growth and survival, we evaluated the summer diets and feeding patterns (prey composition, energy density, and stomach fullness) of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Prince William Sound (PWS) and the northern coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA). Our study (19992004) included 2 years of low (3%), mid (5%), and high (89%) survival of PWS hatchery pink salmon. Because variations in diet should affect growth and ultimately survival, we expected that the variations in diet, growth, and survival would be correlated. During August in the CGOA, pteropod-dominated diets and higher gut fullness corresponded to high survival (59%), and copepod-dominated diets and lower gut fullness corresponded to low survival (3%). Within years, no significant differences were found in diet composition or gut fullness between hatchery and wild fish or among the four PWS hatchery stocks. Diets varied by water mass (habitat) as juveniles moved from PWS to more saline habitats in the CGOA. In July, when juveniles were most abundant in PWS, their diets were dominated by pteropods and hyperiid amphipods. The diets of fish that moved to inner-shelf (i.e., the least-saline) habitat in the CGOA in July were dominated by larvaceans in low-survival years and pteropods in high-survival years. Diet quality was higher in CGOA habitats than in PWS in July. In August, fish moved to the more productive, more saline water masses in the CGOA, where large copepods and pteropods were dominant prey and diet quality was better than in PWS. Our results indicate that spatial variation in the diets of juvenile pink salmon in July and the timing of migration to the CGOA play a critical role in marine growth and survival

  • 23. Aroua, S.
    et al.
    Rousseau, K.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Chang, C.F.
    Elie, P.
    Dufour, S.
    The Gonadoliberin(s)-gonadotropin(s) axis in the eel: expression and regulation under induced maturation and sex steroid feedbacks2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Flodpärlmussla - vad behöver vi göra för att rädda arten?2006Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Värmländsk nartur - värd att skydda och vårda2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hultman, Jens
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Öringtäthet och rekrytering hos flodpärlmussla2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Flodpärlmusslan - skogsbäckarnas aristokrat2004Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Recruitment in populations of freshwater pearl mussel (Margritifera margaritifera) in relation to population size and host density2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Mer värld i Värmland och mer Värmland i världen2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Arvidsson, Björn L
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Recruitment of the threatened mussel Margaritifera margaritifera in relation to mussel population size, mussel density and host density2012In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 22, 526-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic, abiotic factors are considered main causes of recruitment failure of unionid mussels, including the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera). In this large-scale investigation, we instead examined the relationship between biotic factors and mussel recruitment.

    Juvenile mussel density was positively related to both mussel population size and density of which the last appeared to be a more accurate measure of recruitment.Host fish density of young-of-the-year and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were positively related to recruitment. Moreover, the mean density of both age classes of fish, when grouped into density classes was positively related to juvenile mussel density, an effect that decreased at trout densities above 10 trout 100 m-2.There was a higher relative importance of mussel population size and density than trout density to recruitment.To increase recruitment of juvenile mussels, managers may apply measures that increase mussel density, and trout density up to about 10 trout 100 m-2 in connection to mussel beds. Mussel beds may also be managed and one possible measure within small and sparse mussel populations may be to concentrate the remaining mussels to areas where trout density is high. Likewise, young-of-the-year trout may also be moved to areas of high mussel density, as young trout individuals are relatively resident during their first year. This may increase mussel larval infection rates and mussel recruitment.

  • 31.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Söderberg, Håkan
    Flodpärlmussla - vad behöver vi göra för att rädda arten?: En workshop på Karlstads universitet2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flodpärlmusslans situation i Sverige är bekymmersam, och i en stor del av de återstående populationerna sker ingen nyrekrytering av små musslor. För att belysa kunskapsläget om flodpärlmusslans situation och för att diskutera olika åtgärdsmöjligheter genomfördes i november 2005 en work shop vid Karlstads universitet med deltagande av naturvårdare från olika myndigheter och forskare. Vid mötet presenterades aktuell forskning i Skandinavien och olika uppföljningar som sker i olika myndigheters regi. Mötet bekostades av länsstyrelsen i Västernorrland, som fått ett nationellt ansvar att ta fram ett åtgärdsprogram för arten. I denna sammanställning redovisas en del av de föredrag och diskussioner som förekom vid mötet.

  • 32.
    Augustsson, Evelina
    Karlstad University.
    Seasonal variability in group size of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) hauled out on glacial ice in Johns Hopkins Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals are believed to benefit in various ways from living in groups. Some species aggregate to increase foraging efficiency and others for social benefits. Why pinnipeds rest in groups is yet not fully understood, but the most common ecological explanation is the benefit of enhanced predator detection. An alternative explanation for grouping, however, is limitation of resting sites, which might force individuals to aggregate on whatever sites are available, despite increased competition for food or mates. My study is focused on group size of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) hauled out on glacial-ice sites in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP), southeastern Alaska. Previous studies have focused on group size on terrestrial haul-out sites, and to date there have been few studies of group size on ice haul-out sites. In GBNP, peak numbers of harbor seals haul out during the pupping season (June) and the molting season (August). During the breeding season, glacial-ice haul-out sites are used primarily by females and pups, and during the molting season by molting seals. Because seals may group as an anti-predator strategy, I hypothesized that group size would differ between seasons, with smaller groups of mainly mothers and pups during June, and larger-sized groups during August. The aim of this study was to quantify seasonal differences in the group size of harbor seals hauled-out on glacial ice in Johns Hopkins Inlet (JHI), GBNP, southeastern Alaska, and in addition, map and evaluate the large-scale (inlet-level) spatial distribution of seals for both seasons. I used digital aerial survey photographs to map seal distributions. Four replicate aerial surveys were conducted in JHI during both June and August, 2007. Digital images were georeferenced and imported into ArcGIS 9.3 where the location of each seal was digitized, and group size calculated. To assess within- and between-season differences in spatial distribution of hauled-out seals, the location of each seal for each survey was plotted in ArcGIS, and compared to a visual assessment of ice coverage. My results show that harbor seals in JHI tend to haul out as single individuals during both seasons, with the exception of nursing mothers with pups in June, and a few larger-sized groups in August. There was no significant difference in group size between seasons. Group size during June varied very little, with almost all seals being either single or in mother-pup pairs. Group size varied more during August, and although most seals hauled out alone, there were a few larger-sized groups during each survey. The relative lack of grouping behavior is contrary to previous research, and it suggests that predation pressure on seals within JHI may be lower than at other sites. The greater frequency of larger-sized groups in August appeared to be related to reduced availability of glacial-ice haul-out sites. Long-term reduction in the availability of glacial-ice haul-out sites in JHI, therefore, might lead to shifts in haul-out behavior of harbor seals, with more seals being forced to haul out in larger groups.

  • 33. Aurora, S.
    et al.
    LeBelle, N.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Dufours, S.
    In vitro regulation by activinB and IGF-I of gonadotropin expression in European eel, Anguilla anguilla2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Aurora, S.
    et al.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Weltzin, F.A.
    Baloche, S.
    LeBelle, N.
    Rousseau, K.
    Dufours, S.
    Differential expression of LHbeta and FSHbeta in European eel, Anguilla anguilla2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Kantzonsvegetationens inverkan på dieten hos öring (Salmo trutta) i en skogsbäck2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on the diet of brown trout (Salmo trutta) of a clear cutting of the riparian vegetation has been investigated in a field-experiment, where two of the potential effects of a clear cut were simulated. The focus was placed on the two factors increased light and input of terrestrial invertebrates. The increase of ligth was manipulated by placing fluorescent lights over the brook and the input of terrestrial invertebrates was manipulated by placing plastic tents over the brook. Issues discussed are the percentage terrestrial food in the different treatments and at the different times of sampling, differences in the percentage terrestrial food between older and younger individuals of brown trout, differences in the amount of aquatic food in the light-treatment and a taxonomic summary of the composition of the diet. There were significant differences between the the different treatments, where the individuals in the control treatment ate significantly more terrestrial food as compared to the individuals in the tent and in the combined light and tent treatment. There was also a significant difference between the different times of sampling, more terrestrial food was consumed later in the season. No sigificant differences were detected between older and younger individuals concerning the percentage of terrestrial food eaten, nor between the different treatments concearning the amount of aquatic food consumed. The aquatic food showed a wider variation and was more diverse as compared to the terrestrial food, and earthworms (Lumbriculidae) was a very common food item.

  • 36.
    Backius, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Förändring av kärlväxters artsammansättning vid återupptagen hävd i skogligt avgränsade ängs- och hagmarker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Old agricultural landscapes house a great biodiversity. To conserve this diversity the European Union award financial support in the form of environmental grants to encourage farmers to maintain pastures and hay meadows using old-fashioned methods. But are the measures effective and do they meet their purpose? The purpose of this study was to re-inventory ten sample plots from 2002 on the farm Brofallet to see how species composition of vascular plants had been affected by the nine seasons of using these old-fashioned methods management. The farm is completely surrounded by forest, isolated from other agricultural land. No significant overall change was observed concerning the composition of vascular plant species favored by traditional management. Qualitative observations, however, showed an increase in some species favored by traditional management. The conclusion is that the five-year commitment that farmers make to receive the environmental grants is not adequate enough to be able to detect changes in total diversity of vascular plants on a farm such as Brofallet, but that changes may occur faster at other levels in the ecosystem. Moreover, a ramification of this study is the idea that even environmental measures and documentation should be characterized by diversity. In summary, small-scale extensive farming may prove to be important in the overall quest for a sustainable society, both to exploit land for food production using extensive farming, and to maintain biodiversity at the landscape level.

  • 37.
    Bains, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Flodpärlmusslans (Margaritifera margaritifera) påverkan på öringens (Salmo trutta) tillväxt och rörelsemönster2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flervärdsparasiter är kända för att påverka en rad egenskaper såsom morfologi, fysiologi och beteende hos sin värd. Envärdsparasiter såsom flodpärlmussla (Margaritifera margaritifera) lever som larver inkapslade i gälarna på öring (Salmo trutta), men påverkar troligtvis inte sin värd i samma utsträckning som flervärdsparasiter. Detta eftersom de är beroende av värdens överlevnad. Dock har negativa effekterna av envärdsparasiter observerats, såsom minskad framgång i aktiviteter till exempel födosök, aggressiv konkurrens, uppvakning och ungvård. En minskad framgång i födosök kan komma att påverka värdens tillväxt och därmed överlevnad.I denna studie undersöktes påverkan av flodpärlmusslans larver på öringars tillväxt, konditionsfaktor, och rörelsemönster. Analyser av data från två studieområden i Älgåälven indikerade att flodpärlmusslans larver inte har någon signifikant påverkan på värdens tillväxt eller konditionsfaktorn. Regressionsanalyser visade även att det inte finns något signifikant samband mellan infektionsgraden och konditionsfaktorn.Resultaten tydde även på att flodpärlmusslans larver inte påverkar öringens rörelseförmåga då ingen signifikant skillnad i antal stationära individer kunde påvisas mellan låg- och höginfekterade öringar. Analyserna indikerade även på att det inte fanns någon signifikant skillnad i antal uppströms/nedströms mellan höginfekterade och låginfekterade individer. Det fanns inte heller någon signifikant skillnad i hur långt en individ förflyttade sig beroende på deras infektionsgrad. Sammantaget verkar det som att parasitinfektionen inte har någon stor negativ påverkan på värden.

  • 38.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagerroth, Per-Ake
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Univ Vigo, Dept Biochem, Genet & Immunol, Lagoas Marcosende, ES-36310 Vigo, Spain.
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, No Appalachian Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Wellsboro, PA 16901 USA.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Univ Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dept Biol, Dartmouth, MA 02747 USA.
    Strom, Karin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna & Ctr Mol Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, Conte Anadromous Fish Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Turners Falls, MA 01376 USA.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci IRAS, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Med Prod Agcy, Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Univ Icelands Res Ctr Sudurnes, IS-245 Sandgerdi, Iceland..
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Collier, Tracy K.
    NW Fisheries Sci Ctr, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA 98112 USA..
    Börjeson, Hans
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Fisheries Res Stn, 13Department Aquat Resources, Brobacken, SE-81494 lvkarleby, Sweden..
    Morner, Torsten
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Dis Control & Epidemiol, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  • 39.
    Bengtson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    The relationship between behaviour and metabolic rate of juvenile Brown trout Salmo trutta2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In salmonids, the decision to migrate or remain resident is influenced by the status, and hence condition, of individuals. Status has been suggested to arise from the temperament of fish. In this study the links between standard metabolic rate and the levels of aggressiveness and shy/boldness were examined for 0+, hatchery-raised brown trout (Salmo trutta). I hypothesized, from the results of earlier studies (Cutts et al., 1998; Yamamoto et al., 1998), that high metabolic rates (MR) would be positively correlated to levels of aggression and boldness. The study was conducted in 200 L aquaria in which aggressiveness was measured by allowing each fish to interact with a mirror image of itself, and shy/boldness was tested by measuring the amount of time a fish used before exploring a new area. Standard metabolic rate was measured in a flow-through respirometer. In contrast to my expectations, there was no correlation between the different behavioural measures and the metabolic rate of fish. Also, no correlation between boldness and aggressiveness of fish was found. In additional testing aggressiveness correlated positively with the condition of fish (in coherence with Harwood et al., 2003) but, contrary to earlier studies (Överli et al., 2004; Schjolden & Winberg, 2007), not with the speed of acclimatization. The difference in results between this test and earlier studies, concerning the degree of correlation between MR and aggressiveness, suggests that the strength of this link differs between species of salmonids. Also, it may suggest changeability in the MR – behaviour link in different environments. Last, the status and condition of individuals cannot be unambiguously explained by temperament alone, but arise from a wider array of physiological and environmental factors.

     

  • 40.
    Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University.
    Miljövård på förskolan: Förskolans arbete med att göra barnen delaktiga i att värna om sin miljö.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if and how pre-school teachers reach the objectives in the national curriculum concerning the environmental issues.

    Another angle of this study is to find out if there are any involvement amongst the preschools regarding the environmental issues and if the teachers encourage the children to join in and make them a part of discussion.

    I have randomly chosen 10 preschools throughout Sweden and interviewed one staff-member from each school. Most of the preschools were well aware of the goals to follow according to the national curriculum.

    After comparing the answers my conclusion is that preschools act quite differently concerning environmental issues. Some worked almost exclusively with the children involved. Others occasionally involved the children whereas a few didn’t include the children at all.

    In every case the teachers would want to dedicate more time to environmental issues. However, lack of time is one big reason they can’t do that. Many of the teachers wanted to learn more about how to best educate and involve the children.

  • 41.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
    Utvärdering av omlöp vid Finsjö i Emån: Evaluation of natural fishways at Finsjö in the river Emån2009Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which trout used fishways to swim past two power plants at Finsjö in River Emån. Two different methods of  collecting data were used, radiotelemetry to determine if fish find the fishways (attraction efficiency) and PIT-tags to measure the number of fish that passed through the fishways (passage efficiency). The study showed that passageefficiency, being 89 % at lower Finsjö and 100 % at upper Finsjö, was high compared to other similar studies. Attraction efficiency was 75 % at lower Finsjö and 59 % at upper Finsjö, which indicates that the fish have difficulty finding the fishway entrances, particularly at upper Finsjö.

  • 42. Bergengren, Jakob
    et al.
    Olsson, Ivan
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The thick shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) brings LIFE+ back to rivers.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Berggren, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Predatorinducerad fekunditet hos Daphnia pulex vid simulerade årstidsbundna temperaturvariationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Female growth, number of eggs and egg growth of Daphnia pulex were studied at four temperatures, 12, 16, 18 and 20°C. I hypothesized that female growth and number of eggs would be lower and the size of the eggs larger in the presence of a predator (kairomones) than in its absence. This effect was expected to be more evident at lower temperatures. I could not find any effect of kairomones on female growth, number of eggs or egg size, although there was a weak tendency for an effect on number of eggs. There was, however, an effect of temperature, regardless of predator treatment (i. e. presence vs absence of kairomones), on number of eggs, where females produced fewer numbers of eggs with increasing temperature. The effect temperature on the number of eggs was not anticipated. Two of the temperatures, 12 and 18°C, were carried out in darkness due to malfunctioning equipment. In addition, for some unknown reason, a high ratio between the number of ephippia and eggs occurred at at16 and 18°C, regardless of predator treatment. These complicating factors (darkness and ephippia) can have had a negative effect on detecting a response by Daphnia to kairomones.

  • 44. Berglund, B.
    et al.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Lundqvist, H.
    Seawater adaptability in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar): a bimodal smoltification pattern in previously mature males1992Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Berglund, Fanny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Barns tankar och uppfattningar om vattenloppor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I examine children in preschool between four and five years old. What they have in mind in a meeting with them an unknown animal, water flea. The activity where I asked the children about such as the water fleas appearance and habitat while I was filming, I have been able to do an observation in two groups that could watch these animals either by image and video or as living animals. The children got afterwards documenting his meeting with painting, I was able to get a picture of how the children understood the animals. The results show that several children in the group who got to experience the real animals could detail their experiences through their artwork. The Picture group also showed poorer perception since they had a vague idea about the water flues size and that several children misunderstood the water flues antennas for sharp and dangerous teeth.

  • 46.
    Berglund, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Havsstranden: En studie om barns uppfattning om djurlivet på havsstranden.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Genom kvalitativa intervjuer har sex förskolebarn medverkat i den här undersökningen, de har svarat på frågor angående djurlivet vid havsstranden. Syftet med undersökningen var att få en bild av hur och vad barn tar till sig, av utforskande aktiviteter och den ämneskunskap som gavs under en temadag på västkusten. Barnen gav många intressanta svar, och resultatet visade motsatsen av vad tidigare undersökningar visat. Inblicken av förskolebarns kunskapsslukande och inspirerande fart av att lära och ta till sig har med den här undersökningen ökat markant.

  • 47. Berglund, O.
    et al.
    Larsson, P.
    Brönmark, C.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Eklöv, A.
    Okla, L.
    Factors influencing organochlorine uptake in age-0 brown trout (Salmo trutta) in lotic environments1997In: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 2767-2774Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Berglund, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Förskolepedagogers tankar om skogen som utbildningsplats2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an interview study with eleven preschool teachers. The purpose with this study has been to find out teachers view on the forest as an educational resource. The result shows that the interviewed consider the forest as an educational resource. With educational resource means that the pedagogs saw the forest as an access in children’s learning process. They use the forest in the learning of science, but also, for example, Swedish and mathematics. Some difficulties were encountered during the interviews; one was the lack of interest and knowledge of science and the forest. The other thing was that many of the children come from war- torn countries which made it difficult to work with the forest as an educational resource. Because these children and their families found the forest as an insecure and dangerous environment.

  • 49.
    Bergman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kursmål och läroböcker: en jämförelse mellan kursmålen för BI1201 Biologi A och fyra läroböcker2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att göra en läromedelsanalys för att undersöka om läroböcker för Biologi A, BI1201 för gymnasieskolan, uppfyller kursmålen. De böcker som används är Biologi Kurs A Anders Henriksson (2000), Biologi A med Naturkunskap A Janne Karlsson m.fl (2000), Liv i utveckling Lars Ljunggren m.fl (1999) och Biologi A Peinerud m.fl (2000). För Biologi Kurs A användes även lärarhandledning.

    Resultatet visar att det är endast en av läroböckerna, Peinerud m.fl, som uppfyller alla kursmål som finns uppsatta. Även Henrikssons bok uppfyller kursmålen när den kompletteras av lärarhandledningen. En av böckerna, Ljunggren m.fl uppnår endast två av åtta kursmål. Trots att författarna ska utgå ifrån de kursmål som är uppsatta för kursen när de skriver läroboken, så är det ändå inte samtliga läroböcker som uppfyller kursmålen. Används läroboken som primär kunskapskälla finns det därför risk att alla kursmål inte uppfylls. Läroböckerna måste därför kompletteras med andra läromedel, till exempel tv eller internet.

  • 50.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Changes in abundance of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus along a productivity gradient: Relations to feeding strategies and competitive ability1991In: Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:536-545Article in journal (Refereed)
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