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  • 1.
    Andersson, Tonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Öppna JavaScript-bibliotek för webbkartor i kommunal tjänst: En jämförelse mellan OpenLayers 3 och Leaflet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of web-based mapping applications is constantly increasing. In particular, an increase can be observed in the mobile use of such applications. Karlstad municipality is experiencing an increased number of mobile users of its web map. For that reason, the municipality aims to improve their web map in order to provide a more mobile-friendly service. The municipality intends to replace the technology of their existing web map with a more modern alternative and is currently looking at two different JavaScript-based open source APIs for web-based mapping applications – OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet.In this thesis, OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet are compared in terms of compatibility, functionality and performance. Compatibility and functionality are examined primarily through analysis of available documentation. Assessments are made based on requirements set forth by Karlstad municipality, regarding compatibility with existing server architecture and functionality equivalent to the municipality’s current web mapping service.Performance is assessed for WMS and WFS functions, and functions for file based vector data rendering. In addition, differences in performance with various web browsers are evaluated. The performance tests are carried out in environments set up as basic mapping applications. Given functions are tested with simple script methods for timing, together with Firebug, a Firefox web browser plugin.Test results show that both OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet meet all requirements regarding compatibility, even though Leaflet lacks support for certain formats. OpenLayers 3 shows, furthermore, a broader native support for different functions. Leaflet is more limited, natively, but can be extended through various plugins to achieve the same level of functionality as OpenLayers 3.Performance tests consistently show that OpenLayers 3 is the faster API. The results are particularly clear concerning vector data handling, where Leaflet is significantly slower. Despite distinct and measurable differences in performance, the perceived differences are not always as obvious. For this reason, practical user-focused tests are recommended for future studies of the subject.In conclusion, OpenLayers 3 is the recommended API for use in applications of larger scale and with richer functionality, while Leaflet is proposed as a more flexible alternative, suitable for simpler applications.

  • 2.
    Basak, Bozkurt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Noggrannhetsjämförelse mellan ytmodeller skapade med Smartplanes PPK/Sensefly eBee PPK och GeoTagz/eMotion med samma korrektionsdata från SWEPOS2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gender, work and disaster2012In: Gender, work and disaster, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nederbördsintensitet och andra faktorer som påverkar skyfallsskador2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige inträffar många skyfall och intensiva regn under sommarmånaderna. Det finns inga uppenbara geografiska mönster, vilket är en skillnad gentemot älv- eller sjööversvämningar där det vanligtvis är känt vilka områden som kan komma att översvämmas vid en viss vattennivå eller ett visst vattenflöde. För individer och samhällsaktörer innebär en skyfallshändelse i många fall en stor överraskning då skyfall utvecklas snabbt och dagens meteorologiska prognossystem i stort inte lyckas att prognosticera extrema regn korrekt med avseende på mängd, tid och plats. Vädervarningar kommer med kort varsel eller uteblir helt. Konsekvenserna av intensiv nederbörd och skyfall är främst översvämningar och erosionsskador på byggnader och infrastruktur, men även störningar och avbrott i olika samhällsfunktioner som kan påverka samhället och individer utanför det drabbade området.

    I denna avhandling har 15 år av försäkringsskadedata använts för att undersöka samband mellan nederbördsintensitet och skyfallsskador. Även påverkan av andra faktorer som topografi, bebyggelse och socioekonomiska aspekter har undersökts. Resultaten visar att regnintensitet under ett 60 minuters intervall i kombination med korta perioder av extrem intensitet, tillsammans med topografiska faktorer spelar en betydande roll vid uppkomsten av skador.

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  • 5.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 6.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013-2020).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of intense rainfall on insurance losses in two Swedish cities2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 12, no S2, p. 1-13, article id e12504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a major part of previous research in the field of flood damage has focused on water depth as the most important causal factor, little attention has been paid to the role of rainfall intensity. As a test, this paper used correlation and regression analyses to investigate rainfall intensity as a factor affecting flood damage. For a time period of 15 years, the relationship between insurance losses caused by floods and rainfall intensity data from rain gauges were examined in two Swedish cities. Another objective was to find an approach for damage functions based on rainfall intensity as explanatory variable. Using linear regression, two approaches with considerable high degrees of explanation were found – one based on an exponential function and one on a power function. Using a lower limit for rainfall intensity, the approaches reached degrees of explanation between 30 and 78 %. From this study it was concluded that rainfall intensity during the summer months and the occurrence of insurance damages per day caused by floods were correlated and further that rainfall intensity has a great potential to explain urban flood damages. In the future, additional studies are needed to validate the proposed methods and integrate other flood damage affecting factors in the approach.

  • 7. Bondesson, Anton
    et al.
    Wessman, Lisa
    Automatisering av markbedömning för nya kraftledningar med GIS: Metodutveckling med MKA2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish power grid is facing challenging times to cope with the transition to green renewable energy and to ensure safe and sustainable transportation through the country. The need to upkeep with maintenance and reconstruction as well as construction of new power lines requires planning and overhead power lines require extensive areas of safe zones below the power lines. In the planning stage of these streaks there are multiple areas of interest that require careful consideration and therefore evaluations of the area of interest are necessary.This bachelor thesis aims to develop a prototype for an automated tool in the initial suite selection of possible streaks for new power lines. The project is done in collaboration with NEKTAB who want to investigate the potential of developing their own tool for standardized evaluations of suite selections and to reduce workload. By utilizing multicriteria analysis (MCA) and geographical information systems (GIS), two software packages are used and compared, i.e. FME and ArcGIS Pro. Prototypes are developed from a reference project Eon is working on alongside NEKTAB. A sophisticated weighting system to evaluate areas of interest against each other is designed using the weighing method SWING and MCA-method weighted linear combination (WLC). The two prototypes from the software are compared through grid comparisons and by utilizing a predefined classification. The results show limited differences between the software though greater disparity when it comes to stability and the capability to manage larger amounts of data.The conclusions of the development and comparisons of the software and results show that both are capable in managing large amounts of data and accomplish the task, though the stability and functions are better within FME thus being more suitable for further optimization. Further development is required as the prototypes still do not manage all the requested features. Further developments are also required with the weighing system to meet expectations on a larger scale with more local and national areas of interest.

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  • 8.
    Böhm, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Topografins inverkan på fastighetsskador orsakade av skyfall: En fallstudie av ett event med kraftig nederbörd i Jönköping 20132023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to global warming and climate change, heavy rainfalls have become more frequent in Sweden and can lead to extensive damage that is sometimes difficult to predict. This study examines potential correlations between damage to buildings that occurred during a cloudburst event in Jönköping in 2013 and the surrounding hydrology, topography and degree of surface sealing. Previous studies in the field have examined correlations between several variables and damaged areas, but by studying hydrology and impervious surfaces individually and their correlation with insurance data, their impact is examined more specifically in this study. Different sized buffer zones around buildings were used to extract flow-accumulation data and percentage of impervious surfaces. Data from the entire study area and a smaller area concentrated on two residential blocks were studied and visualizations, statistical calculations and T-tests were performed on extracted data to investigate potential correlations. The results showed that the larger 50 m buffer zone with the method identifies a larger number of damaged buildings than the smaller buffer zones. Classified impervious surface can be useful for identifying more vulnerable areas in a larger perspective while flow-accumulation data due to its large variation seems better suited for analysis of smaller areas. 

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  • 9. Cafaro, Philip
    et al.
    Butler, Tom
    Crist, Eileen
    Cryer, Paul
    Dinerstein, Eric
    Kopnina, Helen
    Noss, Reed
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Taylor, Bron
    Vynne, Carly
    Washington, Haydn
    If we want a whole Earth, Nature Needs Half: a response to Buscher et al.2017In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 400-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Daniel, Palm
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sammanställning av användarerfarenheter med nya nationella höjdmodellen, NNH2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project is a literature study with focus on how the new national elevation model (NNH) has been used and how user friendly it is. The goal was to find out who uses NNH and what faults and errors might exist.

    Information about the NNH-project was composed to get a greater understanding of the project and to be able to understand the user-comments better. Multiple rapports, thesis and projects were read to gather the most common comments about the use of NNH.

    The collective impression showed that the users were pleased with NNH though there is need of improvement. NNH is used on many different levels like municipality, county, government and in educational institutes and business enterprises. One way to use NNH is to use it as basic data when making flood analysis, geological models, stocktaking stand of trees and for creating 3D-models to be used in community planning or presentations.

    The faults and errors that were reported included the large files the data are delivered in which are very demanding to process. The delivered data is good enough to make synoptic analyses but a higher resolution is required to make more in-depth analyses. There have also been propositions presented about scanning lakes, rivers and coastlines with green laser to get readings from the sea floor.

    The future for NNH looks bright and more and more types of businesses discovers the possibilities of elevation models and laser data and what it can do for their companies. 3D-modelling and presentations with photographs draped over an elevation model to make it look more attractive and easily understandable. Or as examples of project plans and construction projects.

  • 11.
    Dovrén, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ajourhållning av en stadsmodell med multipatch i LOD2.2: Utveckling av Karlstads kommuns ajourhållning av stadsmodellen genom att rita upp geometrin i geografiska CAD-program2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad municipality owns an urban model made by external companies. The municipality wants to be able to update the model on its own. Today the municipality update the model using UAV photos processed in Agisoft Metashape. This study aims to investigate the option of creating 3D objects with ArcGIS Pro and photos of the building. The building used in the study is an apartment house located at Rudsberget in Karlstad.This objective is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, to give the municipality a better basis for the decision of which technique is the most suitable to create models of buildings. The building model is already created by a company that created the urban model and exists as a UAV model. The building model acts as a reference since the buildings, in general, are created in this way. Positional accuracy, size, plainness, and cost of data are the parameters of the models that will be measured. The UAV model has better positional accuracy. The size was also more accurate with the UAV model because it has better height and volume accuracy, but the model made in the study had a better footprint. The model in the study also has better plainness, looks, and has a lower data cost. The conclusion is that the model created in the study is a good alternative to the UAV model. Another conclusion is that knowledge about height and understanding of the contexture of the building will make a better model. 

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  • 12.
    Edlund, Hanna
    Karlstad University.
    Jämförelseanalys av höjdmodeller skapade med LiDAR-data från UAV och flygplan för projektering av kraftledningsgator2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish power grid is currently facing a big challenge if it’s going to be able to meet Sweden’s growing demand for electricity. While large parts of the power grid must be updated, there also needs to be a big expansion. When planning new corridors for the powerlines, geographical information must be collected to be able to visualize said corridors as Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and it is thus important that the data is correct. LiDAR-data is a suitable alternative for this as it can represent the ground well despite any vegetation that might be present in the planned corridor. Currently open-source data from the Swedish National Land Survey, the National Elevation Model (the NH-model), is often used, or the area is mapped with airborne laser-scanning from a plane. However, the NH-model is sometimes not a suitable alternative due to its low resolution, while airborne laser-scanning can be both environmentally and economically costly. It is therefore interesting to explore alternative methods. 

     

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to conduct a comparative analysis between DEMs generated by LiDAR-data collected by UAV and by plane to see where they differ, and if LiDAR-data collected by UAV is a potential alternative to LiDAR-data collected by plane. This will be done in collaboration with Nektab and Swescan to explore the possibility of being able to offer a new product to their customers and clients. A previously planned area outside the Swedish town of Horndal in the county of Dalarna, was used due to already existing plane-collected LiDAR-data. LiDAR-data was collected with an UAV through two different scanner-methods, repetitive and non-repetitive, on the 3rd of May 2023. The processing of the pointclouds were performed in DJI Terra and Terrasolids software Terrascan and Terramatch. Quality calculations and control was done in Excel. DEMs were created in Esris software Arcmap 10.8 and different analyses were performed to compare the DEMs elevation, slope, and profiles. 

     

    The point clouds generated from the UAV-LiDAR had a positional accuracy equivalent to the Swedish HMK-standard level 3, and the pointcloud generated from the non-repetitive­ scanner-method had a better positional accuracy for the z-value than the pointcloud generated from the plane-LiDAR. The differences between the DEMs were small and were caused both by difference in classification of the point clouds and collection method. The conclusion is that collection of LiDAR-data through UAV and the generation of high quality DEMs from this data is fully possible for smaller areas such as the one in this thesis. 

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  • 13.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfredsställelse med vardagliga resor oavsett färdmedel - psykometrisk analys av STS Skalan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Rag-pickers as benefactors and beneficiaries of the sustainable development goals: A brief literature review2023In: Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae, ISSN 1733-1218, E-ISSN 2719-826X, Vol. 21, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ragpickers have long led a marginalised, subliminal and deprived existence, and havesilently gone about contributing to ‘informal waste recycling’, diverting in many cities and towns, overhalf of the recyclable wastes from dumpsites to the technosphere. The reviewer has based this paperon 60 peer-reviewed publications spanning a time period of 28 years – from 1995 – 2022, originatingfrom over a dozen different countries, and encompassing the social, economic and environmentaldimensions of sustainability. The discussion has been structured around the six question words –Where/Wherefrom, When, How, What, Why and Who/Whom. While there is no claim of any additionper se being made to the extant body of knowledge, the reviewer would like to describe this as anattempt to simply collate existing knowledge to serve the practical purpose of highlighting the plightof our impoverished, malnourished, oppressed brethren, to elicit appreciation, understanding andsupport for them, from policymakers in government, CSR personnel from the corporate world,journalists in the media, and most importantly, from the common urban denizens. All these entitiescan work shoulder to shoulder with the NGOs who have been relentlessly striving to help the ragpickersto ‘stay afloat’. The reviewer fondly hopes that this will motivate more concertedtransdisciplinary applied research, predicated on the Sustainable Development Goals – a collaborationamong the disciplines of healthcare, sociology, psychology, urban planning, sustainable development,environmental engineering, and even art and poetry.

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  • 15. Juliusson, Sara
    GIS-metod för planering av säkra skolvägar2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 16.
    Karlström, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Multikriterieanalys av kyrkbyggnader som trygghetspunkter: En undersökning utförd på Säffle, Åmåls och Melleruds pastorat2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of extreme weather events due to climate change has increased over the years, which has made the occurrence of natural disasters to be expected to increase in the future. When crisis occurs in society it is good if there are planned points of safety to where people can go. Municipalities have the ultimate responsibility for crisis management in the municipality, but they can also work together with other parts of society to achieve this, such as religious communities. The Church of Sweden is one such faith community that are used to helping in crises and that have buildings throughout Sweden. 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate church buildings within the Church of Sweden's property holdings in the parishes of Säffle, Åmål and Mellerud as potential points of safety. The evaluation is based on the sub-criteria natural disasters, energy and accessibility, as well as the main criterion point of safety.

    In Sweden, vegetation fires, floods and landslides are among the most common causes of natural disasters. When crises caused  by these occurs, points of safety that meet certain criteria need to be available. One way to find optimal solutions using different criteria is to use Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE). There are several different methods within MCE and one of them are AHP, which is a weighting method. Another MCE method is called Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) which is a method that implements MCE in Geographic Information System (GIS).

    A total of 50 church buildings were evaluated as potential points of safety in this study. Analyzes to obtain weighting attributes were performed in ArcGIS Pro or checked manually in maps. MCE methods AHP and WLC were used to bring out a result. The result shows that the Säffle kyrka was the most suitable building to become a point of safety in all criteria except for energy where Åmåls församlingshem received the highest value.

    Buildings in this study were weighted against each other based on their different attributes and not against outer variables. Several buildings received a high value within several criteria and many of these buildings were located near the towns of Säffle, Åmål and Mellerud. The opportunities for further studies regarding point of safety are great.

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  • 17. Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Söder, Patrik
    Jämförelse av olika GNSS-mottagare: Mätnoggrannhet i plan och höjd vid användande av nätverks-RTK2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to test and compare three different GNSS-receivers’ accuracy, using NRTK. The instrument brands and models in the test were SatLab 300, Leica Viva GS15 and Trimble R10.

    The test was divided into two measurement series. Measurement series 1 was carried out in different areas with distances of 3-4 km (Skåre/Råtorp), 6-7 km (Våxnäs/Kronoparken), and 17-20 km (Vålberg/Älvenäs), respectively, from the closest physical SWEPOS-station (Class A). A total of nine control points in Karlstad municipality were used in measurement series 1, some with a total free line of sight southwards, and others partly obscured by buildings or trees.

     The results of measurement series 1 shows no significant differences between the tested GNSS- receiver’s results regarding to different distances to the SWEPOS-station (Class A). Measurement series 2 focused on measurements was carried out in a more accurate way, at a smaller number of control points located in the Våxnäs and Kronoparken areas.

    The control points were measured during a period of 10 to 20 minutes at each control point. In measurement series 1 the SatLab 300 and the Leica Viva GS15 with known coordinates at the chosen control points was compared. In measurement series 2 the SatLab 300, the Leica Viva GS15 and the Trimble R10 with known coordinates at the chosen control points were compared. In measurement series 1 fast measurement (1 époque), and an average of 25 époques were measured at every control point, with two return visits, both at different dates. In measurement series 2, fast measurement (1 époque), and an average of 100 époques were measured at every control point, with two return visits at the same date.

    The overall results show no significant differences in accuracy of measurements using the different receiver’s in NRTK-mode. The Trimble R10 results, however shows slightly more accurate results when comparing radial deviation, and slightly better values when comparing RMS, relative to the other GNSS receivers. At control points with an obscured sight of view, the Leica Viva GS15 has difficulties obtaining a fixed solution, and flickers between a fixed and a float state. At those conditions, the SatLab 300 has no problem with obtaining a fixed solution, whereas the Trimble R10 instead works in a different way, continuously presenting the quality of the positioning.

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  • 18.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Transformationsmetoder: En fallstudie över ett detaljplanerat område i När socken2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Region Gotland has begun digitisation of the community building management, which include quality assurance of property boundaries. This report addresses theory, method, results and an analysis of the transformation methods.To require a building permit, the region has long waiting times. In order to facilitate and reduce the processing time, zoning plans will be interpreted according to their documents. Property boundaries within the zonings will be measured and transformed to improve quality and to verify the property boundaries.The measurements were performed with N-RTK measurement and setup of total station with GNSS-measured points.Coordinates for boundary markings have been updated with transformation methods where boundary markings have not been found. For example, where stone walls and roads have been built over the boundary markings, where boundary markings no longer have the same location due to tree roots moving them, or where boundary markings have been placed incorrectly after excavations.This report shows, that in this specific case, the difference between the transformation methods are small, therefore suggesting that the Unitary transformation is preferred because of the minor difference in distance and scale factors, and because Unitary transformation does not change lengths and areas.

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    Transformationsmetoder: En fallstudie över ett detaljplanerat område i När socken
  • 19.
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Disaster in #Paradise: The tourism riskscape of tropical cyclone Winston, Fiji2024In: Tourism, Cyclones, Hurricanes and Flooding / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Girish Prayag, Channel View Publications, 2024, p. 141-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Flood Warnings in a Risk Management Context: A Case of Swedish Municipalities2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), and recent high profile disasters, disaster risk reduction has climbed high on the international political agenda. There has been a paradigm shift from reacting to disasters towards preparing for and mitigating effects of disasters. Among the measures that have been highlighted on the disaster risk reduction agenda are early warning systems. In a Swedish context, there are needs for early warnings for various flood risk types. Municipalities carry big responsibilities for managing flood risks, and early warnings have a potential to facilitate decision-making and ultimately reduce flood losses.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how a variety of flood warning signals are used in the risk management process of Swedish municipalities, how they can contribute to the flood risk reducing process, and which factors influence the success of this. The thesis is based on two papers.

    Paper I is based on interviews with three respondents from Swedish municipalities that have invested in and established local early warning systems. The paper shows that the possible effects from a local early warning system are not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff, the occurrence of which is dependent on the well-being of the organisation and its risk management processes.

    Paper II is based on interviews with 23 respondents at 18 Swedish municipalities, who have responsibilities related to flood risk management, and one respondent who works at SMHI with hydrological warning. The paper shows that municipalities can use a variety of complementary flood warning signals to facilitate decision-making for a proactive flood response. This is however not systematically the case, and is dependent on available resources.

    The theoretical contribution of this thesis is a development of existing conceptual models of early warning systems with respect to risk management and system contexts, and the use of complementary warning signals.

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  • 21. Persson, Filip
    et al.
    Abbas, Zaid
    Jämförelse av stomnät: Enkel metod och nätutjämningsmetod2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Ryrberg, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Kartans roll i skolan och vardagslivet: En beskrivande studie av lärares och elevers uppfattning av kartan som undervisningsmedel på utvalda högstadieskolor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how teachers use the map as an educational aid in school and how students perceive the use of maps, both in school and their every-day life. How do the teachers perceive that the use of maps have changed with the update of the curriculum, from Lpo 94 to Lgr 11 is also going to be elucidated. To answer these questions, eight interviews with junior high school teachers and four focus groups consisting of four students each were done. During the interviews, the teachers stated that students today have a flawed/inadequate/deficient comprehensive view of the map, where focus often lies on a small area. The teachers regard this development of students’ perception of the map as a product of today’s technology, for example GPS where focus lies on finding the starting and ending points. Both paper and digital maps are essential when creating a structured view of the world where focus is both on the small and the big, according to the teachers. Five of the interviewed teachers stated that they need more knowledge about the technology to be able to use digital maps more. In the focus groups, most of the students primarily stated that they did not meet the map at all in their every-day life, but after discussion it was made clear that they meet some kind of map every day, for example in computer/video games, checking in somewhere on Facebook or finding an address with the help of Google Maps. Among the 16 students that participated in the focus groups, 12 stated that both the paper map and the digital map were needed in the education. They think that the digital map, especially Google Earth, is a funnier tool and make the lessons more interesting, but they stated that a paper map provides a better comprehensive picture of the designated area. 

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Stensson, Lily
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Spatial Accuracy in Orthophoto produced using UAV Photographic Images2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of using UAV in image-taking for the production of 3D models and orthophotos has increased over time. Karlskoga Municipality has recently acquired an UAV to produce their own 3D models and orthophotos. This project paper aims to study the geospatial accuracy of the orthophotos and DEM files produced using the images taken with their UAV. The flight takes only a few minutes but a considerable time is spent in the production processes. Difficulty is experienced in determining the right center point for most GCPs. Produced orthophotos in the software Photoscan have a resolution from 1.7 to 2.4 centimeters while DEM files have a resolution from 3.4 to 4.8 centimeters. Four orthophotos and four DEM files are produced where GCPs are used and not used and at two different flight heights, 76 and 105 meters. The spatial data of the ten GCPs are identified on the orthophotos and DEM files in ArcMap and compared with GNSS NRTK measurements and Lantmäteriet's data. A visual control in terms of completeness of data, alignment, residual tilt and scale is also done. Standard deviations in plane for orthophotos there GCPs are not used are greater than 2 meters, while there GCPs are used are around 0.7 meters. Standard deviations for DEM files are observed at 0.8 meters.

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    StenssonExamen
  • 24.
    Thabet, Bahaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Identifiering och validering av potentiella översvämningsriskområden med hjälp av GIS-baserad multikriterieanalys2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Floods are natural disasters that often have significant socio-economic consequences. Urban areas with uncontrolled urban development, rapid population growth, an unregulated municipal system and an unplanned change in land use belong to the very sensitive areas where floods cause devastating economic and social losses.

    This study aims to present a reliable GIS multi-criteria methodology for risk zone mapping of flood-prone areas in urban areas. This study also intends to study and investigate the relationship between criteria and field of study. This was carried out with a literature study to investigate and determine the criteria to be used. In this study, the focus is on fluvial flooding. The study area is the centre of Karlstad (17.5 km²) in Värmland County. The study area is interesting because the municipality of Karlstad is trying to increase the number of inhabitants in the city and invest manyresources to build attractive areas close to water, even though those areas were affected by flooding from 2000 to 2001.

    All data processing was performed in ArcGIS Pro 3.1.0 and FME 2022.2.2 software. All hydrological analyses such as flow direction, accumulation and DEM sinks were performed in System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) 8.0.1 software. 

    The criteria used in this study are land use, DEM, slope, curvature, flow accumulation and distance from water. The result was then validated with MSB's flood model, previous studies and reports, on the Vänern flood 2000/2001 and insurance claims, because there are no previous flood risk maps in the study area to directly validate the maps generated in this study. In addition, 3D models were generated to facilitate visualization and simulation of the event. The proposed method is based on a combined application of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analysis (MKA). AHP was used as a weighting method with the help of five experts from Karlstad University.

    Flood risk maps were constructed and classified into five classes with flood potential from very low to very high. Respectively 0.5 % (very low), 10 % (low), 28.9 % (moderate), 43 % (high), and 17.6 % (very high). The result of this study shows that 60.6 % of the area is associated with areas of high to very high flood risk. This study is a valuable practical tool for flood risk analysis.

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    fulltext
  • 25.
    Yewale, Priti
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Wagle, Neeta
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Lenka, Shaurya
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Bannigol, Pramila
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Junnarkar, Manisha
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Prakash, Divya
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde.
    Stigh, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, India.
    Vannalwar, Tejas
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Thakare, Prasad
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nikam, Dhiraj
    De Novo Tech, India.
    Pawar, Sarika
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Studies on Biosmotrap: A multipurpose biological air purifier to minimize indoor and outdoor air pollution2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 357, article id 132001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is a serious health concern that affects many people across the globe. The major air pollutants are particulate matter, carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatics and free radicals which cause severe respiratory distress and infections. The existing air cleaning systems suffer from drawbacks of high cost and generation of secondary pollutants. A novel biological air filter “Biosmotrap” which is a laminate composite of sponge gourd and algae was developed. Biosmotrap placed in a carrier assembly on exhaust of vehicles, could remove carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the vehicular emissions resulting in cleaner emissions. Biosmotrap decreased carbon monoxide from 1,423,992 μg/m3 to 76,756 μg/m3, nitric oxide from 71,128 μg/m3 to 9982 μg/m3, nitrogen dioxide from 565 μg/m3 to 188 μg/m3 and PM2.5 from 3200 μg/m3 to 60 μg/m3 from a polluting vehicle. Biosmotrap removed 60–80% of indoor pollutants from cigarette smoke and incense-stick smoke. Biosmotrap could protect the human cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by indoor air pollutants. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis plants exposed to air filtered through Biosmotrap were healthy as compared to the plants directly exposed to polluted air. Biosmotrap is an economic, efficient, eco-friendly filter that is superior to existing air filtration methods.

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