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  • 1.
    Almberg, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Riskstudie av en förändrad användning av bromerade flamskyddsmedel2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a qualitative study about the changing image of risk when the use of brominated flame retardants BFR goes from prohibited ones, to alternative flame retardants, with the account of existing knowledge and the effects on humans and the environment. The use of brominated flame retardants has been going through a large increase since the 1950s. Today the global production estimates 200 000 ton each year. The five most common BFR and those the focus lay on in this paper are: Tetrabromobisphenol A TBBP-A, Penta-, Octa- and Decabromodiphenylether (PBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane HBCDD. These substances are all exist in many different variants where the properties could vary. Some characteristic properties for all of them are low general volatility but high solubility in fat and that they are persistent. BFR are used in many different areas like textiles, building material, electrical products and in printed circuit cards for computers. BFR can leak out during the products whole life-cycle. Each year, tonnes of BFR release to the European environment.

    PBDE have been discovered in animals, scattered over big parts of the world. The evidence of the negative effects is not considered to be strong enough for a full ban of TPPP-A, HBCDD or DecaBDE in the European Union. However effects like impairing learning functions, changes in the spontaneous behaviour and different hormone levels have been detected in tests on laboratory animals. Levels of BFR have also been found in human breast milk. This is a big risk factor because small children and embryos are particularly sensitive. The neurological development is for example very complex and a changing hormone level could have devastating consequences.

    All the five Swedish authorities that have been contacted in this paper consider the usage of brominated flame retardants as a problem and have the opinion that the solution lay in measures in a European Union level. The agencies have different commissions but all of them work, either for an increased security and information level, or for a sustainable society development. The fact that the use of BFR involves many insecurities, make their tasks even more difficult to reach. Different circumstances can lead to either an increase or a decrease usage of BFR. Legislation and directives can inhibit the use of BFR whereas lobbying and fire safety demands could have the opposite effect. Alternative fire retardants have been developed; both technical solutions where the safety lay in the design of the product but also new way of protect plastics from fires.

    The conclusion is; the risk will decrease if legislation prohibits a whole group of chemicals, but not fast enough. The level of knowledge about the existing chemicals is rising but the knowledge about the brominated options is still to low.

  • 2. Andersson, B. I.
    et al.
    Bishop, K. H.
    Borg, G. C.
    Giesler, G.
    Hultberg, H.
    Huse, M.
    Moldan, F.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nygaard, P. H.
    Nyström, U.
    The covered catchment site: A description of the physiography, climate and vege-tation of three small coniferous forest catchments at Gårdsjön, South-west Sweden1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R., John, England: Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Andersson, Elin
    Transportinformationskampanjer och klimatproblematiken: En studie av fyra teman som påverkar beteendeförändringar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Carlsson, B
    Danielsson, K
    Enström, J
    van Hees, P A W
    Lundström, U S
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Försurning av skogsmark i Värmland1996Report (Refereed)
  • 5. Andersson, Peter
    Europeiska Unionens vattenramdirektiv: En studie i dess inverkan på Östersjöns vattenkvalité2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Andersson Sjöberg, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Samhällets Sårbarhet för Klimatförändringarna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the climate changes are expected to generate several substantial direct and indirect consequences on both ecosystems and societies. It is the extent of the negative consequences that determents the vulnerability of the things or the ones exposed. The knowledge of the effects and consequences by a changing climate provides an opportunity to take measures to reduce the vulnerability.Our society’s vulnerability depends on how we choose to act out of the existing knowledge and what measures we choose to take. 

    Karlstad municipality has good knowledge and perception of the increased flood risks the climate changes will generate and the probable consequences that most likely will follow. How the municipality decides to manage the flooding issue is not just affected by the will to mitigate the vulnerability but also by the vision to increase the number of citizens. Karlstad municipality wants to oblige the citizen’s demand of settlements close to the water in order to reach the aim to gain the population quantity. Hereby attractive areas are developed even though they are estimated to be vulnerable. The motivation is that the knowledge about the flood risks makes it possible to take necessary measures to reduce the risks.

  • 7.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-40278 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, ISSN 2095-0055, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 7, no 4, 374-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved. The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 8.
    Andréasson, Robin
    Karlstad University.
    En kritisk diskursanalys av Europa 2020 strategins förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling.: Ur perspektiven ekologisk modernisering och miljörättvisa.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Inspired by Maarten A. Hajer (1995), this work will analyze and attempt to clarify how environmental and equity issues are reflected in the development policies that takes place from a contemporary perspective at EU level. In this case, with a focus on the Europe 2020, “A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” Which are analyzed through a critical discourse analysis after Fairclough’s three dimensional model in relation to the research question: Which discourse/discourses appears in the “Europe 2020” in terms of economic development in relation to the environment and justice, and; What truths/hegemonies emerges in relation to the environment and development in this communicative event? The analysis contributed to the clarification of a number of prominent discourses, truths/hegemonies described constituted and likewise reproduce the larger ideological social practice. Growth discourse is seen as the reigning discourse for which all inferiors discourses comply. Its realization is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development and social shared stance. This thus realized through ecological modernization as a tool to decouple environmental degradation and create new markets and competitive advantages and thus prosperity in terms of growth. In relation to the essays purpose to see whether the EU sustainability discourse is used as a power discourse, it is clear in relation to previous research and critique of ecological modernization that some equity perspectives and interests are being excluded in this discursive practice.

  • 9.
    Anting Paulsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur framställs klimatflyktingar i media?: En jämförelse mellan svenska och amerikanska nyhetsartiklar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10. Bergelin, Rebecca
    Påverkan av extrem nederbörd på det svenska vägnätet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Bergius, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Landsbygden, folkhälsan och den fysiska planeringen: En fallstudie om hur mindre svenska landsbygdskommuner integrerar folkhälsa i fysisk planering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är en svensk ambition att folkhälsan ges större utrymme i samhällsplaneringen. Dock finns i dagsläget inga lagstadgade krav eller tydliga riktlinjer kring hur folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i fysisk planering. En stor del av ansvaret för att uppfylla denna ambition hamnar på de svenska kommunerna och det är i dessa som de svåra avvägningarna mellan olika intressen måste göras. Syftet med denna studie är att studera vilka hinder och möjligheter som finns med att integrera folkhälsoaspekter i planering och utformning av den kommunala fysiska miljön.

    Denna studie är utformad som en fallstudie där en svensk kommun har studerats med hjälp av intervjuer och dokumentanalyser. Resultaten från denna studie visar att konflikter med miljömässiga och ekonomiska värden är ett hinder när folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i kommunal samhällsplanering. En rådande oenighet kring hur folkhälsobegreppet definieras och används, samt bristande kunskap om begreppet är ytterligare hinder som belyses i studien. Att folkhälsoinsatser sällan ger mätbara resultat är en ännu en faktor som hindrar integreringen av folkhälsoaspekter i fysisk planering. Engagemang, arbetsbelastning och tidsbrist är andra faktorer som påverkar i vilken utsträckning folkhälsoaspekter beaktas i den kommunala samhällsplaneringen. Slutligen är målsättningar och tvärsektoriellt samarbete centralt för att skapa likvärdiga förväntningar och samförstånd mellan aktörer där folkhälsofrämjande insatser ska genomföras.  

  • 12.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student 'sustainability consciousness' and decision making on sustainability dilemmas: Investigating effects of implementing education for sustainable development in Swedish upper secondary schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of education for sustainable development (SD) has been emphasized since the 1990s. SD involves the three areas of environment, economy and society, with a focus on the relationships between environmental protection and human development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) takes a holistic view on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD and aims to empower students to engage in the democratic development of society in a more sustainable direction. Policy-level and research community discussions have addressed the ways in which ESD has been implemented internationally. This study focuses on upper secondary students, and investigates their views on sustainability and the ways they make decisions related to SD. The study aims to address the interdisciplinary and multidimensional content embraced in the concept of SD and the development of competences often associated with ESD. A survey investigating students’ (n=638) sustainability consciousness (SC) and their decision-making in a number of SD related contexts was conducted in 15 Swedish upper secondary schools. The results show that students attending schools with an ESD profile are characterized by stronger SC than students attending regular schools; however the difference is small and mostly related to the economic dimension of SD. Furthermore, students who prioritize environmental decisions in SD dilemmas show stronger SC than students giving priority to economic reasons. When environmental, economic and social dimensions are introduced separately, social aspects are given the highest priority by the students. In contrast, environmental aspects are up-graded when the dimensions are introduced in an integrated manner. However, different dimensions are prioritized in different contexts. The study provides empirical support for using multiple contexts and including both harmonious and conflict-based perspectives on SD in education. It also contributes knowledge to the discussion about the implementation of ESD in Sweden in terms of outcomes among students.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Brandin, Elisabeth
    Laskerudsprojektet -helhetssyn på restaureringsarbete i skogslandskapet2005Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bergman, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Är människor också djur?: Djurvälfärd betraktat från två olika ideologiska perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Djurhållning inom livsmedelsindustrin är ett stort problem, både ur miljösynpunkt men även när det kommer till djurvälfärd. I den här studien undersöks hur ekologisk djurhållning och djurrättsaktivism kan fungera tillsammans för att nå en god djurvälfärd utifrån de ideologier som ligger till grund för dessa inriktningar. För att ta reda på detta valdes två organisationer ut för att representera vardera sida, KRAV och Djurens Rätt, och sedan identifierades de bakomliggande ideologierna. Det utvalda materialet, som består av publikationer från respektive organisation, bearbetades med hjälp av en diskursanalys, som ger utrymme för egna tolkningar och reflektioner. Målet för studien har inte varit att nå en definitiv sanning, utan att presentera nya synsätt och bidra med nya perspektiv i frågan. I diskussionen framkommer att det är antropocentriska ideologier somligger till grund för KRAV och icke-antropocentriska ideologier som ligger bakom Djurens Rätt. Dessa kombineras sedan med ett feministiskt perspektiv för att utveckla diskussionen ytterligare. Slutsatser som dras är att KRAV och Djurens Rätt strävar efter samma sak, nämligen en god djurvälfärd, problematiken ligger i de bakomliggande ideologierna. En icke-antropocentrisk ideologi kan inte godta att djur dödas för mänskliga syften, men enligt antropocentrismen finns djuren till för människans nytta och rättfärdigar detta, vilket starkt antyder att de inte kan kombineras. Genom att lägga till det feministiska perspektivet finns dock möjligheten att sträva efter samexistens, där djur och människor lever jämte varandra på samma villkor. Det är inte en lösning, men det kan öppna upp för nya sätt att betrakta hur människor kan göra djurvälfärd till en naturlig del av att vara vid liv.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mesakalk – ett miljövänligt material eller skadligt avfall?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is experiencing major problems with the management of waste from nearly every industry within the country. There is I big waste of waste materials which are placed in landfill when they have potential of being reused. Landfills usually leach contaminated water leading to the contamination of soils and watercourses. Lime mud from the paper industry is currently at 133 000 tones. The purpose of this paper is to study the Sweden’s environmental legislation to see if it has flaws that may explain why the lime mud is not re-used even though it may have potentially useful properties. The result is based on an analysis of documents of legal provisions and completed schemes interpreted against the mesa content. The answer is that the law is neither an obstacle and opportunities and it is not possible to provide for law neither promotes nor prevents lime reuse. It is also clear that there is little research on the environmental gains and losses that would arise if the mesa came in contact with nature. What is clear is that there is an unclear division of responsibilities between authorities regarding Environmental Protection Agency and the County administrative boards of Sweden that might complicate the reuse of lime mud.

  • 16.
    Birgersson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Det moderna risksamhället: En studie om klimatrisker inom kommunal krisberedskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is now a phenomenon we cannot ignore. It is happening here and now and there is more or less common scientific consensus that so is the case. With climate change come risks that are difficult to predict and to relate to and this affects the integration of these risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that are affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The result is based on a number of interviews conducted with people working with municipal activities and a Municipal Council. The responses have been more or less clear that the largest factors affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness is scientific uncertainty and how this is mediated by international organizations, the fact that there is a common lack of knowledge about the effects that may arise from climate change and that there is also a lower awareness of many of the risks in general. In addition, different effects are differently prioritized which affects the integration of all risks associated with climate change. I have also conducted a document analysis to give further substance to the results I found.

  • 17. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Moldan, F.
    Hultberg, H.
    The hydrochemical response of runoff episodes to an experimental reduction of acid deposition1995In: Ecosystem mani-pulation experiments: Scientific approaches, experimental designs and relevant re-sults., vol. 20, redaktörer: Jenkins A., Ferrier R. C. och Kirby C., pp. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Stähli, M.
    Lindström, G.
    Mellander, P.-E.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, M.
    Tjäle och avrinning från boreal skogsmark - en studie inom Vindelns Försöksparker2000Report (Refereed)
  • 19. Bishop, K.H.
    et al.
    Hauhs, M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Seibert, J.
    Moldan, F.
    Rodhe, A.
    Lange, H.
    Lischeid, G.
    The hydrology of the covered catchment: Water storage, flowpaths and residence times1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Björling, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder: – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain “The Ants” (in Swedish “Myrorna”) has specializing in second-hand goods and sells, among other things, clothes. This study examined consumers' motive for shopping second-hand clothing on The Ants and examined whether this is related to consumers' environmental awareness and their choice to buy second hand clothes on The Ants. The shop staffs experience of the customer's environmental awareness was also examined. The methods that were chosen were surveys that The Ants customers filled out and interviews with store employees.

    The results showed that consumer´s motive to buy second-hand clothing on The Ants was mainly due to the cheap price and then because of their environmental awareness, customers were relatively environmentally aware and knew that the clothing industry contribute to environmental problems. The consumers felt that they received too little information about the problems and they would like to know more. The result also showed that consumers don´t act according to this awareness as very few of them asked questions to the staff about their clothing production or work with sustainable consumption and the environment. The Ants shop staff experienced the same thing since they rarely or never received any questions from customers about clothing and its environmental problems. Customers also bought more new clothes than second-hand clothing.

  • 21.
    Björnegran, Amalia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Green Forum: Aktiva Gröna partier och grönt politiskt inflytande i Afrika2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Bohlin, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mulleskola i kommunala förskolor: Naturen som lekplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Boll, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Cykeltrafiken i Karlstad: En studie om vad som påverkar valet att cykla2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad municipality has in their transport strategy set targets which aims to increase the number of bicycle trip within the city. When used the bicycle emits either greenhouse gases or pollutants. Everyday decisions to take the bike to work for example can lead to reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, cycling can thus contribute to the meeting of important environmental objectives. Cycling promotes health. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended daily ration of 30 minutes of physical activity can readily be performed on a bicycle. Bicycle traffic volumes are affected by physical conditions, psychological factors and political policies.

     

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors affect bicycle traffic in Karlstad. How do these factors influence Karlstad inhabitants choice and motivation to ride their bicycles, and which of these factors can be influenced? To obtain a basis for analysis a survey among 50 inhabitants of Karlstad was conducted. From the responses given to the open and closed questions, it appeared that what influences the inhabitants of Karlstad´s choice to cycle were in tune with previous theories and research.

     

    The primary motive of the inhabitants of Karlstad for cycling appeared to be exercise. The main reason for choosing a different mean of transportation is long distances. This survey suggests that the measures associated with enhancement of bicycle transport infrastructure are most in demand. By making it easier for Karlstad locals to get around by bike, bicycle traffic can be increased. 

  • 24.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Fiskvägar och flödesregimåtgärder i reglerade vatten:: Konsekvenser för vattendragets produktivitet och för samhällsnyttan2003Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Peter
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Gullberg, Karl
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland: Fisksamhällen, kraftverk och åtgärders potential och kostnadseffektivitet i Gavleån2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många vattendrag i Europa är påverkade av mänskliga aktiviteter som jordbruk, skogsbruk, vattenkraft och annan industriell verksamhet. Vattenkraftens effekter på vandrande fiskarter har varit kända sedan länge och man har arbetat med fiskvägar för uppströmspassage i flera hundra år. Ett problem som då inte beaktats är att fisken både måste ha tillgång till habitat för reproduktion och uppväxt, samt att de även måste kunna passera samma vandringshinder vid nedströmsvandringen. Modern rehabilitering av reglerade vattendrag beaktar dock både fiskens behov av fria vandringsvägar och tillgång på lämpligt habitat.

    Budgeten för åtgärdsarbetet är oftast begränsad och man behöver därför prioritera. Dessutom kan åtgärdsarbetet ta lång tid och det är därför angeläget att börja med de objekt som är speciellt angelägna. Det är inte alltid självklart hur en sådan prioritering skall ske och för att ordningen för åtgärdsarbetet ska vara tydlig och arbetet kunna utföras kostnadseffektivt kan det vara till stor hjälp att använda någon form av verktyg. Det är dock viktigt att välja rätt verktyg och vid valkriterierna bör man beakta hur verktyget värderar och prioriterar åtgärdsnyttan. Slutligen kommer ett sådant verktyg alltid vara en förenkling av verkligheten och man bör således låta det utgöra en del av ett beslutsunderlag som kompletteras med annan information.

    Gavleån ligger i Gästrikland och dess huvudfåra utgörs av en 30 km lång sträcka med 62 meters fallhöjd mellan Storsjön och mynningen i Bottenhavet. Det finns åtta kraftverk längs denna sträcka, men inga fiskpassager. Därför är i dag bara de nedersta 2 km av ån tillgängliga för fiskarter som vandrar upp från havet för reproduktion, tillväxt och övervintring. Större delen av strömsträckorna i Gavleåns huvudfåra är indämda av kraftverken och ån har länge ansetts ha låga naturvärden. I takt med att den allmänna miljömedvetenheten har ökat och ny lagstiftning som Ramdirektivet för vatten (2000/60/EG) och Ålförordningen (1100⁄2007⁄EC) har ställt högre krav på rehabilitering av påverkade vattendrag har dock även Gavleåns potential diskuterats. Till följd av detta har ägaren av de flesta kraftverken i Gavleån, Gävle Kraftvärme AB, tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg, Gävle kommun och Naturskyddsföreningen beslutat att utreda åtgärdspotentialen för Gavleån inom ramen för projektet ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland”. Utredningen består i en fiskeribiologisk och teknisk analys av problemen för migrationsberoende fauna och dess biologiska situation i dag, samt vilka mål som kan uppnås om de rätta åtgärderna tas. Grundläggande frågor som projektet försökt besvara är ”Vilka åtgärder behövs för att rehabilitera Gavleån för vandrande fiskarter, var gör åtgärder god naturvårdsnytta och kan kostnads- och energismarta lösningar implementeras som inte äventyrar vattenkraftsproduktionen?”

    Gavleån och dess biflödens morfologiska status och fisksamhällenas sammansättning har inventerats och redovisas i delrapporten ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland - Fisksamhällen, habitattillgång och rehabiliteringspotential i Gavleån”. Innevarande rapport utgör den andra delrapporten och sätter resultaten från provfisken och biotopkarteringen i ett åtgärdssammanhang och värderar åtgärdsnyttan med hjälp av olika prioriteringsverktyg. Slutligen används detta underlag för att rekommendera åtgärdsprogram som syftar till att långsiktigt och hållbart förvalta Gavleåns värden från såväl biologiska, samhällsekonomiska, sociala och kulturella perspektiv utan att allvarligt försämra förutsättningen för vattenkraftproduktion vid åns kraftverk.

    I ett första steg har vi bedömt vilka möjligheter som finns till att återskapa uppströms- och nedströmspassage för fisk vid kraftverken. Dessutom har dagens habitattillgång utretts och potentialen för habitatrestaurering värderats. I nästa steg har resultaten från biotopkartering och provfisken använts för att med hjälp av modeller och prioriteringsverktyg analysera vilken effekt åtgärderna förväntas ha på fiskbestånden. Detta har först studerats för hela fisksamhället utifrån tillgång och lokalisering av strömmande habitat samt förekommande fiskarters vandringsbenägenhet, skyddsvärde och kraftverkens fallhöjd som ett grovt mått på åtgärdens komplexitet och därtill hörande åtgärdskostnad. Därefter har en liknande analys på åtgärdsnyttan genomförts för Gavleåns havsöringspopulation, där resultatet presenteras i form av förväntat antal återvändande havsöringhonor till de olika delsträckorna förutsatt att både uppströms- och nedströmspassage åtgärdas. Slutligen testades två scenarier grundat på dagens habitattillgång respektive motsvarande tillgång efter en omfattande habitatrestaurering.

    Prioriteringsverktygen och resultaten från provfisken och bitopkartering visar främst att åtgärdsnyttan för vandrande strömlevande fiskarter är störst vid kraftverken i Gavleåns nedre och övre delar, eftersom det är här det i dag finns skyddsvärda fiskarter samt kvarvarande strömmande habitat, som dock är i stort behov av biotopåterställning. Troligen har det historiskt sett aldrig funnits möjlighet till fiskvandring längre än till de första strida strömsträckorna med fallhöjd i nedre Gavleån för svagsimmande arter, och endast lax, havsöring, nejonöga och ål har nått längre i ån. Det finns inte belagt att lax eller havsöring nått högre upp i Gavleån än strax uppströms Mackmyra-området.

    I mitten av ån saknas i dag såväl strömmande habitat som skyddsvärda fiskarter. De historiska strömsträckorna är idag stort sett överdämda av dammar i denna del av Gavleån. Dessutom har kraftverken där störst fallhöjd och produktion, vilket i kombination med svårigheter att anlägga åtgärder gör att dessa får en låg prioritet. Vi har utifrån dessa resultat identifierat två prioriterade åtgärdspaket.

    Högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns nedre delar på sträckan från havet till Tolvfors kraftverk, dvs. återskapad uppströms- och nedströmspassage vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk. Åluppsamlingen av från havet uppvandrande ålyngel måste ske med bästa i dag tillgängliga teknik (BAT), vilket efter att fiskvägar anlagts vid Strömsborg och Strödalen lämpligen sker vid Tolvfors kraaftverk.

    Dessutom behövs habitatrestaurering längs hela sträckan inklusive torrfåran vid Tolvfors kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske också av biflödet Kungsbäcken. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på diadroma arter som vandrar upp i Gavleån från havet för reproduktion, födosök samt övervintring, t.ex. ål, lax, flodnejonöga, öring och sik.

    Näst högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns övre delar på sträckan från Åbyfors kraftverk till Storsjön, vilket innebär passagefrämjande åtgärder och habitatrestaurering vid dammen i norra fåran vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk och vid Forsbacka kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Hälleströmsdammen och Forsbacka kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske av norra fåran vid Mackmyra (av vissa kallad Hälleströmmen) samt i Spikåsbäcken som mynnar nedströms Mackmyra kraftverk. Sannolikt behövs även en åtgärd för nedströmspassage från Hälleströmmens kraftverk till Hälleströmmen. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på potamodroma arter som vandrar mellan Gavleån, Hälleströmmen och Spikåsbäcken, samt arter som vandrar till och från Storsjön, t.ex. ål, öring, lake, harr och gös. Speciellt högt prioriterad är den blankål som vandrar ut från Storsjön och som bör samlas in vid Forsbacka kraftverk för transport nedströms förbi de övriga sju kraftverken. Inga passagefrämjande åtgärder bedöms således i dag vara motiverade vid Tolvfors, Prästforsen, Åbyfors och Mackmyra kraftverk, medan endast en nedströmspassage behövs vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk.

    Arbetet att ta fram ett beslutsunderlag för åtgärdsarbete kan vara omfattande, men väger man denna kostnad mot kostnaderna för att genomföra åtgärder utan att veta om något åtgärdsbehov finns, hur åtgärderna bör utformas och var de ger störst nytta, är det välinvesterade pengar. I åtgärdsarbetet som helhet utgör kostnader för förstudie och uppföljning en liten andel, i synnerhet om man tar i beaktande kostnader för felaktigt utformade och placerade i åtgärder i avsaknad av beslutsunderlag. I framtiden kommer väl genomförda åtgärdsprojekt öka acceptansen både för naturvård och vattenkraft.

  • 26.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Temporal and spatial variation in quality of hyporheic water in one unregulated and two regulated boreal rivers2007In: River Research and ApplicationsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the temporal and spatial variations in hyporheic water quality in three boreal rivers, the River Tobyälven, an unregulated river, the river Mangälven, a regulated river with a minimum discharge requirement and the river Järperudsälven, a

    regulated river without any minimum discharge requirements. A total of 43 permanent piezometers were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, NO3 and NH4 in the hyporheic water at 150mm and 300mm depth, at monthly intervals from October 2001 to October 2002. Another seven piezometers were installed in brown trout redds and monitored during the incubation period, from December 2001 to April 2002. In the river Tobyälven, temporal patterns in hyporheic water chemistry correlated to variations in surface water chemistry and discharge. In the river Jäperudsälven, the hyporheic water chemistry did not correlate to discharge or surface water chemistry. In the river Mangälven, the water chemistry was dominated by releases from a large upstream lake, and there were weak correlations between surface water chemistry and

    hyporheic water chemistry at some sites. The incubation conditions for brown trout eggs were most favourable in the unregulated river, characterized by high DO levels that remained high throughout the incubation period. In the river Järperudsälven the DO

    levels were variable during spawning, and then gradually declined to critically low levels during incubation, whereas in the river Mangälven the DO conditions were intermediate and stable. Thus we observed a stronger coupling between surface water

    conditions and hyporheic conditions, i.e. vertical connectivity, in the unregulated river than in the regulated river with minimum flow requirements, which in turn was stronger than in the river without minimum flow requirements. Copyright # 2007 John

    Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 27.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hebrand, M
    Olsson, M
    Renöfält, B
    Karlsson, H
    Johansson, M
    Biokanalers egenskaper och möjligheter2009Report (Other academic)
  • 28. Dahlberg, Julia
    Miljöbrott: Omfattning och utredning i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hållbar konsumtion och The Body Shop: En studie om kunders val av The Body Shop och hållbar konsumtion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Big is beautiful! Klimatkris, lokal anpassning och drömmen om tillväxt: Global problematik illustrerad via tillväxtkommunen Karlstad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatanpassning och tillväxt är två intresseområden som kan konkurrera med varandra när vattennära områden ska bebyggas. Vattennära boende bidrar till stadens attraktivitet för att locka fler invånare och skapa tillväxt. Samtidigt är dessa områden utsatta för översvämningsrisk. Anpassning behöver därför ske för ökad säkerhet, eller byggande helt avstås från. Ett komplext problem som skapats genom globala påtryckningar att tillväxt ska strävas efter. Problematiken illustreras genom att använda Karlstad kommun som undersökt fall.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur strategier för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning utformats lokalt i en tillväxtkommun med översvämningsrisk.

    Studien genomfördes via kvalitativ innehållsanalys samt användande av ramverk för miljörättvisa. Textanalys genomfördes av kommunala styrdokument för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning.

    Utifrån analys av resonemang i styrdokumenten kan konstateras att skapandet av en attraktiv stad för att uppnå tillväxt väger tyngre än anpassning. Ur rättviseperspektiv tas inte hänsyn till individers sårbarhet och förutsättningar, då lockandet av önskvärda samhällsgrupper istället prioriteras. Vattennära bostadsbebyggelse är en marknadsföringsmässig tillgång, även om översvämningsrisk finns.

    Resultatet från undersökningen kan användas för att förstå komplexiteten mellan att prioritera och skydda det samhälle som finns idag, samt skapa ett samhälle där tillväxten är god och anpassning inte konkurrerar med attraktivitet.

  • 31.
    Didner, Frida
    Karlstad University.
    Att göra så gott man kan: Kan föräldraskap skapa en mer medveten konsument?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined how parents of children, age 0-2, in Karlstad consumes for their children within three product categories; clothing, food and toys. The aim was to see if having children could be a driving factor to become a more aware consumer. Have the participants consumption behaviour changed after they have had children? Surveys and focus groups have been completed in four open preschools in Karlstad municipality to collect data. As a theoretical framework has ecological modernization, political consumption and weak and strong sustainable consumption been used. Within the three product categories it is possible to see some differences. The survey result say that respondents shop for clothes according to need, but the focus groups talk about that they shop because it is fun, a hobby. It has become more important for the parents to buy organic food, mostly to the child. However, it is not a strong position because most respondents choose to buy conventional produced products if they don’t have an ecological alternative in the store. Because most of the respondents children where still small they hadn’t purchased that many toys yet. They express, however, that it is a difficult category to know that much about and they usually goes on what the child shows interest for. Overall, it is possible to see some changes in behaviour, but participants lack a comprehensive view of the consumption chain. They don’t reflect on the level of consumption and so they pursue on the path of weak sustainable consumption where they consumes the same amount but change to more sustainable materials. The lack of overall vision is also evident in that they don’t practice political consumption to any wider extent, they simply don’t see their own impact on the consumption chain. The result also shows that the parents are strongly guided by social norms that sets the rules for what they consider to be their needs. This is a qualitative study and could therefore have gotten a different result in another context. 

  • 32.
    Edelman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Karlstad och vattnet: En studie av hur förhållningssättet till översvämningsrisk har förändrats i Karlstads kommun sedan 1950-talet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The location on the river delta of Klarälven, adjacent to lake Vänern, makes Karlstad one of the Swedish cities where a significant flood risk is present. The city has several major floods in its memory which has caused great material damage and economic losses, the latest of which occurred in the winter of year 2000/2001. The purpose of the study is to examine how the approach to flood risk has changed in the municipality of Karlstad since the 1950s, and how this change has affected the current situation regarding the city's vulnerability to flooding. To investigate this, a document analysis was conducted, where key documents in the media and from the municipality of Karlstad was studied. Furthermore, an interview study was conducted with respondents who currently are employed or previously have been employed in the municipality of Karlstad, who in various ways work with issues of flood risk.

     

    The result of the study shows that several changes have taken place since the 1950s in terms of the municipality's approach to flood risk, which for instance has led to preventative measures being taken to a greater extent than previously in the physical planning. The flooding that occured in the winter year 2000/2001, along with the governmental climate and vulnerability inquiry that was released in 2007, was described by the respondents as the starting point for this change. Since then, awareness and knowledge of flood risk has increased, not only among municipal officials, but also among politicians, local residents and developers.

  • 33.
    Engdahl, Isabell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatanpassning och lantbruket i Värmland: Klimatförändringarnas upplevda effekter på lantbruket och olika aktörers åsikter om klimatanpassning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a global and slow process that affects humans all over the world. Climate adaption within agriculture is important to reduce the risks that agricultures are exposed to because of climate change.  Through climate adaption you can improve the positive effects and take advantage of them optimally. How the climate change affects agricultures varies depending on regions and societies. The purposes of the study are to examine how different actors experience the impacts of climate change on the agriculture in Värmland. And what different actors think about climate adaption within the agriculture.   

    Through a survey and structured interviews with open-ended questions the purpose was to document experienced affects and opinions from different actors. Altogether nine respondents have been interviewed to answer the research questions and they represent farmers, organizations and authorities.

    The study show that actors experience fluctuations in the weather and the climate, they think climate adaption within the agriculture is important. Rain and moisture are observed to affect the agriculture in larger scales than before, but climate change can also have positive effects like longer growing seasons and the ability to grow new crops.  Some respondents perceive that there are uncertainties about climate change which obstruct climate adaption in the agriculture. According to several respondents information is important to improve the climate adaption, but at the same time other factors like economics, politics and laws influence how climate adaption are administered within agricultures.   

     

    Keywords: Climate change, climate adaption, agriculture, actors

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatsmart politik? Ingen vill väl vara klimat-dum.: En diskursanalys av begreppet klimatsmart i politiken och hos allmänheten.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid sidan av begrepp som miljövänlig, grön och hållbar har ett nytt ord dykt upp i miljödiskursen - klimatsmart.Klimatsmart, eller enbart smart i olika miljörelaterade sammansättningar, används flitigt av gemene man, i media, i debattartiklar och reklamkampanjer. Vad innebär då klimatsmart?Denna uppsats syftar till att i en diskursanalytisk kontext undersöka begreppet klimatsmart, dels ur ett politiskt perspektiv samt i den svenske medborgarens vardag.

    Medborgaren och dennes vardagliga val är onekligen en stor del av miljö- och klimatfrågan idag. Den svenska miljö- och klimatpolitiken kräver ofta medborgares aktiva deltagande. Allt pekar på att den stora källan till dagens miljöproblem och klimatförändringar ligger i de miljontals val människor gör varje dag, och att det därför krävs att varje enskild människa tar ansvar för sina val och dess konsekvenser, för att vi ska kunna se en förändring. Samtidigt som en stor del av detta ansvar har lagts på den enskilde medborgaren, har politiken fortfarande huvudansvaret, det är politikens ansvar att förse medborgare med de medel som krävs för att möjliggöra och underlätta dessa val.Ett slående inslag i miljö- och klimatpolitiken är den kontrast som finns mellan hur allmänheten ser frågan i allmänna och enkla termer, medan hos beslutsfattare och politiker är frågan mycket mer teknisk och detaljerad. Politiken kan bli legitim och effektiv först när den lyssnar på medborgaren.

    I studien har e-postserveys med medborgare boende i Karlskoga samt intervjuer med regionala politiker verksamma i Karlskoga kommun eller Örebro län genomförts. Denna empiriska data har analyserats med hjälp av diskurs både som teori och metod samt framing-teorin. Även politiska styrdokument på nationell och internationell nivå har använts som underlag. Studien visar att för medborgaren innebär klimatsmart att i vardagen göra val som i första hand är bra för miljö och klimat, men som även har någon personlig nytta, utifrån varje individs egna förutsättningar, värderingar och intresse.I politiken har klimatsmart en plats i den talade politiska retoriken och då framförallt i regionpolitiken. Ju närmre den enskilde medborgaren politiken rör sig, desto men relevant blir begreppet klimatsmart. Med detta blir det också relevant för politiker att kunna nyttja begreppet till sin och politikens fördel, för att den medborgarinriktade miljö- och klimatpolitiken skall lyckas.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Mogren, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    NRTK-mätningar och kartering i Borgvik: En jämförelse mellan mätmetoderna snabbpunktsmätning och intervallmätning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The objective of this work was to compare two different methods of NRTK measurements, specifically rapidpoint measurement and interval measurement of 20 samples per point. Measurements of known points at Karlstad University were made to test the quality, or how much it differed between the two methods.   

    Later, measurements were carried out at Borgviks Nya Hamncafé in Grums municipality. The shoreline was the object that was measured as a test of the two methods which later was compared with control measurements made at Karlstad University.    

    The rest of the area around the café was measured by the rapid point method that went to be the basis for the map that was created over the area.    

    The coordinate and the altitude systems used during the measurements were SWEREF 99 13 30 and RH 2000. The results after the measurements were a coordinate list of the points where the both methods were used and shows how much they differ from each other in Northing and Easting direction. Calculations of the coordinates led to the conclusion that rapid point measurement method is excellent to use in similar projects, however, some parts could be measured with a total station if there are trees or houses obscuring the view to satellites. This would be recommended if the accuracy demands are at a high level.    

    Finally, a detailed map of the marina was produced that can be used by camping guests, but also for other short-term visitors, according to the wishes of the manager of Borgviks Nya Hamncafé (Niclas Lundsten, 0555-22100).

  • 36.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Transnational education for integrated flood risk management - the master course IFRM: [Transnationale bildung für integriertes hochwasserrisikomanagement - Der masterkurs "integrated flood risk management"]2013In: Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, ISSN 1439-1783, Vol. 57, no 3, 100-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood Risk Management (FRM) is a topic of growing importance. This is signiicantly illustrated by the European Directive on Flood Risk Management, which entered into force in 2007. FRM in general but also the Directive require integrated and interdisciplinary approaches and skills. Against this background the International Master Course "Integrated lood risk management" was developed and implemented under the EU project "Strategic Alliance for Water Management Actions" (SAWA). Six universities and 12 non-academic partners from ive European countries participated in the course. The paper describes the background and requirements of such an education ofer as well as its content and its pedagogical and organizational format. Furthermore, the implementation of the course and evaluation results are presented.

  • 37.
    Faleij, LOUISE
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Faror på förskolan: En studie om förskolepersonalens kunskaper och arbete gällande miljögifter inom förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In todays world we’re exposed daily to a large amount of chemicals, some of which are harmful to man and the environment. To reach to objective of a toxic free environment it is of uttermost importance that our preschools become free from toxins, especially since there today exist several products and toys that contain hazardous substances. Kids are more sensitive to these compared to adults which is why the importance of clearing them out from the preschools are even more important, especially since the kids spend several hours a day there. Several municipalities has begun this task though it is also important for a behavioral change to happen if the result is to be sustainable.

    The purpose of the study was to examine if information to the stuff of the preschools has contributed to an increased knowledge about hazardous substances in preschools.  The surveys purpose is also to examine if an increased knowledge has led to an improvement as well as which obstacles and possibilities exist for the usage of this knowledge in working for a toxin-free preschool. This will be done through a survey and interviews with preschool staff who are active within Karlstad municipality.

    The survey showed of a positive attitude in the preschool staff concerning continuing the work to phase out hazardous substances from their preschools. Their awareness and knowledge are at a good level since they have knowledge about what products and substances to avoid in preschools. Several obstacles that hinder the staff from working effectively at decreasing the amount of hazardous substances at preschools. Things which limits the staff are economics, lack of knowledge, time, anxiety, procurement terms and range among others. For the objective of a toxic free environment to be reached the support of the preschool staff needs to be improved. This can be accomplish through  tougher terms of procurement, more support and education of the staff among other things to help them make better choices of products which in turn will make a toxic free preschool a possibility.

  • 38. Giesler, R.
    et al.
    Ilvesniemi, H.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    van Hees, P.
    Starr, M.
    Bishop, K.
    Kareinen, T.
    Lundström, U. S.
    Distribution and mobilization of Al, Fe and Si in three podzolic soil profiles in relation to the humus layer2000In: Geoderma, 94:249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis: A primer2016 (ed. First)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This little book is a primer. The target readership here is not necessarily only for engineers, but also for those studying to be lawyers, political scientists, administrators, business managers, etc. Lucid language, analogies and cartoons help to impress upon readers that environmental-LCA is not rocket-science.

    The reader is taken through the steps to be assiduously followed while performing an E-LCA. You understand the importance of defining the goal and the scope of your analysis before starting, and realise that E-LCA is data-intensive. Also covered are topics like attributional/consequential LCA, rebound effect and problem shifting, and allocation of environmental impacts. Attempting the exercises which appear at the end of every chapter will enable the reader to gain in confidence. As Prof Arun Kansal says in the Foreword to the book, ‘It explains the basic philosophy of LCA and argues, by providing examples, in its favour as a standard method for environmental decision-making.’ Dr Geoffrey Guest, in his Afterword, refers to the book as a ‘unique, light-hearted though philosophically-deep introductory piece on E-LCA.’

     

  • 40.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Nyflött, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Bonnerup, Chris
    Stora Enso.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    An economic-environmental analysis of selected barrier coating materials used in packaging food products: A Swedish case study2017In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Assessment of data availability for the development of landslide fatality curves2017In: Landslides: Journal of the International Consortium on Landslides, ISSN 1612-510X, E-ISSN 1612-5118, Vol. 14, no 3, 1113-1126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick clay landslides are a special feature of Norwegian and Swedish geologies. Vibrations or small initial landslides can cause a quick clay layer to collapse and liquefy, resulting in rapid landslides with little or no time for evacuation, making them a real threat to human life. Research concentrating on damages due to landslides is scarce, and analyses of loss of human lives caused by quick clay landslides in the scientific literature are, to our knowledge, non-existing. Fatality quantification can complement landslide risk assessments and serves as guidance for policy choices when evaluating efficient risk-reducing measures. The objectives of this study were to assess and analyze available damage information in an existing data set of 66 historical landslide events that occurred in Norway and Sweden between 1848 and 2009, and access its applicability for quantifying loss of human life caused by quick clay landslides. Fatality curves were estimated as functions of the number of exposed persons per landslide. Monte Carlo simulations were used to account for the uncertainties in the number of people actually exposed. The results of the study imply that the quick clay fatality curves are non-linear, indicating that the probability of losing lives increases exponentially when the number of exposed persons increases. Potential factors affecting human susceptibility to landslides (e.g., landslide-, area-, or individual-specific characteristics) could not be satisfyingly quantified based on available historical records. Future research should concentrate on quantifying susceptibility factors that can further explain human vulnerability to quick clay landslides.

  • 42.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Assessment of pluvial flood exposure and vulnerability of residential areas2017In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 21, 367-375 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Guinea Barrientos, Hector E.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ San Carlos, Facultad Agron, Guatemala City, Guatemala..
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Sustainable Dev, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Limnol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Disaster management cooperation in central america: The case of rainfall-induced natural disasters2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, 85-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall-induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. Due to the geographical conditions of the Central American region, it is common that two or more countries are struck by the same rainfall event, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region, killing more than 18000 people. As a consequence, Central American countries have started to promote regional policies and programs that aim for better preparation and response to these events, including disaster management cooperation. However, cooperation poses several challenges that may hinder its goals. In order to analyse these challenges, we present analysis in this paper of the current policy and legal institutions as well as the main challenges that may hinder international disaster management cooperation in Central America.

  • 44. Gustafsson, Helena
    Matvanor, downshiftning och miljön: En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning kring downshiftares matvanor samt en jämförelse mellan dessa på Åland och i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Göransson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Att ta det säkra före det osäkra: En studie om hur risker med skadliga kemikalier kommuniceras mellan gravida och barnmorskor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are on a daily basis exposed to a large amount of chemicals that have been shown to be more or less dangerous. Many of these chemicals have a negative effect by poisoning the environment, but also humans. Children and fetuses are especially vulnerable to harmful chemicals and particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals. This is because they are in a critical stage of development from the fetal period to adulthood. Today, much of the work on chemicals are concentrate to already born children, but very little or no work is done as a preventive measure to protect the fetus during pregnancy. Midwives are the profession that meet the pregnant women continuously during the pregnancy and already informs the pregnant woman about different risks associated with the pregnancy. Therefore is the aim of this study to explore how pregnant women and midwives are experiencing their communication on harmful chemicals during pregnancy. In addition to the experience, is the aim to explore obstacles and opportunities that are needed for a good risk communication between midwives and pregnant women about harmful chemicals. The theoretical perspective of this paper is Beck and his "risk society" and theories of risk communication. The study has a qualitative approach and methods that have been used are interview and questionnaire. Interviews to explore midwives’ experiences and the survey were an online survey that has appeared on a social media (Facebook). The result indicates several obstacles that the midwife experience, for example: lack of time, lack of guidelines, work routines and working material. Ignorance and a lack of interest among colleagues and organization. Perceived opportunities are that the question has begun to be brought into action, there are opportunities to develop operating procedures and guidelines and that the interviewed midwives have a positive attitude to give the issue more space. The experience of the communication is that both the midwives and pregnant women perceive that the debate and the science is difficult to interpret, there is a sense that almost everything represents a risk and that the debate and the communication needs to be qualified and have a scientific basis. The study's conclusions are that today's non-existent risk communication between pregnant women and midwives should be developed as both midwives and pregnant women ask for a communication about the risks. 

  • 46.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    The Sustainable Procedure Framework for Disaster Risk Management: Illustrated by the Case of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 2, 151-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can the concrete meaning of the ambiguous and theoretical concept of sustainable development (SD) be defined and implemented, without losing sight of its fundamental principles? This study introduces a theoretical framework that supports studies of SD implementation in the context of strategic disaster risk management, by defining what SD implies with regard to planning procedures. The framework is based on the procedural SD principles of participation and integration. It was originally developed for, and has shown great value in, the field of water resource management. In-depth interviews with senior risk management researchers indicate that the framework is also applicable to and valuable for disaster risk management studies. To illustrate the application of the framework, a study of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden is summarized with the framework as the basis for the analysis.

  • 47.
    Hedqvist, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Den enes pryl, grannens tillgång: En studie om drivkrafter och begränsningar för att delta i kollaborativ konsumtion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many social and economic downsides to the consumption patterns that have developed in the Western world. This has lead to an increased awareness·of the problem. Collaborative consumption is a phenomen that is gaining traction thanks to modern technology and the internet. It represents one way of changing consumption patterns by sharing tangible assets. In this pilot study, seven people were interviewed. Five of these have chosen to participate in Swinga Bazaar, a newly established digital service for collaborative consumption of goods. The limitations that emerged regarding belongings can be divided into two kinds: obstacles, that is, something that makes the respondent hesitate or refrain from participating, and restrictions, which means they can participate but under certain conditions. The most frequently occurring restriction concerned who the respondents were willing to lend or rent to. One conclusion is therefore that one should adapt digital servives for collaborative consumption to consider this result; the users should be given the option to lend/rent only to people with whom they are already familiar. Another aim with the study was to investigate the driving forces behind the choice to participate in collaborative consumption. In the case of Swinga Bazaar, social relations were the most important. But also concerning the general view of collaborative consumption, social aspects were identified as one of the most important benefits. Therefore, one can draw the conclusion that the active users are important as role models. They should be involved in the work to encourage even more people to participate. Other benefits of collaborative consumption emerging from the interviews were environment reasons and the possibility to save money as well as a more efficient use of their own and others belongings. This breadth of motivating factors enables different ways to attract people to take part.

     

  • 48.
    Helgesen, Lydia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frysa livsmedelsrester eller kassera dem för biogasproduktion: En studie, ur livscykelperspektiv, av energianvändning och växthusgasutsläpp2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food is widely consumed and in 2011 an average American devoured approximately one ton of food. The production of these goods requires large amounts of energy and contributes to 22-31 % of all greenhouse gas emissions occurring in Europe. More than one third of the produced food is discarded instead of consumed, and food waste make up about 30 % of the waste generated by households. 60 % of this food waste could be avoided if the eatables were handled in a better way.

    Avoidable food waste arises partly because residues from food are not taken care of, and because the food is not stored in a way that optimise its durability. Residues arises part- ly because of the contradictory and complex demands of everyday life and are, because of our busy lifestyle, difficult to avoid. To reduce the environmental impact of food con- sumption the focus should be on managing residues in the most environmentally friend- ly way, rather than to prevent residues from arising.

    To prolong the shelf life of food residues freezing it is an alternative method. The free- zer is one of the most energy consuming appliances in the household. Therefore this method requires energy consumption, which contributes to the generation of greenhouse gases. The food must also be thawed if this method is used, which may require additio- nal energy. The residues may also be disposed and used as a feedstock for biogas pro- duction. Biogas is an energy rich gas that can be used as vehicle fuel, as a replacement for fossil fuels. This handling of residues therefore has the potential for both energy gain and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    This report examines which management method of residues that is the most energy ef- ficient one, and which method that generates the least GHG emissions. The survey was carried out for residues of beef, rice, bread, tomato, carrot and apple. Energy consump- tion for production, freezing and thawing of food were weighed against potential energy gain from biogas production. The same calculation was used for greenhouse gas emis- sions from the described activities.

    The result shows that the method which is the most energy efficient, and causes the least greenhouse gas emissions, is dependent on several factors, including the source of the food, the residence in the freezer and packing at the time of the freezing. Knowledge regarding the specific food, and the handling of it, must be possessed to answer how food residues should be handled. It is clear that there are cases when it could be more energy efficient, and produce less greenhouse gas emissions, to dispose food residues to produce biogas than to freeze them for later consumption. 

  • 49.
    Holgerson, Line
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Koldioxidlagring - realitet eller utopi?: En komparativ fallstudie med syfte att undersöka potentialen för koldioxidlagring i geologiska formationer och biologiska sänkor och dess förmåga att bidra till hållbar utveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    To curb greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change is one of the biggest challenges human society face today. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has accumulated rapidly in the atmosphere as a consequence of burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. The aim of this study is to explore two methods to store carbon dioxide in geological formations and biological sinks. The aim is also to discuss the two mitigation options from a sustainable perspective and whether it can lead to a better environment and benefits for local and global societies. The research questions are: Which method to store carbon dioxide, geological or biological, is the most effective? Which method to store carbon dioxide, geological or biological, has the greatest potential to promote sustainable development for local communities?

    The method used is a comparative case study and presents four case studies that explore the potential for CO2 storage offshore in Norway and Brazil; and in tropical forests in Mexico and Brazil. The mitigation options are discussed from two different theoretical perspectives. The principle of the theory of ecological modernisation is that innovation and environmentally friendly technology can solve the environmental problems human societies face today, whereas the theory of common pool resources promotes local communities to govern limited resources in order to manage them sustainably.

    The findings suggest that ecological modernisation legitimize environmental destruction as carbon dioxide storage in geological formations (CCS) use the technology as a mean to extract more oil and gas; which results in a rebound-effect. Therefore, carbon dioxide capture in geological formations is not a realistic method unless it can prevent further emissions. Protected forest resources can be seen as biological insurance, which safeguard ecosystem services, biodiversity, and the forest potential to hold carbon. Carbon sequestration in tropical forest has the potential to store carbon dioxide given that the forests are protected and local communities have tenure rights, knowledge, and the means to protect the forest and manage them sustainably. 

  • 50.
    Håkman Carlmark, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    The end is nigh: A study on alarmistic media reporting of climate change2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is an issue surrounded by risk and uncertainty. The public oftentimes receive most of its general knowledge regarding science on the issue from the mass media. This can mean that the public receive mixed messages, those of apocalyptic narrative, those of narratives claiming no such thing exists, for example, which can lead to misconceptions of what the actual status is, and in extension lead to fear and anxiety. The aim of this study was to explore how individuals experience alarmistic media frames, through conducting a survey asking the respondents to react to visual examples in an alarmistic demeanor. Findings showed that while respondents felt worry, hopelessness and compassion in relation to the examples presented, they also responded with indifference on some levels. Contexts of the respondents also showed existing knowledge about what can be done to help the environmental issues, as well as altruistic values about other living organisms both in the present and the future. Conclusively, alarmistic media frames effect individuals directly on an emotional level, whether it can be feelings of worry, hopelessness, compassion or indifference. However it is not as simple in evaluating a totality of effect on individuals. This study implies a deeper process of experience, as respondents implied possessed knowledge and values as a base for what the initial experience lead to.

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