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  • 1.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Albasrah University, Albasrah, Iraq.
    Environmental reply to vernacular habitat conformation from a vast areas of Scandinavia2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 48, p. 825-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many original ideas and useful system inputs embedded in the building of human settlements in Scandinavian regions, where the landscape and habitat are strongly interconnected. A cold climate and strong winds are the most prominent risks that affect habitats. The Longhouse is the foremost traditional habitat in the Scandinavian region, dating back to the Iron Age, 2000 BC. This study examines the influence of climate on the conformation of habitats. Climate had a solid impact on the conceptions of habitat form and internal space. Wind and extreme temperatures had firming consequences on the housing arrangements, layouts, orientations, and building materials used in the construction process. Habitats from this region were located in an optimal arrangement, and the south orientation was used effectively. This investigation will provide an evaluative interpretation and analysis of the real facts of vernacular habitats in the context of energy efficiency and ecological concepts, considering human settlement patterns, architectural creation and building material uses. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Landslide risk and climate change - economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011In: / [ed] Anagnostopoulos, A., Pachakis, M., Tsatsanifos, C., Amsterdam, 2011, p. 1313-1318Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden. The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide. This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS) - en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg; COWI AB, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Janhäll, Sara
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Moback, Ulf
    City of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Gothenburg.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 5. Baja, Kristin
    et al.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    From engagement to empowerment: climate change and resilience planning in Baltimore City2018In: Local Action on Climate Change / [ed] Moloney, Susie, Fünfgeld, Hartmut och Granberg, Mikael, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 126-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    An Experimental Study on the Influence of Using a Draft Tube in a Continuous Spouted Bed Dryer2014In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 519-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Further increasing the production of processed biofuel also increases the demands on drying capacity. With the aim of increasing the heat capacity flow, experimental tests have been performed on the process of drying sawdust in a continuous spouted bed dryer with nine different draft tube designs. The results showed that a draft tube with an increased length and an increased disengagement height decreased the dry substances' flow rate throughout the dryer. The results also showed that the mass of the material in the dryer was approximately the same in all the tests. This means that the draft tubes, no matter their size, do not influence the amount of material in the dryer.

  • 7.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Gustafsson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Hindersson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    10 år efter Arvikaöversvämningen2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter en mycket regnrik höst kulminerade vattennivån i Glafsfjorden den 29 november 2000 på drygt 3 m över normalnivån. De strandnära områdena i det värmländska Arvika sattes under vatten, vägnätet hotades, många mindre vägar fick stängas av och järnvägstrafiken ställdes in i över tre veckor. Samhällets krafter mobiliserades för att skydda fastigheter och infrastruktur. Många högt uppsatta besökare kom till Arvika för att se översvämningen med egna ögon. Läget var skarpt i en och en halv månad.

    Boken ger en inblick i den meteorologiska och hydrologiska bakgrunden av händelsen. Den beskriver händelseförloppet och skadorna som översvämningen orsakade. I en samhällsekonomisk genomgång summeras de direkta skadekostnaderna till 315 Mkr i 2009 års prisläge. Översvämningen följdes upp i ett stort antal utredningar och boken skildrar hur planerna till ett översvämningsskydd för staden växte fram. Den mänskliga dimensionen av händelsen förtydligas med berättelser av översvämningsdrabbade privatpersoner och intervjuer med kommunanställda.

  • 8.
    Eros, Tibor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Balaton Limnological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Forest-Stream linkages: Effects of Terrestrial Invertebrate Input and Light on Diet and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in a Boreal Forest Stream2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2 x 2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-monthlong experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  • 9.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Transnational education for integrated flood risk management - the master course IFRM: [Transnationale bildung für integriertes hochwasserrisikomanagement - Der masterkurs "integrated flood risk management"]2013In: Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, ISSN 1439-1783, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood Risk Management (FRM) is a topic of growing importance. This is signiicantly illustrated by the European Directive on Flood Risk Management, which entered into force in 2007. FRM in general but also the Directive require integrated and interdisciplinary approaches and skills. Against this background the International Master Course "Integrated lood risk management" was developed and implemented under the EU project "Strategic Alliance for Water Management Actions" (SAWA). Six universities and 12 non-academic partners from ive European countries participated in the course. The paper describes the background and requirements of such an education ofer as well as its content and its pedagogical and organizational format. Furthermore, the implementation of the course and evaluation results are presented.

  • 10.
    Falemo, Stefan
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Suer, Pascal
    SGI.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Quantification, economic valuation and visualisation of landslide consequences in the Göta river valley2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Insured flood losses in Sweden, 1987-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Assessment of pluvial flood exposure and vulnerability of residential areas2017In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 21, p. 367-375Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI.
    Insured flood damage in Sweden, 1987-20132018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses insurance claims as a proxy for property damage to analyse flood damage in Sweden between the years 1987 and 2013. The number of compensated insurance claims per year has risen rapidly during this period. As much as 70% of the claims are caused by flood damage occurring during the summer months June, July, and August, when intense rain with low predictability is common. To explore the damage trend a time series cross sectional analysis using four different fixed effect models was applied to the data set. Due to data scarcity, the time series had to be limited to 16years and contain a total of 304 damage observations. The potentially explanatory climate related factor extreme rain, defined as >6 mm/15min, and the socioeconomic factors gross regional product (GRP) per capita and housing stock were tested as explanatory factors. The GRP per capita and housing stock were found to be significant in two regression models. The estimated effect of extreme rainfall events exceeded the effects of GRP per capita and housing stock in the models. Extreme rain was robust to model specification and was found to have a highly significant impact on Swedish flood damage.

  • 14.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Strong local government moving to the market?: The case of low carbon futures in the city of Örebro, Sweden2018In: Rethinking Urban Transitions: Politics in the Low Carbon City / [ed] Andrés Luque-Ayala, Simon Marvin and Harriet Bulkeley, Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 129-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy and practice at the local level is central in relating global standards and knowledge, national and regional climate change scenarios and policy decisions into particular climate action in a specific context (Bulkeley and Betsill, 2003; Elander et al., 2003; Lundqvist and Biel, 2007; Storbjörk, 2007; Storbjörk, 2010; Castán Broto and Bulkeley, 2012; van den Berg and Coenen, 2012; Romero-Lankao, 2012; Bulkeley et al., 2015). This means that cities, and their local governments, are central to understanding the implementation of international agreements (regimes), national and regional climate change policy. It needs to be stressed, however, that local governments are not just implementers of policy decision taken at higher levels of government. Local governments can, and perhaps have to, be forerunners in climate change policy and practice, as the sources and impacts of climate change are always local, national policy and international negotiations are not always successful, and national governments are not necessarily taking the lead (Gore and Robinson, 2009; Bulkeley et al., 2015; Bulkeley and Betsill, 2003). Local government action on climate change takes place in a specific local setting. It also takes place in a policy environment characterized by cross-cutting issues and cross pressure from government actors on international, national and regional levels, unfolding public sector reform, continuous policy development, and demands from businesses and citizens (Granberg et al., 2016). Accordingly, why and how cities act on climate change challenges is by no means a straightforward matter (Bulkeley et al., 2015) but, certainly, one that warrants critical research. This chapter focuses on local government low carbon action within the field of alternative energy production, zooming in on the organizational modes and on intermediary functions and actors in efforts aiming at low carbon transitions (cf. Bulkeley and Betsill, 2013; Hodson et al., 2013). In the Swedish context, low carbon transitions are of course connected to the ecological need to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, mitigating future risks and impacts. But they are also increasingly connected to the more economic arguments connected to the concept of a carbon or fossil bubble (Schoenmaker et al., 2015; Rubin, 2015). That is, the idea that any investments made in fossil fuel-based companies are investments that will add to GHC emissions and, perhaps even more important from this perspective, fail to produce any long-term economic profits. According to this perspective, all viable investments need to be directed towards no-carbon solutions, businesses and markets or there will be serious negative economic impacts when the carbon bubble eventually bursts. The central questions of this chapter are how capacity-building for low carbon transitions evolves at the interface between state and market and what specific role local governments take in this interface. As already indicated above, this perspective is guided by the concept of intermediation through institutional experimentation (cf. Luque-Ayala et al., Chapter 2, this volume; also, Hodson and Marvin, 2009, 2012; Hodson et al., 2013). Intermediaries here are defined as entities that connect, translate and facilitate flows between different parties. The focus of the chapter is, more precisely, on systemic intermediation on a network level involving more than two parties (Hodson and Marvin, 2009). The intermediary role can be divided into facilitating, configuring and brokering (Stewart and Hyysalo, 2008). Accordingly, the aim of this chapter is to study local government efforts to build low carbon capacity by describing, critically examining and analysing local government climate action. In the case studied here, we can see the local government organization intermediating indirectly by trying to facilitate flows of both experience and capital between public and private actors but also directly as a market actor through a boundary hybrid organization facilitating connections between local government and market actors. A hybrid organization (cf. Koppell, 2006) is an organization that mixes value systems and logics of various spheres such as the state and the market (cf. Erlingsson et al., 2014; Montin, 2016). More precisely, the local government uses a 'green' investment fund, facilitating public-private networking and a municipal company in their efforts to advance a low carbon transition. The case studied follows the development of local government climate change action over the last decade in the Swedish city of Örebro. The city profiles itself as a forerunner in environmental issues and has formulated ambitious reduction targets. Sweden is often considered a pioneer in environmental governance (Lidskog and Elander, 2012), combining high ambitions at a national level, strong local government and robust policy guided by ecological modernization (Lundqvist, 2000; Zannakis, 2015). It has been stated that if Sweden still holds on to a leading international position in environmental governance it is probably due to activities at the local level (Granberg and Elander, 2007; Uggla and Elander, 2009; Hjerpe et al., 2014). Accordingly, Sweden provides an interesting context for studies of local government climate change action via market mechanisms, given its combination of strong local government with high (national and local) environmental ambitions. Arguably, drawing from this, if Sweden is to be perceived as a 'least likely' case for utilizing market mechanisms due to its strong and resourceful local government (cf. Flyvbjerg, 2006), then local government action in Sweden becomes a critical case worthy of critical inquiry. In the sections that follow, this chapter elaborates aspects integral to the case studied. First, it briefiy presents the Swedish local government system and its development, highlighting the presence of strong local governments and their central role in the Swedish government system. This is followed by a presentation of Swedish policy development within the fields of climate change, energy generation and GHG mitigation, again highlighting the central role given to Swedish local government. The chapter ends with a set of conclusions aimed at an integrated analysis of the Swedish government system, national policy developments and the local component of the case study showing how these three components are, in fact, one integrated multilevel case. It is clear that the local government uses a form of institutional experimentation that mixes value systems and logics of both state and market in its strive to becoming a 'climate smart' city.

  • 15.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Climate change adaptation, city competitiveness and urban planning in the city of Karlstad, Sweden2018In: Local Action on Climate Change / [ed] Moloney, Susie, Fünfgeld, Hartmut och Granberg, Mikael, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Further development of a sustainable procedure framework for strategic natural resources and disaster risk management2015In: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 247-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable procedure can be described as a political conversation about desirable futures informed by scientific knowledge from a broad range of disciplines that are effectively integrated, and by the knowledge and perspectives of the concerned actors. A theoretical framework that defines what an integrated and participatory procedure implies has been successfully applied in the fields of strategic natural resources and disaster risk management (NRM and DRM). With a focus already on disciplinary integration, value integration, participation and democracy, the framework is here developed further with respect to organizational issues, such as coordination and collaboration among organizations of different types at different scales and with different mandates and incentives. The study thus establishes a new integrated approach to systematized scientific knowledge in relation to the concept of sustainable development, via the sustainability principles of integration and participation – a theoretical baseline for the trans-disciplinary development of sustainable NRM and DRM procedures.

  • 17.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The EU floods directive in Sweden: Opportunities for integrated and participatory flood risk planning2017In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the implementation of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden. The question here centres on the possibilities promoted by the directive for sustainable flood risk management, with an emphasis on integrated and participatory management forms. Key persons are interviewed, using a set of criteria for sustainable river basin management as a theoretical framework. The study shows that work in this area is guided by a wide array of values, and that the involved experts provide a broad knowledge basis for this work. The need for better coordination between authorities, pieces of legislation and policy fields however remains critical while the merits of participatory planning approaches are not yet sufficiently utilised. One of the primary tasks here is to develop a shared understanding of the formal context and roles of the process while also developing forms for effective collaboration both within the new administration and between the administration and other key actors, most importantly the municipalities. The case of Sweden can provide useful insights into this process for other member states.

  • 18.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The EU Floods Directive trickling down: Tracing the ideas of integrated and participatory flood risk management in Sweden2017In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 286-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the EU Floods Directive - an extensive and innovative legislative instrument for integrated and participatory flood risk planning in all EU member states - influences local flood risk management in one member state, Sweden. The study identifies that: many municipalities have received new knowledge; crosssectoral organisational structures for water and flood risk issues at the local level are being formed or strengthened; and the flood risk issue has been elevated up the political agenda. There are also however clear signs that a number of other fundamental issues are not being adequately addressed in the complex institutional setting that results from the directive's implementation. These issues are undoubtedly obstructing the development of a more integrated and participatory flood risk management system. Of key importance here are questions relating to how roles and mandates are communicated and adopted, the lack of coordination between the Floods Directive and the Water Framework Directive, and the inadequate involvement of the municipal level and other stakeholders. Practical recommendations on how to redirect development towards more positive outcomes in these areas are thus formulated.

  • 19.
    Helgesen, Lydia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frysa livsmedelsrester eller kassera dem för biogasproduktion: En studie, ur livscykelperspektiv, av energianvändning och växthusgasutsläpp2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food is widely consumed and in 2011 an average American devoured approximately one ton of food. The production of these goods requires large amounts of energy and contributes to 22-31 % of all greenhouse gas emissions occurring in Europe. More than one third of the produced food is discarded instead of consumed, and food waste make up about 30 % of the waste generated by households. 60 % of this food waste could be avoided if the eatables were handled in a better way.

    Avoidable food waste arises partly because residues from food are not taken care of, and because the food is not stored in a way that optimise its durability. Residues arises part- ly because of the contradictory and complex demands of everyday life and are, because of our busy lifestyle, difficult to avoid. To reduce the environmental impact of food con- sumption the focus should be on managing residues in the most environmentally friend- ly way, rather than to prevent residues from arising.

    To prolong the shelf life of food residues freezing it is an alternative method. The free- zer is one of the most energy consuming appliances in the household. Therefore this method requires energy consumption, which contributes to the generation of greenhouse gases. The food must also be thawed if this method is used, which may require additio- nal energy. The residues may also be disposed and used as a feedstock for biogas pro- duction. Biogas is an energy rich gas that can be used as vehicle fuel, as a replacement for fossil fuels. This handling of residues therefore has the potential for both energy gain and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    This report examines which management method of residues that is the most energy ef- ficient one, and which method that generates the least GHG emissions. The survey was carried out for residues of beef, rice, bread, tomato, carrot and apple. Energy consump- tion for production, freezing and thawing of food were weighed against potential energy gain from biogas production. The same calculation was used for greenhouse gas emis- sions from the described activities.

    The result shows that the method which is the most energy efficient, and causes the least greenhouse gas emissions, is dependent on several factors, including the source of the food, the residence in the freezer and packing at the time of the freezing. Knowledge regarding the specific food, and the handling of it, must be possessed to answer how food residues should be handled. It is clear that there are cases when it could be more energy efficient, and produce less greenhouse gas emissions, to dispose food residues to produce biogas than to freeze them for later consumption. 

  • 20. Jacobson, Lisa
    et al.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Giusti, Matteo
    Bhowmik, Avit K
    Tipping to Staying on the Ground: Internalized Knowledge of Climate Change Crucial for Transformed Air Travel Behavior2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel accounts for a major share of individual greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for people in high‐income countries. Until recently, few have reduced flying because of climate concerns, but currently, a movement for staying on the ground is rising. Sweden has been a focal point for this movement, particularly during 2018–2019, when a flight tax was introduced, and air travel reduction was intensely discussed in the media. We performed semi‐structured interviews with Swedish residents, focusing primarily on individuals who have reduced flying because of its climate impact. We explore how such individual transformation of air travel behavior comes about, and the phases and components of this process. Applying a framework of sustainability transformation, we identify incentives and barriers in personal and political spheres. We show that internalized knowledge about climate change and the impact of air travel is crucial for instigating behavioral change. Awareness evokes negative emotions leading to a personal tipping point where a decision to reduce or quit flying is made. However, the process is often counteracted by both personal values and political structures promoting air travel. Even individuals with a strong drive to reduce flying feel trapped in social practices, norms and infrastructures. Hence, we argue that personal and political spheres interact complexly and to reduce flying at larger scales, interventions are needed across spheres, e.g., change of norms, effective policy instruments and better alternatives to air travel.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Experience of data collection in support of the assessment of global progress in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030-A Swedish pilot study2017In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 24, p. 144-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most countries collect loss and damage data after disasters for learning purposes and in support of future preventive work. The lack of international standards and sharing principles implies heterogeneous data sets, thus presenting a challenge to the development of indicators intended to assess progress within the UN agreement Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR). In this study, data on mortality, affected people and direct economic losses are extracted from two national databases in Sweden for the years 1996-2015. Pre-SFDRR terminology, definitions and different inclusion criteria are used to exemplify and identify challenges when global "proxy" data inquiry clashes with sub-national demands for data quality. Different test methods on how to estimate affected people are used and in comparison with the term 'directly affected people', as proposed in the SFDRR indicator establishment process, it is concluded that methods for more disaggregated data are needed. In a Swedish context, the SFDRR call for a reference period 2005-2015 is found to be a time too short for providing a fair picture of disaster risks within Sweden's borders. The nationally developed strategy in Sweden, as in many other countries, to learn in-depth after each new disaster and use the experience to remedy weaknesses in safety systems, generates solid data supporting the development of SFDRR indicators, but the national benefits and the relevance of statistics from disasters re-occurring on longer time scales are limited.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute. Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals. In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Hansson, Max
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Social learning in education – an important step in practical integration of preventive risk reduction and adaptation to climate change2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of linking the preventive phase of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) with the adaptation in human society to forecasted consequences from climate change, has received growing acceptance internationally, but the integration of both fields is still at an embryonic stage. Integration in this case implies transdisciplinary approaches in complex fields where liabilities and stakeholders normally are found in different sectors and levels in society. For integration to be successful, a first step is to create platforms and contexts where participants may generate raised awareness about each other’s roles and evolve a shared problem identification. Social learning is a concept that has been used in many different contexts where uncertainty and change are crucial and challenging. It has earlier been linked as a suitable approach to issues such as public participation, governance or natural resource management. Here it is used in education, gathering among others stakeholders working within the fields of Flood Risk Management, DRR and Climate Change Adaptation at local or regional level around the two Swedish lakes Vänern and Mälaren. Teaching arrangements and didactic elements are described for the two pilot-courses that were held 2009-2010. The academic institutional arrangements favoured an open exchange and knowledge building, with local examples of management and strategies repeatedly in focus during several study visits in different cities along the shoreline. The elements of social learning facilitated the build-up of shared holistic perspectives, identified areas in need of development or research efforts and contributed to informal as well as formal relationships among participants.

  • 24.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Disasters as drivers for policy changes in the context of recurrent hazards?: The case of disaster risk management in Mozambique2014In: Proceedings of the 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference: Integrative Risk Management - The Role of Science, Technology and Practice, IDRC Davos 2014, p. 384-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of disaster risk management (DRM) policies has gained attention in recent years but the processes leading to changes in DRM policies is still rather under-researched topic. One country where DRM has gained momentum over the last few years is Mozambique where recurrent natural disasters negatively impacts on the country’s development efforts. Drawing on policy process literature this paper scrutinises the DRM policy changes in Mozambique and the role of disasters in this process. The data for this qualitative case study was collected in early 2013 in Maputo, Mozambique mainly by interviewing a number of actors actively participating in DRM policy process. The results reveal that while disasters can play a role policy process, they alone do not explain any policy changes. While international agreements and cooperation where seen as the main drivers for change, disasters have made incremental changes possible by serving as "wake-up calls", through lessons learned and by keeping the issue high in agenda. The short return period of natural disasters directs focus and resources on disaster response and recovery, thereby overshadowing DRM, although its importance is well acknowledged in the country. The findings suggest that the Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction could be a useful tool for Mozambique, in particular if it provides platforms for information exchange between the countries.

  • 25.
    Moloney, Susie
    et al.
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Fünfgeld, Hartmut
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Towards transformative action: learning from local experiences and contexts2018In: Local action on climate change: opportunities and constraints / [ed] Moloney, Susie, Fünfgeld, Hartmut och Granberg, Mikael, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 146-156-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Govt, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, CNDS, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Do floods drive hazard mitigation policy?: Evidence from swedish municipalities2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that continuous development of local-level mitigation policy plans and actions increases the chances of effective responses to natural hazards. What is less well known is how and why policy development, including the scope and pace of changes in municipality crisis mitigation programs, varies across local-level crisis mitigation systems. Using survey data on municipality hazard mitigation policy in Sweden, this study documents patterns of policy development and explores candidate explanations. Special attention is devoted to floods, which present local managers with opportunities to learn and adjust local mitigation policies. To investigate floods along with other hazards as potential drivers for local mitigation policy, the study examines three approaches to policy development: external shocks, transformation without disruption, and regional diffusion. Overall, in this case, the transformation without disruption model and the regional diffusion model do better than the external shocks model. Important precursors of policy development include collaboration, learning and diffusion effects from events and policy adoption in nearby municipalities. The study demonstrates the value of a broader analytical approach to policy development, which takes into account the interplay between events, collaborative management, and learning.

  • 27.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Sustainability Aspects of Flood Risk Management: Interrelations and Challenges2010In: SELECTED PAPERS FROM IDRC ON RISK REDUCTION AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT, HARBIN INST TECHNOLOGY, P R CHINA , 2010, Vol. 1, p. 101-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of sustainable development are crucial for Flood Risk Management (FRM). These aspects are relevant for the flood risk analysis, risk evaluation and risk-reduction. Two case studies are used to identify potential conflicts between different values: Lake Vanern and Gota alv River in Sweden and Elbe River in Germany. In both cases there are diverging interests of how to manage the systems, e.g. how to regulate water levels and use floodplains. The conclusion is that the relevant sustainability aspects must be identified, addressed and valued in the risk management process, especially for different risk-reducing measure options.

  • 28.
    Otto, Ilona M.
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; Stockholm University.
    Cremades, Roger
    Climate Service Center Germany.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Hewitte, Richard J.
    James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen; Observatorio para una Cultura del Territorio, Madrid.
    Lucht, Wolfgang
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam; Humboldt University, Berlin.
    Rockstroem, Johan
    Member of the Leibniz Association, Potsdam; Stockholm University.
    Allerberger, Franziska
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam; University of Innsbruck.
    McCaffrey, Mark
    Communication and Outreach Stakeholders (ECOS), Kisbágyon.
    Doe, Sylvanus S. P.
    GeoSustainability Consulting, Adabraka-Accra.
    Lenferna, Alex
    University of Washington, Seattle.
    Moran, Nerea
    Germinando Sociedad Cooperativa Madrid; Foro de Transiciones, Madrid.
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    PBL Netherlands Environmental Agency, Den Haag; Utrecht University.
    Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; Tsinghua University, Beijing .
    Social tipping dynamics for stabilizing Earth's climate by 20502020In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 2354-2365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safely achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement requires a worldwide transformation to carbon-neutral societies within the next 30 y. Accelerated technological progress and policy implementations are required to deliver emissions reductions at rates sufficiently fast to avoid crossing dangerous tipping points in the Earth's climate system. Here, we discuss and evaluate the potential of social tipping interventions (STIs) that can activate contagious processes of rapidly spreading technologies, behaviors, social norms, and structural reorganization within their functional domains that we refer to as social tipping elements (STE5). STE5 are subdomains of the planetary socioeconomic system where the required disruptive change may take place and lead to a sufficiently fast reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The results are based on online expert elicitation, a subsequent expert workshop, and a literature review. The STIs that could trigger the tipping of STE subsystems include 1) removing fossil-fuel subsidies and incentivizing decentralized energy generation (STE1, energy production and storage systems), 2) building carbon-neutral cities (STE2, human settlements), 3) divesting from assets linked to fossil fuels (STE3, financial markets), 4) revealing the moral implications of fossil fuels (STE4, norms and value systems), 5) strengthening climate education and engagement (STE5, education system), and 6) disclosing information on greenhouse gas emissions (STE6, information feedbacks). Our research reveals important areas of focus for larger-scale empirical and modeling efforts to better understand the potentials of harnessing social tipping dynamics for climate change mitigation.

  • 29.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood response using complementary early warning information2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this comparative case study was to investigate and compare how Swedish municipalities gather and use warning information from official and unofficial sources at the municipal level, as well as the circumstances under which that process has a chance to succeed. The overall conclusions of the study are that official and unofficial warnings have the potential to play complementary roles for municipalities making decisions about flood response, giving the municipalities a wider perspective and better opportunity to assess risk and to act appropriately. The required resources for using official warnings and getting access to unofficial warning sources are not evenly distributed among municipalities, and a lack of systematization of access to warning information hinders the flood response potential.

  • 30.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Trafikverket.
    Managing knowledge sharing of extreme weather induced impacts on land transport infrastructure: Case study of the Swedish Transport Administration2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme weather events and effects of climate change are threats to the transport sector’s functionality and safety. Risk management in this context implies a necessity to focus on the connection between near-term experiences and coping strategies on one hand, and long-term adaptation analyses on the other. How learning from past events and subsequent knowledge sharing can be adopted is a question that needs to be explored, discussed and tested. A systematic approach to lessons learned calls for measures of investigation, reporting, planning, implementation and evaluation. A qualitative case study approach was used in this thesis. In the first paper the practices of accident investigation in operation and maintenance were inventoried within the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). Three accident investigation methods were applied and tested on a cloudburst event, causing flooding in a railway tunnel in Sweden. In the second paper, semi-structured interviews, documents, and archival records were used as means for penetrating deeper into the attitudes and understanding of lessons learned concerning extreme weather events within a procured public-private partnership. The results of the two studies showed weak signals of feedback on lessons learned. Partly, these weak signals could be traced back to weak steering signals. Various obstacles impeded learning curves from lessons learned. The obstacles were of both hard and soft values, e.g. resources in time and equipment, systematic investigation methods, incentives for lessons learned, education and knowledge, values, norms and attitudes towards how and why identified problems should be solved. Successful knowledge sharing requires that close attention is paid to such obstacles and that an adaptive approach is adopted.

  • 31.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Trafikverket.
    Organizational Lessons Learned: Natural Hazards Affecting Critical Infrastructure2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on an issue often presented as a solution – albeit a debated one ­– namely learning, specifically lessons learned from natural hazard events. Empirically, this thesis examines flooding and avalanches in a Swedish context, centering on systematic feedback mechanisms and learning from extreme events. Opportunities to and constraints affecting learning and knowledge sharing are discussed.

    The thesis comprises four papers, collectively contributing a description of aspects of learning and feedback in a case study setting of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) [Trafikverket], and providing an understanding of the present level of knowledge and awareness of climate change related natural hazards, as well as how knowledge sharing may give incentives and understanding for change. The notion of social learning is that individuals, groups, and organizations (and ultimately society) can learn from one another in a context, i.e. fostering mutual change. The goal of learning and using feedback is to create an opportunity to address changes in a thoughtful and explicit manner. At the same time, there is an implicit idea that learning occurs automatically somehow, which is problematized on the basis of the cases in the articles.

    An interdisciplinary approach was adopted to obtain understanding of lessons learned related to natural hazards affecting critical infrastructure in Sweden. Interdiciplinarity refers to the use of theories from different research fields to achieve synergies in the search for explanations and useful understanding. The different objectives and aims of each paper have increased understanding of mechanisms related to aspects of feedback, learning and knowledge sharing after natural hazard impacts. Each paper also provides examples of opportunities and constraints to feedback mechanisms and learning in a collective context.

  • 32.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). CNDS, Uppsala; Uppsala Universitet; Swedish Def Univ Stockholm.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). CNDS, Uppsala; Uppsala Universitet; Swedish Def Univ Stockholm.
    Liljegren, Eva
    CNDS, Uppsala; Uppsala Universitet; Swedish Def Univ Stockholm.
    Systematic Knowledge Sharing in a Natural Hazard Damage Context: How Organizational Borders Limit Lessons Learned2017In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 356-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to increase knowledge about systematic lessons learning in a public-private partnership. Empirically, it focuses on road maintenance in Sweden where the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) is responsible for the state-owned infrastructure and tendered contractors carry out all maintenance. The tendering process stipulates that the stakeholders should enable learning and the knowledge transfer that is, by necessity, required for preventive purposes. Semi-structured interviews with project leaders from the STA and respondents from two tendering contractors of maintenance were used to investigate attitudes to and the understanding of sharing experiences and knowledge about damage caused by weather extremes and the relevance of climate change adaptation in their field. The analysis suggests that most of the respondents' experiences stay within their own organization, which creates parallel feedback loops, rather than becomes shared knowledge that could be used as lessons learned enhancing preventive work against future damage and loss. The analysis indicates imbalance in feedback of knowledge concerning weather extremes and their effects.

  • 33.
    van der Velde, Ype
    et al.
    Netherlands.
    Heidbuechel, Ingo
    Germany.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University.
    Troch, Peter A.
    USA.
    Consequences of mixing assumptions for time-variable travel time distributions2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 3460-3474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current generation of catchment travel time distribution (TTD) research, integrating nearly three decades of work since publication of Water's Journey from Rain to Stream, seeks to represent the full distribution in catchment travel times and its temporal variability. Here, we compare conceptualizations of increasing complexity with regards to mixing of water storages and evaluate how these assumptions influence time-variable TTD estimates for two catchments with contrasting climates: the Gardsjon catchment in Sweden and the Marshall Gulch catchment in Arizona, USA. Our results highlight that, as long as catchment TTDs cannot be measured directly but need to be inferred from input-output signals of catchments, the inferred catchment TTDs depend strongly on the underlying assumptions of mixing within a catchment. Furthermore, we found that the conceptualization of the evapotranspiration flux strongly influences the inferred travel times of stream discharge. For the wet and forested Gardsjon catchment in Sweden, we inferred that evapotranspiration most likely resembles a completely mixed sample of the water stored in the catchment; however, for the drier Marshall Gulch catchment in Arizona, evapotranspiration predominantly contained the younger water stored in the catchment. For the Marshall Gulch catchment, this higher probability for young water in evapotranspiration resulted in older water in the stream compared to travel times inferred with assumptions of complete mixing. New observations that focus on the TTD of the evapotranspiration flux and the actual travel time of water through a catchment are necessary to improve identification of mixing and consequently travel times of stream water. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 34.
    Granberg, Mikael (Editor)
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Göteborgsregionen och klimatrisker: Klimatanpassning för dåtida och framtida bebyggelse2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är slutrapporten från forskningsprojektet “Minskadeklimatrisker i framtidens bebyggelse och boende lärande från tidigarehändelser och samhällsplanering” som genomförts på Centrum förklimat och säkerhet mellan 2014 – 2018 och finansierats av StiftelsenLänsförsäkringsgruppens Forsknings- och Utvecklingsfond.Projektet har bestått av fem delstudier kring klimatriskhantering ochklimatanpassning i flera olika geografiska kontexter runt om i Sverige.Den studie av Göteborgsregionen som presenteras i denna rapport ärett sätt att skapa en syntes av de olika teoretiska och empiriskaingångarna i detta projekt genom en studie av den aktuellaproblematiken på en specifik plats.

    Mikael Granberg som står som redaktör för rapporten är professor istatsvetenskap och föreståndare för Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.

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