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  • 1.
    Amruth, C.
    et al.
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Szymanski, Marek Zdzislaw
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Örebro University.
    Luszczynska, Beata
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Ulanski, Jacek
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Inkjet printing of super yellow: Ink formulation, film optimization, OLEDs fabrication, and transient electroluminescence2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-10, article id 8493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technique allows manufacturing low cost organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in ambient conditions. The above approach enables upscaling of the OLEDs fabrication process which, as a result, would become faster than conventionally used vacuum based processing techniques. In this work, we use the inkjet printing technique to investigate the formation of thin active layers of well-known light emitting polymer material: Super Yellow (poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer). We develop the formulation of Super Yellow ink, containing non-chlorinated solvents and allowing stable jetting. Optimization of ink composition and printing resolution were performed, until good quality films suitable for OLEDs were obtained. Fabricated OLEDs have shown a remarkable characteristics of performance, similar to the OLEDs fabricated by means of spin coating technique. We checked that, the values of mobility of the charge carriers in the printed films, measured by transient electroluminescence, are similar to the values of mobility measured in spin coated films. Our contribution provides a complete framework for inkjet printing of high quality Super Yellow films for OLEDs. The description of this method can be used to obtain efficient printed OLEDs both in academic and in industrial settings.

  • 2.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Molecular orientation and composition at the surface of APFO3:PCBM blend films2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference: Uppsala, Sweden, 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, SEFIN, Castelló (Spain), 2012, p. 278-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ciammaruchi, Laura
    et al.
    Parc Mediterani de la Technologia, ICFO.
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Galagan, Yulia
    TNO Solliance, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Stability of organic solar cells with PCDTBT donor polymer: An interlaboratory study2018In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1909-1924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 degrees C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.

  • 4.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Light induced effects in PCBM:P3HT blend films2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference: Uppsala, Sweden, 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, SEFIN, Castelló (Spain), 2012, p. 155-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Evertsson, J.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bertram, F.
    Lund University.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH.
    Rullik, L.
    Lund University.
    Merte, L. R.
    Lund University.
    Shipilin, M.
    Lund University.
    Soldemo, Markus
    KTH.
    Ahmadi, Sareh
    KTH.
    Vinogradov, N.
    ESRF, France.
    Carla, F.
    ESRF, France.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    Götelid, Mats
    KTH.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH.
    Mikkelsen, A.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, J. -O
    Sapa Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, E.
    Lund University.
    The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 349, p. 826-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  • 6.
    Magnusson, Hans
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    From recovery boiler to integration of a textile fiber plant: Combination of mass balance analysis and chemical engineering2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern chemical technology is an efficient tool for solving problems, particularly within the complex environment of the pulp and paper industry, and the combination of experimental studies, mill data and mass balance calculations are of fundamental importance to the development of the industry. In this study various examples are presented, whereby chemical technology is of fundamental importance.

    It is well documented that under normal conditions the molten salt mixture from the kraft recovery boiler flows down into the dissolving tank without problems. However, in the case of  alternatives to the kraft recovery boiler, knowledge of more precise data of the molten salts is required for the design calculations. In this study the viscosity for the case of sodium carbonate and 30 mole% sulphide has been measured and is of the magnitude 2 – 3 cP at temperatures relevant for a recovery boiler, i.e. similar to water at room temperature.

    The presence of non-process elements (NPE) in a typical pulp mill has been investigated. The main input is with regards to the wood, and anticipated problems include; deposits in evaporators, high dead-load in liquor streams, plugging of the upper part of the recovery boiler and decreasing efficiency in the causticization department. Efficient green liquor clarification is of the greatest importance as an efficient kidney for many NPE. Mill data and calculations show that the magnesium added in the oxygen delignification does not form a closed loop.

    Integration of a prehydrolysis kraft pulp mill producing dissolving pulp with a plant producing viscose textile fiber could be highly beneficial. The prehydrolysis liquor will contain both sugars and acetic acid. It is however not possible to fully replace the sulphuric acid of the viscose spinning bath with acetic acid of own production. The sulphuric chemicals from the viscose plant can be partly taken care of in the kraft recovery area as well as the viscose plant which can be supplied with alkali and sulphuric acid. Zinc-containing effluents from the viscose plant can be treated with green liquor to precipitate zinc sulphide.

  • 7.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Polymer solar cells – Visualising spontaneous organisation in solution-based thin films of Polymer:fullerene blends2011In: Soft and hard materials: A symposium on surface and materials chemistry / [ed] Swedish Chemical Society, division for surface and materials chemistry, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance and recent improvements of polymer-based solar cells can be traced back

    to two main factors: the chemical design of new conjugated polymers and the control and

    improved understanding of morphology in these solution-processed thin films. When a thin

    film is prepared from a blend of a conjugated polymer and the fullerene-based material,

    PCBM, demixing determines the final nanostructure, which in turn is influenced by the

    polymer-fullerene interactions, the molecules’ tendency to self-organise, and the kinetics of

    the film formation. During spincoating, characterized of rapid solvent evaporation, the

    kinetics of nucleation and of two-phase separation compete. The resulting film morphology

    is important for the performance of photovoltaic devices, because, first of all, excitons need

    to diffuse to the donor/acceptor interface to separate into mobile charges, and, secondly,

    these mobile charges need to travel to the electrodes. Characterization of the structure,

    composition and molecular orientation at these interfaces and in the thin film has been one

    major challenge, because of the critical requirements of chemical contrast combined with

    lateral or depth resolution. We have used a combination of Atomic Force Microscopy

    (AFM), dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (d-SIMS), Near-Edge Absorption Fine

    Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and recently Neutron Reflectometry (NR), to probe the

    surface and bulk composition of polymer:fullerene blends. Differences in composition

    between surface and sub-surface are observed, and form strong evidence for vertical phase

    separation.

     

  • 8.
    Moons, Ellen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vertical Phase Separation in Polymer:Fullerene Films for Photovoltaics2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference 2012: Uppsala, Sweden, 6th to 9th May 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, Castelló, Spain: Society for Nanomolecular Photovoltaics (SEFIN) , 2012, p. 53-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Rehan, Mohammad
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Nizami, Abdul-Sattar
    King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Rashid, Umer
    Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Editorial: Waste Biorefineries: Future Energy, Green Products and Waste Treatment2019In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 7, p. 1-3, article id UNSP 55Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Strömberg, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Humidity’s effect on strength and stiffness of containerboard materials: A study in how the relative humidity in the ambient air affects the tensile and compression properties in linerboard and fluting mediums2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the difference between containerboard materials strength and stiffness properties in tension and compression, how the mechanisms behind compressive and tensile properties are affected by the relative humidity of the ambient air and how the relative humidity affects the compressive response of the fibre network. These properties are used to predict the lifetime performance of corrugated boxes and to prevent early collapses of the boxes and thereby waste or harm of the transported goods inside. The work also discusses the methods used to evaluate the different properties and how reliable the results are. The experimental part includes testing of linerboard and fluting materials from both virgin and recycled fibres, which have been conditioned at 50% and 90% relative humidity. The compression tests were filmed to evaluate if different compression failure modes can be related to the strength and stiffness of the material. The results indicated that the compressive strength and stiffness differ from the strength and stiffness values in tension at 90% relative humidity. Compressive strength is lower in both 50% and 90% relative humidity compared with the tensile strength. However, the compression stiffness shows a higher value than the tensile stiffness at 90% relative humidity. The study of the method for evaluating the compressive behaviour of the paper does not present a complete picture on what type of failure the paper actually experience.

1 - 10 of 10
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