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  • 1. Abdel-Rehim, M.
    et al.
    Altun, Zeki
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    New trend in sample preparation: On-line microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) for LC and GC applications, Part II, Determination of ropivacaine and its metabolites in human plasma samples using MEPS-LC-MS-MS2004In: J. Mass Spectr., 39 (2004) 1488-1493Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Abdel-Rehim, M.
    et al.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Bielenstein, M.
    Arvidsson, T.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Evaluation of Solid-Phase microextraction (SPME) for Study of the protein Binding in Human Plasma Samples,2000In: J. Chromatogr. Sci., 38 (2000) 458-464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Abdel-Rehim, M.
    et al.
    Hassan, Z.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hassan, M.
    Determination of Busulphan in plasma samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using on-line derivatization utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME)2003In: J. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 25 (2003) 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Abdel-Rehim, M.
    et al.
    Skansen, P.
    Vita, M.
    Hassan, Z.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hassan, M.
    Microextraction in packed syringe / liquid chromatography /electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MEPS/LC/MS/MS) for quantification of olomoucine in human plasma samples2005In: Anal.Chim. Acta., 539 (2005) 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Andersson, L.I.
    AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Altun, Zeki
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Microextraction in Packed Syringe Online with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Molecularly imprinted polymer as packing material for MEPS in selective extraction of ropivacaine from plasma2006In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, ISSN 1082-6076, E-ISSN 1520-572X, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 1725-1736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excellent performance of a new sample preparation method, microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS), was recently illustrated by online LC‐MS and GS‐MS assays of local anaesthetics in plasma samples. In the method, approximately 1 mg of solid packing material was inserted into a syringe (100–250 µL) as a plug. Sample preparation took place on the packed bed. The new method was easy to use, fully automated, of low cost, and rapid in comparison with previously used methods. This paper presents the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as packing material for higher extraction selectivity. Development and validation of a method for MIP‐MEPS online with LC‐MS‐MS using ropivacaine in plasma as model compound were investigated. A bupivacaine imprinted polymer was used. The method was validated and the standard curves were evaluated by means of quadratic regression and weighted by inverse of the concentration: 1/x for the calibration range 2–2000 nM. The applied polymer could be used more than 100 times before the syringe was discarded. The extraction recovery was 60%. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R 2 >0.999) for all runs. The accuracy, given as a percentage deviation from the nominal concentration values, ranged from -6% to 3%. The precision, given as the relative standard deviation, at three different concentrations (QC samples) was consistently about 3% to 10%. The limit of quantification was 2 nM.

  • 6. Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Marie
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Quantification of ropivacaine and its major metabolites in human urine samples utilizing microextraction in packed syringe automated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MEPS-LC-MS-MS)2006In: J. Sep. Sci., 29 (2006) 1658-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Marie
    Claude, Saturnin
    Tabacchi, Raphael
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) utilizing methylcyanopropyl silarylene as coating polymer for extraction of drugs in biological samples,2006In: J. Liq. Chromatogr. & Relat. Technol., 29 (2006) No. 17, 2537-2544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Almgren, M
    et al.
    Alsins, J
    Mukhtar, E
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Diffusion-Controlled Fluorescence Quenching in Micelles1989In: Reactions in Compartmentalized Liquids; Knoche W and Shomacker R (eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg (1989), 61-68, 1989Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Alsins, J.
    Mukhtar, E.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Quenching Dynamics in Rodlike Micelles1988In: J. Phys. Chem., 1988, 92, 4479-4483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Alsins, J.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Decay Studies of Structures and Dynamics in Ionic Micellar Solutions1988In: Ordering and Organization in Ionic Solutions, World Scientific Publishing Co Ltd, Singapore, 1988, 225-232, 1988Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11. Almgren, M
    et al.
    Alsins, J
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Mukhtar, E
    The micellar sphere-to-rod transition in CTAC-NaClO3. A fluorescence quenching study1988In: Progr. Colloid Polym. Sci., 1988, 76, 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Hansson, P.
    Mukhtar, E.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Aggregation of Alkyltrimethylammonium Surfactants in Aqueous Poly(styrenesulfonate) Solutions1992In: Langmuir, 1992, 8, 2405-2412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Löfroth, J-E
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Decay Kinetics in Monodisperse Confinements with Exchange of Probes and Quenchers1986In: J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4431-4437Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lindblad, C.
    Li, P.
    Stilbs, P.
    Bahadur, P.
    Aggregation of Poly(ethyelene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate in Aqueous Solution1991In: J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 5677-5684Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Almgren, M
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Swarup, S
    Löfroth, J-E
    Structure and Transport in the Microemulsion Phase of the System Triton X-100-Toluene-Water1986In: Langmuir, 1986, 2, 432-438Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ethanol from lignocellulose: Alkali detoxification of dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Detoxification of dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates by treatment with Ca(OH)2 (overliming) efficiently improves the production of fuel ethanol, but is associated with drawbacks like sugar degradation and CaSO4 precipitation. In factorial designed experiments, in which pH and temperature were varied, dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates were treated with Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH. The concentrations of sugars and inhibitory compounds were measured before and after the treatments. The fermentability was examined using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with reference fermentations of synthetic medium without inhibitors. The treatment conditions were evaluated by comparing the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the degradation of sugars and the ethanol production into account. Treatment conditions resulting in excellent fermentability and minimal sugar degradation were possible to find regardless of whether Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH was used. Balanced ethanol yields higher than those of the reference fermentations were achieved for hydrolysates treated with all three types of alkali. As expected, treatment with Ca(OH)2 gave rise to precipitated CaSO4. The NH4OH treatments gave rise to a brownish precipitate but the amounts of precipitate formed were relatively small. No precipitate was observed in treatments with NaOH. The possibility that the ammonium ions from the NH4OH treatments gave a positive effect as an extra source of nitrogen during the fermentations was excluded after experiments in which NH4Cl was added to the medium. The findings presented can be used to improve the effectiveness of alkali detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and to minimize problems with sugar degradation and formation of precipitates.

  • 17.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ethanol from lignocellulose: Management of by-products of hydrolysis2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic materials, such as residues from agriculture and forestry. The polysaccharides of lignocellulose are converted to sugars by hydrolysis and the sugars can then be fermented to ethanol using microorganisms. However, during hydrolysis a wide range of by-products are also generated. By-product formation can affect ethanol yield and productivity. Management of by-products of hydrolysis is therefore important in the development of commercially viable production of cellulosic ethanol.

    Detoxification of inhibitory dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates by treatment with Ca(OH)2 (overliming) efficiently improves the fermentability, but is associated with drawbacks like sugar degradation and CaSO4 precipitation. In factorial designed experiments, in which pH and temperature were varied, dilute-acid spruce hydrolysates were treated with Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH. The concentrations of sugars and inhibitory compounds were measured before and after the treatments. The fermentability was examined using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with reference fermentations of synthetic medium without inhibitors. The treatment conditions were evaluated by comparing the balanced ethanol yield, which takes both the degradation of sugars and the ethanol production into account. Treatment conditions resulting in excellent fermentability and minimal sugar degradation were possible to find regardless of whether Ca(OH)2, NH4OH or NaOH was used. Balanced ethanol yields higher than those of the reference fermentations were achieved for hydrolysates treated with all three types of alkali. As expected, treatment with Ca(OH)2 gave rise to precipitated CaSO4. The NH4OH treatments gave rise to a brownish precipitate but the amounts of precipitate formed were relatively small. No precipitate was observed in treatments with NaOH. The findings presented can be used to improve the effectiveness of alkali detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and to minimize problems with sugar degradation and formation of precipitates.

    Overexpression of different S. cerevisiae genes was investigated with the aim to engineer a biocatalyst with increased inhibitor tolerance. Overexpression of YAP1, a gene encoding a transcription factor, conveyed increased resistance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors as well as to a dilute-acid hydrolysate of spruce.

    Recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was cultivated on spent lignocellulose hydrolysate (stillage). The fungus simultaneously removed inhibitors present in the stillage and produced higher amounts of endoglucanase than when it was grown in a standard medium with comparable monosaccharide content. The concept can be applied for on-site production of enzymes in a cellulose-to-ethanol process and facilitate recycling of the stillage stream.

  • 18.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Horváth, Ilona Sárvári
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates.2005In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 121-124, p. 911-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overliming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition of nitrogen source. Treatment with NH4OH compared favorably with Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, and NaOH to improve fermentability using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of monosaccharides, furan aldehydes, phenols, and aliphatic acids was performed after the different treatments. The NH4OH treatments, performed at pH 10.0, resulted in a substantial decrease in the concentrations of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. Under the conditions studied, NH4OH treatments gave better results than Ca(OH)2 treatments. The addition of an extra nitrogen source in the form of NH4Cl at pH 5.5 did not result in any improvement in fermentability that was comparable to NH4OH treatments at alkaline conditions. The addition of CaCl2 or NH4Cl at pH 5.5 after treatment with NH4OH or Ca(OH)2 resulted in poorer fermentability, and the negative effects were attributed to salt stress. The results strongly suggest that the highly positive effects of NH4OH treatments are owing to chemical conversions rather than stimulation of the yeast cells by ammonium ions during the fermentation.

  • 19.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rose, Shaunita, H
    Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    van Zyl, Wilhelm, H
    Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates with Recombinant Aspergillus niger.2009In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 2366-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor and multidrug resistance genes conveys enhanced resistance to lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors.2010In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Altun, Z.
    et al.
    Andersson, L.I.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Some factors affecting the performance of microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS)2008In: submitted to Analyt. Chim. ActaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Altun, Zeki
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    New Techniques for Sample Preparation in Analytical Chemistry2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample preparation is often a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate and develop new techniques to address some of the shortcomings of current sample preparation methods. The goal has been to provide full automation, on-line coupling to detection systems, short sample preparation times and high-throughput.

    A new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) is a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that is miniaturized and can be fully automated. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of sorbent material is inserted into a gas tight syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. Evaluation of the technique was done by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using MEPS on-line with LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). MEPS connected to an autosampler was fully automated and clean-up of the samples took one minute. In addition, in the case of plasma samples the same plug of sorbent could be used for about 100 extractions before it was discarded.

    A further aim of this work was to increase sample preparation throughput. To do that disposable pipette tips were packed with a plug of porous polymer monoliths as sample adsorbent and were then used in connection with 96-well plates and LC-MS-MS. When roscovitine in human plasma and water samples was used as model substance, a 96-plate was handled in two minutes.

  • 23.
    Altun, Zeki
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    New Techniques for Sample Preparation in Analytical Chemistry: Microextraction in Packed Syringe (MEPS) and Methacrylate Based Monolithic Pipette Tips2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample preparation is often a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate and develop new techniques to address some of the shortcomings of current sample preparation methods. The goal has been to provide full automation, on-line coupling to detection systems, short sample preparation times and high-throughput.

    In this work a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) is a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that is miniaturized and can be fully automated. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of sorbent material is inserted into a gas tight syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. Evaluation of the technique was done by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using MEPS on-line with LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). MEPS connected to an autosampler was fully automated and clean-up of the samples took about one minute. In addition, in the case of plasma samples the same plug of sorbent could be used for about 100 extractions before it was discarded.

    A further aim of this work was to increase sample preparation throughput. To do that disposable pipette tips were packed with a plug of porous polymer monoliths as sample adsorbent and were then used in connection with 96-well plates and LC-MS-MS. The evaluation of the methods was done by the analysis of local anaesthetics lidocaine and ropivacaine, and anti-cancer drug roscovitine in plasma samples. When roscovitine and lidocaine in human plasma and water samples were used as model substances, a 96-plate was handled in about two minutes. Further, disposable pipette tips may be produced at low cost and because they are used only once, carry-over is eliminated.

  • 24. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    New trends in sample preparation: On-line microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) for LC and GC applications. Part III Determination and validation of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using a cation-exchange sorbent and MEPS-LC-MS-MS2004In: J. Chromatogr. B, 813 (2004) 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Lars I.
    AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, DMPK & BAC, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Some Factors Affecting the Performance of Microextraction in Packed Syringe (MEPS)Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 26. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Use of carbon dioxide and ammonia as nebulizer gases in mass spectrometry2002In: Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrometry, 16 (2002) 738-739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Increasing Sample Preparation Throughput Using Monolithic Methacrylate Polymer as Packing Material for 96-Tips: 2 Minutes per 96-Well Plate2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Hjelmström, Anette
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Surface Modified Polypropylene Pipette Tips Packed with a Monolithic Plug of Adsorbent for High Throughput Sample Preparation2007In: J. Sep. Sci., 30 (2007) 1964-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Hjelmström, Anette
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Evaluation of monolithic packed 96-tips for solid-phase extraction of local anesthetics from human plasma for quantitation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2008In: J. Liq. Chromatogr. & Relat. Technol , 31 (2008) 743-751Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Altun, Zeki
    et al.
    Jagerdeo, E.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Drug screening using microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) / LC-MS utilizing monolithic-based sorbent material,2006In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 29 (2006) 829-839Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Amruth, C.
    et al.
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Szymanski, Marek Zdzislaw
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Örebro University.
    Luszczynska, Beata
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Ulanski, Jacek
    Lodz University of Technology, Poland.
    Inkjet printing of super yellow: Ink formulation, film optimization, OLEDs fabrication, and transient electroluminescence2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-10, article id 8493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technique allows manufacturing low cost organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in ambient conditions. The above approach enables upscaling of the OLEDs fabrication process which, as a result, would become faster than conventionally used vacuum based processing techniques. In this work, we use the inkjet printing technique to investigate the formation of thin active layers of well-known light emitting polymer material: Super Yellow (poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer). We develop the formulation of Super Yellow ink, containing non-chlorinated solvents and allowing stable jetting. Optimization of ink composition and printing resolution were performed, until good quality films suitable for OLEDs were obtained. Fabricated OLEDs have shown a remarkable characteristics of performance, similar to the OLEDs fabricated by means of spin coating technique. We checked that, the values of mobility of the charge carriers in the printed films, measured by transient electroluminescence, are similar to the values of mobility measured in spin coated films. Our contribution provides a complete framework for inkjet printing of high quality Super Yellow films for OLEDs. The description of this method can be used to obtain efficient printed OLEDs both in academic and in industrial settings.

  • 32.
    An, Wei
    et al.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA.
    Baber, Ashleigh E.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA.
    Xu, Fang
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Soldemo, Markus
    KTH.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    Stacchiola, Dario
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA.
    Liu, Ping
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA.
    Mechanistic Study of CO Titration on CuxO/Cu(111) (x <= 2) Surfaces2014In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 2364-2372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reducibility of metal oxides is of great importance to their catalytic behavior. Herein, we combined ambient-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (AP-STM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (AP-XPS), and DFT calculations to study the CO titration of CuxO thin films supported on Cu(111) (CuxO/Cu(111)) aiming to gain a better understanding of the roles that the Cu(111) support and surface defects play in tuning catalytic performances. Different conformations have been observed during the reduction, namely, the 44 structure and a recently identified (5-7-7-5) Stone-Wales defects (5-7 structure). The DFT calculations revealed that the Cu(111) support is important to the reducibility of supported CuxO thin films. Compared with the case for the Cu2O(111) bulk surface, at the initial stage CO titration is less favorable on both the 44 and 5-7 structures. The strong CuxO <-> Cu interaction accompanied with the charge transfer from Cu to CuxO is able to stabilize the oxide film and hinder the removal of O. However, with the formation of more oxygen vacancies, the binding between CuxO and Cu(111) is weakened and the oxide film is destabilized, and Cu2O(111) is likely to become the most stable system under the reaction conditions. In addition, the surface defects also play an essential role. With the proceeding of the CO titration reaction, the 5-7 structure displays the highest activity among all three systems. Stone-Wales defects on the surface of the 5-7 structure exhibit a large difference from the 44 structure and Cu2O(111) in CO binding energy, stability of lattice oxygen, and, therefore, the reduction activity. The DFT results agree well with the experimental measurements, demonstrating that by adopting the unique conformation, the 5-7 structure is the active phase of CuxO, which is able to facilitate the redox reaction and the Cu2O/Cu(111)<-> Cu transition.

  • 33.
    Anderson, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Rheological changes at the air-liquid interface and examining different kind of magnetic needles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective in this work was to learn how the instrument, the Interfacial Shear

    Rheometer (ISR400), worked and to investigate how the rheological properties, storage

    modulus (elasticity), G' and loss modulus (viscous), G'', changes when the surface

    pressure at the air-liquid interphase changes. The second objective were to examine the

    different kind of magnetic needles used in the experiments and to conclude which type of

    needle is best for its specific field of analysis.

    It was concluded that the relative heavy needle with mass 70.6 mg and length 50 mm

    was best for systems where the viscous and elastic components are significantly large,

    where the inertia of the needle is not dominant. It also worked of using the heavier needle

    for a system of phospholipids.

    For the hydroxystearic acid (HSA) experiment that were tested on NaCl sub-phase there

    was a clear improvement after switching from the heavy needle (mass 41.5 mg; length 51

    mm) to the relative lighter needle (mass 6.94 mg; length 34.7 mm). The values for the

    dynamic modulus therefore had a better agreement with reference literature.

    A spread layer of class II hydrophobins (HFBII) could be compressed to a surface

    pressure of 46 mNm-1. The G' and G'' values from the frequency sweep were discarded

    because the monolayer turned into a very viscous-like liquid, and the oscillating needle,

    after compression, was kind of stuck in the sub-phase and moved very staggering during

    a frequency sweep.

    The needle comparison experiment with silica particles 10 wt% Bindzil CC30 (BCC30),

    at pH 3.5 was done to see if there was any difference in the sensitivity for the needles at

    the interface which consisted of a pure 10 mM NaCl solution or a 10 mM NaCl solution

    with BCC30 added to it. The differences were negligible in terms of surface tension but

    there was a clear difference between the heavy needle and the light needle, when

    oscillating at higher frequencies (>≈6 rad/s).

    With this study, the understanding of ISR400 has increased largely. Several issues have

    been addressed and the results provide a good basis for further studies within the many

    areas the instrument can be used for. Despite the project's time limit, and the fact that the

    instrument was new and untested where the project was carried out, focus areas were

    prioritized so good results could be achieved within reasonable goals.

  • 34. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Lu, B.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, S.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Capillary electrophoresis methods for the separation of the basic compound lidocaine and its metabolites2004In: Rapid Commun. Mass Spectr., 18 (2004) 2612-2618Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Magnus S.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Capillary electrophoresis methods for the separation of the basic compound lidocaine and its metabolites2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the separation of the basic compound lidocaine and its metabolites a variety of capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods have been developed. This includes capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and nonaqueous CE separations. The parameters affecting the separations were investigated and optimized.

    In CZE reproducible separations were obtained in both un-coated and polyacrylamide-coated fused silica capillaries using a TFA/TEA electrolyte at pH 2.5.

    The MEKC method: a low pH phosphate/Tris buffer containing the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was successfully validated in human plasma.

    A couple of nonaqueous methods were developed. One of the methods 70 mM ammonium formate and 2 M formic acid in acetonitrile/methanol (60:40 v/v) was used for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry analysis. Reproducible determinations in human plasma were obtained. The sensitivity was improved compared to UV. The detection limits for lidocaine and the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) were 69 nM, 130 nM and 337 nM respectively. Parameters such as sheath liquid composition, nebulizing gas pressure and drying gas temperature were considered.

    The results show that CE is a simple and powerful technique for the separation of basic compounds.

  • 36. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Abdel-Rehim, M.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Characterization of Lidocaine and its Metabolites in Human Plasma using Capillary Electrophoresis,1999In: J. Microcol. Sep., 11, (1999) 620-626Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Andersson, M.B.O.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Electric field-assisted micro-packed HPLC,2001In: J. Sep. Sci. 24 (2001) 304-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Andersson,, M.B.O.
    et al.
    King, J.W.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Synthesis of fatty alcohol mixtures from oleochemicals in supercritical fluids,2000In: Green Chemistry, (2000) 230-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Andersson, N.
    et al.
    BTG Instruments AB, Box 602, Säffle.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of dissolved lignin in peroxide bleaching2017In: PEERS Conference 2017: Maximizing Success Through Innovation, TAPPI Press , 2017, p. 597-604Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that dissolved lignin carryover has a significant impact in oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide stages. Specifically for chlorine dioxide stages, it has been shown that the total kappa number of the pulp, i.e. the sum of the fiber kappa number and the filtrate kappa number, corresponds very well to its bleach demand and should be used for accurate feedforward based control. Since peroxide also is commonly used for pulp bleaching, and gaining in popularity, the present study was conducted in order to investigate the basic relations and mechanisms, using laboratory peroxide bleaching experiments comparing different carryover lignin concentrations and types. The results show that in particular chlorine dioxide filtrates have significant negative impact on delignification and brightening, likely due to alkali consumption of e.g. dissolved lignin, and that compensation using a higher alkali charge will result in lower brightness at a given kappa number. The paper also touches upon the opportunities using advanced process control systems for bleach plants, and the process and economic improvements which can be made by properly accounting for disturbances such as carryover variability.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    BTG Instruments AB, Saffle, Sweden..
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Biazzo, Tom
    BTG Instruments AB, Saffle, Sweden..
    Van Fleet, Rick
    BTG Instruments AB, Saffle, Sweden..
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A new sensor and a novel control concept for optimized fiber line operation2014In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft and sulfite pulp mills use several consecutive process stages for pulp production. However, usually only one key pulp parameter is used for process control and that is the lignin content in the fibers, typically expressed as the kappa number. Even so, to improve process efficiency, more variables need to be monitored. To do that, a new sensor was developed, the dissolved lignin transmitter (DLT), along with a new control concept. The DLT measures the dissolved lignin content in the pulp slurry using a unique principle based on optical measurements. The device can measure the dissolved lignin inline at low consistency and at medium consistency. The sensor has two major applications: 1) improving the efficiency in washing stages and 2) optimizing chemical charges. Results from several mill trials have shown that the contribution from dissolved lignin in the filtrate portion of the pulp is up to 30% of the total bleach load, i.e., fiber and filtrate kappa number combined into the bleach plant. Hence, chemical savings can be achieved taking this component into account compared to only measuring the washed fiber kappa number. Application: The results of this study can help mills understand how to better control the pulping stages, which might lead to significant economic savings and better pollution control.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    BTG Instruments AB.
    Wilke, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). BTG Instruments AB.
    Biazzo, Tom
    BTG Americas Inc. .
    van Fleet, Rick
    BTG Americas Inc. .
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    A new sensor and a novel control concept for optimized fiberline operation2013In: 2013 PEERS Conference, Co-located with the 2013 International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference, TAPPI Press, 2013, p. 190-215Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A dynamic Na/S balance of a kraft pulp mill: Modeling and simulation of a kraft pulp mill using WinGEMS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Annergren, Goran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Process aspects for sulfite pulping2014In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 270-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfite pulping of wood, with the aim of producing a paper product, can be carried out under acidic, neutral or alkaline conditions. However, if a dissolving pulp is required to be achieved, only acidic conditions may be employed. The main reason for this specific requirement for dissolving pulps is the high level of cellulose purity required. The hemicellulose content should therefore be low and hemicellulose molecules are best removed at low pH. Another difference is that in paper pulps it is the fibre properties that are of a dominant interest, while in a dissolving pulp the cellulose properties are of significant interest. However, one similarity for both paper and dissolving sulfite pulps is the risk of uncontrolled side-reactions, which can lead to severe lignin condensation reactions, and in extreme cases even to a totally black pulp. Thus, sulfite pulping is a relatively complex chemical process and an overview of the most important parameters is thus presented.

  • 44. Annergren, Göran
    et al.
    Kvarnlöf, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sulfitmassa: Översikt kring Processfrågor, Marknad och Framtid2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Karlstads universitet har tagit på sig uppgiften att försöka sammanställa det kunnande som idag finns inom landet kring sulfitmassa och sulfitprocesser. Eftersom antalet massabruk som tillverkar sulfitmassa sakta sjunker är detta en viktig uppgift för att i någon mån kunna behålla det stora kunnande som en gång fanns kring denna process.

    Denna rapport belyser bl.a. viktiga processfrågor kring framställningen av pappers- och dissolvingmassor från sulfitprocessen.

  • 45.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Molecular orientation and composition at the surface of APFO3:PCBM blend films2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference: Uppsala, Sweden, 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, SEFIN, Castelló (Spain), 2012, p. 278-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Morphology of Thin-Films of Polyfluorene: Fullerene Blends2008In: 1st Portuguese Young Chemists Meeting, PYCheM: Abstracts, 2008, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Antonsson, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mjölk, gluten och ADHD: En litteraturundersökning om mjölk och glutens påverkan hos barn med ADHD2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is becoming a more common diagnosis of younger children. In recent years the perception that some ingredients in our food may have a negative effect regarding the symptoms in children with ADHD has grown stronger. Children with ADHD often suffer from irritated bowel syndromes which affect their ability to digest food. This may result in malnutrition as well as a release of substances that are harmful.The purpose of this report is to compile and illustrate the knowledge of how special food, particular milk protein and gluten, may affect the symptoms of children with ADHD. Also, the report aims to evaluate if there should be changes made in Kindergarten to increase the well-being of these children. The report is a summary of research results on the effects milk protein and gluten have on children with ADHD.The majority of children with ADHD demonstrate decreased symptoms if they receive a diet without milk protein and gluten.If children with ADHD would be given a special diet excluding milk protein and gluten it is realistic to assume that their ADHD-symptoms might be reduced with a greater sense of well-being and quality of life as a result.

  • 48.
    Anukam, Anthony
    et al.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa.
    Goso, Boniswa P.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa..
    Okoh, Omobola O.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa..
    Mamphweli, Sampson N.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa..
    Studies on Characterization of Corn Cob for Application in a Gasification Process for Energy Production2017In: Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 2090-9063, E-ISSN 2090-9071, article id 6478389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quintessential characteristics of corn cob were investigated in this study in order to determine its gasification potential. Results were interpreted in relation to gasification with reference to existing data from the literature. The results showed that the gasification of corn cob may experience some challenges related to ash fouling, slagging, and sintering effects that may be orchestrated by high ash content recorded for corn cob, which may contribute to increasing concentration of inorganic elements under high temperature gasification conditions, even though EDX analysis showed reduced concentration of these elements. The study also found that the weight percentages of other properties such as moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents of corn cob as well as its three major elemental components (C, H, and O) including its clearly exhibited fiber cells make corn cob a suitable feedstock for gasification. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of -OH, C-O, C-H, and C=C as the major functional group of atoms in the structure of corn cob that may facilitate formation of condensable and noncondensable liquid and gaseous products during gasification. TGA results indicated that complete thermal decomposition of corn cob occurs at temperatures close to 1000 degrees C at a heating rate of 20 degrees C/min.

  • 49.
    Anukam, Anthony
    et al.
    University of Fort Hare.
    Mamphweli, Sampson
    University of Fort Hare.
    Meyer, Edson
    University of Fort Hare.
    Okoh, Omobola
    University of Fort Hare.
    Computer Simulation of the Mass and Energy Balance during Gasification of Sugarcane Bagasse2014In: Journal of Energy, E-ISSN 2314-615X, p. 1-9, article id 713054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated the mass and energy balance of the gasification of sugarcane bagasse using computer simulation. The key parameters and gasifier operating conditions were investigated in order to establish their impact on gas volume and conversion efficiency of the gasification process. The heating value of sugarcane bagasse was measured and found to be 17.8 MJ/kg which was used during calculation of the conversion efficiency of the gasification process. Fuel properties and gasifier design parameters were found to have an impact on conversion efficiency of the gasification process of sugarcane bagasse. The moisture content of sugarcane bagasse was varied by 1.14%, 15%, and 25%, respectively. Optimum conversion efficiency was achieved at low moisture content (1.14%) after computer simulation of the gasification process. The volume of carbon monoxide increased at low moisture content. It was also found that maximum conversion efficiency was achieved at reduced particle diameter (6 cm) and at reduced throat diameter (10 cm) and throat angle (25°), respectively, after these parameters were varied. Temperature of input air was also found to have an impact on the conversion efficiency of the gasification process as conversion efficiency increased slightly with increasing temperature of input air.

  • 50.
    Anukam, Anthony
    et al.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa.
    Mamphweli, Sampson N.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa..
    Reddy, Prashant
    Durban Univ Technol, South Africa..
    Okoh, Omobola O.
    Univ Ft Hare, South Africa..
    Characterization and the effect of lignocellulosic biomass value addition on gasification efficiency2016In: Energy exploration & exploitation, ISSN 0144-5987, E-ISSN 2048-4054, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 865-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value addition to lignocellulosic biomass materials such as sugarcane bagasse to produce multiple bio-based products which includes synthesis gas is becoming a dynamic research area. Pre-treatment techniques to improve the quality of biomass are essential for the successful application of the feedstock in energy production systems. This study investigated changes in the composition of sugarcane bagasse subjected to torrefaction as a preparation of bagasse for gasification. Characterization of the torrefied bagasse was undertaken in terms of proximate and ultimate analyses as well as in terms of energy value. The results were used to conduct a computer simulation of the gasification process of the torrefied bagasse. The gasification process results confirmed that torrefied bagasse is a suitable feedstock for gasification in terms of conversion efficiency, which was found to be approximately 42% when compared to untorrefied sugarcane bagasse, with a conversion efficiency of about 40% achieved in our previous study.

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