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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Stålhult, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Hospitals exposed to flooding in Manila City, Philippines: GIS analyses of alternative emergency routes and allocation of emergency service and temporary medical centre2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year the Philippines get affected by a number of typhoons, which cause severe damage, sometimes due to flooding. The capital, Manila, is located on a flood plain that is partly at, and even below sea level and with several rivers crossing the area. These are some of the factors that contribute to that Manila often is affected by severe flooding.

    During ten weeks of the spring semester in 2014, this thesis was conducted as a completion of the bachelor program Geographic Information System (GIS) at Karlstad University, Sweden. Eight weeks were spent in Manila in the Philippines at the University of the Philippines Diliman, School of Urban and Regional Planning (UP SURP).

    The aim of the study was to investigate how hospitals in Manila City get affected during flooding. GIS was used to perform network analyses, in order to calculate the shortest route for the emergency service to travel from a station via a barangay to a hospital. The shortest alternative route during a 5-year flood was also calculated in order to compare the distance differences that might be due to flood.

    During a 100-year flood another type of analysis was performed, where suggestions for suitable locations for placing emergency service and temporary medical centre were presented. These suggestions on suitable locations were placed in an area that will not be affected during a 100-year flood.

    Results from the analyses showed that Manila City is a very exposed area during flood. During a 5-year flood some parts of Manila City will be highly exposed and about 1/4 of the population will be affected. The shortest alternative route for the emergency service to use during flood will generally be longer than in normal situations. Some hospitals cannot be accessed from some barangays due to impassable roads.

    During a 100-year flood the area gets gravely affected, almost 2/3 of the population will be affected and many roads become impassable, which limits the accessibility in Manila City.

  • 2.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 3.
    Bernhard, David
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Oksana, Kulyk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Security proofs for Participation privacy, receipt-freeness and ballot privacy for the helios voting scheme2017In: ARES '17 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, article id UNSP 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Helios voting scheme is well studied including formal proofs for verifiability and ballot privacy. However, depending on its version, the scheme provides either participation privacy (hiding who participated in the election) or verifiability against malicious bulletin board (preventing election manipulation by ballot stuffing), but not both at the same time. It also does not provide receipt-freeness, thus enabling vote buying by letting the voters construct receipts proving how they voted. Recently, an extension to Helios, further referred to as KTV-Helios, has been proposed that claims to provide these additional security properties. However, the authors of KTV-Helios did not prove their claims. Our contribution is to provide formal definitions for participation privacy and receipt-freeness that we applied to KTV-Helios. In order to evaluate the fulfillment of participation privacy and receipt-freeness, we furthermore applied the existing definition of ballot privacy, which was also used for evaluating the security of Helios, in order to show that ballot privacy also holds for KTV-Helios

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Dalmo, Mimmi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Framsökning av riskobjekt och tillgängligheten av vägnätet samt järnvägen vid översvämning: I Karlstads kommun2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad is a city situated on and by the Klarälven river delta, a river that flows into the Lake Vänern. Both the water flow in Klarälven and the water levels in Vänern are contributing to the city being at risk of flooding.

    In 2010 the municipality of Karlstad developed a Flood program. This program contains a comprehensive approach to flooding problems, where is stated what action should be taken in short and long terms. As part of this Flood program it was decided that the Rescue services in the Karlstad region should develop a contingency- and action plan. This degree projekt is performed for the rescue services in the Karlstad region and forms the basis for further work on contingency and action plan.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and coordinate socially important critical objects and visualize these objects within different flood scenarios in Klarälven and Vänern.

    Further, identification which important roads within the municipality that are affected by different flood scenarios in Klarälven will be visualized. Through network analysis alternative routes for rerouting all types of traffic have been established for situations when the important roads are flooded.

    Finally, the railroads in the municipality affected by the different flood scenarios in Klarälven have been identified.

    The result shows that many critical objects, roads and railways are at risk of flooding and support the opinion that Karlstad is a city at severe risk of flooding.

    The aim of the contingency plan is to provide a clear picture of what needs to be protected and in what order this should be done,  in case of flooding.

    It will not be possible to rescue all activities in the city, therefore maps, showing critical objects with priority, are important to simplify rescue efforts.

     

    This report only shows a selection of critical objects and no object names, function classifications or priorities may be shown in the maps, as this is confidential.

    All work and maps of such information is handed over to the Rescue services in the Karlstad region. 

  • 5.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Jakobsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Component-Based Software Development Life Cycles2000In: Proceedings Workshop on Emerging Issues in Computer and System Sciences, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Simulation, Models, and Results: Reflections on their Nature and Credibility2015In: Proceedings of Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2015, Wolverhampton, UK / [ed] Chike F. Oduoza, Wolverhampton, UK: The Choir Press , 2015, p. 148-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation tools are widely used across the product, process and resource domains of product- and production development. This paper discusses the nature of simulation models and the wide use of simulation models .It uses virtual manufacturing, in particular discrete event simulation project methodology, as an example to elucidate important aspects of simulation, in particular human roles and some selected project phases of which verification and validation in relation to the simulation’s intended purpose are discussed in particular. The paper uses the NASA CAS model for credibility assessment of simulations to arrive at a schematic representation of how overall credibility as composed of aspect related to the model, the data, and the model’s use.

  • 7. Dietz, L. W.
    et al.
    Manner, J.
    Harrer, S.
    Lenhard, Jörg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Teaching clean code2018In: Combined Proceedings of the Workshops of the German Software Engineering Conference 2018 (SE 2018) / [ed] Krusche S., Schneider K., Kuhrmann M., Heinrich R., Jung R. et al, CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 24-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning programming is hard - teaching it well is even more challenging. At university, the focus is often on functional correctness and neglects the topic of clean and maintainable code, despite the dire need for developers with this skill set within the software industry. We present a feedbackdriven teaching concept for college students in their second to third year that we have applied and refined successfully over a period of more than six years and for which received the faculty's teaching award. Evaluating the learning process within a semester of student submissions (n=18) with static code analysis tools shows satisfying progress. Identifying the correction of the in-semester programming assignments as the bottleneck for scaling the number of students in the course, we propose using a knowledge base of code examples to decrease the time to feedback and increase feedback quality. From our experience in assessing student code, we have compiled such a knowledge base with the typical issues of Java learners' code in the format of before/after comparisons. By simply referencing the problem to the student, the quality of feedback can be improved, since such comparisons let the student understand the problem and the rationale behind the solution. Further speed-up is achieved by using a curated list of static code analysis checks to help the corrector in identifying violations in the code swiftly. We see this work as a foundational step towards online courses with hundreds of students learning how to write clean code.

  • 8. Frisk, Philip
    Hastighetskamerors effekt på trafikolyckor2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2006, a new ATK-system (Automated traffic enforcement system) was introduced in Sweden with the purpose to reduce average speed and number of accidents on the Swedish roads. In this study, road accidents that occurred close to the speed cameras in the new ATK-system are analyzed with GIS-tools. A total number of 1 104 ATK-cameras and 1 975 road accidents were included in the analysis. All of the included accidents occurred within three years before and three years after the installation of the nearby camera, and also within  a distance of 400 m before and 1 000 m after every camera. The amount of accidents that occurred before the installment date was compared to the amount that occurred after to give an understanding for the effect ATK-cameras have on road accidents. ATK-cameras were included in the analysis regardless of the associated roads road type, speed limit or any other road attribute.

    The analysis was done in six parts, each focusing on one of the six following attributes; accident type, injuries, vehicle type, road condition, speed limits at the ATK-spot and distance from ATK-camera. The results show that the total decrease of accidents within the camera-areas analyzed in this study (0–400 m in front of and 0–1 000 m behind speed cameras) is 18.5 %. Road exit collision is the accident type with the largest decrease of accidents and a large decrease of accidents with severe injuries and death is shown. On the contrary, an increase of overtake collisions and motorcycle accidents is shown. The largest decrease of accidents occurs in the distance interval of 0 – 500 m behind the cameras. In the intervals 0–400 in before and 500–1 000 m after, the decrease is lower. The analysis also shows that the cameras have a greater positive effect on roads with the speed limit 50 or 80 km/h as compared with other roads. In addition, the cameras have a greater positive effect when the road condition is bad.

  • 9.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Business model innovations for overcoming barriers in the base-of-the-pyramid market2017In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 543-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many barriers must be overcome when entering the base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) market. Firms facing these barriers need to innovate new business models and reinvent existing ones to suit the BoP context. While previous literature has focused on the innovations of particular components of business models in BoP markets, we investigate the reconfigurations in the business model components that underpin the successful business model innovations. This study is based on multiple case studies in the water sector that we carried out in several different countries. Our findings suggest five business model innovations: (a) design, (b) renewal, (c) expansion, (d) diversification and (e) replication. Each business model innovation is a specific response to the barriers met in the BoP market and requires consistent configuration between its various components (i.e. value proposition, value creation and profit equation). These findings add, in two important aspects, to the academic realm of the business model domain: by contributing to the debate of business models in BoP markets and by advancing the configurational view of business models.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Bowen, David E.
    Thunderbird School of Global Management,Glendale, AZ, USA.
    The curious case of interdisciplinary research deficiency: Cause or symptom of what truly ails us?2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 212-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces some service research challenges and opportunities then comments on the articles in this special issue on emergent topics in service research. It is an exciting time for service research as the area is rapidly developing and growing on a global basis. Service research is also especially apt for interdisciplinary as service is not developed by any one function in a company; it is a purpose in some way for everyone across the organization regardless of where they are working. It is strange, then, that we have not advanced further on interdisciplinary research, particularly since it has been in focus for a long time in the field. In this opinion piece we take the opportunity to suggest ways forward that include goals of mastering paradoxical thinking and making a difference.

  • 11.
    Jakobsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Component-Oriented Software System Architectures2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and developing software systems, there are several challenges that have to be addressed such as complexity, change management and system integrity. Trends in development processes, programming languages and software design are constantly changing. New programming paradigms have succeeded each other while the software systems have grown larger and more difficult to maintain. Component-oriented thinking provides the opportunity to re-use pre-fabricated parts to assemble software systems from tested building blocks, facilitating a rapid and consistent software development process. A component-oriented approach, however, affects both the life cycle and the development process of a software system. Therefore, a new way of viewing the life cycle as well as the development process for component-based software systems is presented in this thesis.

    A key issue when using a component-oriented approach is to consider both behavioral and static aspects of a software system. Furthermore, we need to be able to analyze the architecture of the enterprise as well as the software system architecture to deliver business value with information systems. System interdependencies will be placed in the foreground when integrating technical and organizational aspects of the information system. We therefore need a modeling technique suitable for focusing on semantic aspects rather than implementation-dependent issues. A suitable modeling technique is the Enterprise Modeling approach.

    This thesis will present a component-oriented approach to software system architectures using the Enterprise Modeling approach.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Josefine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Undersökning av open source GIS programvaror: Med hänsyn till MSB’s användningsområden internt och för RIB Karta2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    MSB stands for Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. It’s a government organization that deals with emergencies and crises. MSB has developed a software package where the newest software version is called RIB 2012. The package includes the program RIB Karta. RIB Karta has made it possible to produce an overall picture consisting of different types of information onto a single map. RIB Karta is a very simple map viewer without any analysis functions.

    The purpose of this degree project is to compare several open source software with the existing RIB Karta. The study will result in suggestions for a possible open source program which allows the use of geographic data internally within MSB and the existing RIB Karta. The programs that were studied are: gvSIG, MapWindow, OpenJUMP, Quantum GIS and uDig.

    The advantage of using open source software is that they are free, and the access to the source code allows them to be modified to suit your needs. This program is also an alternative to RIB Karta meaning that the program may be freely distributed resulting in a great advantage. One disadvantage is that if major changes in the source code are made, the support may be difficult to access. The license for open source software designed to code should be made available for everyone.

    Investigations by various open source GIS software have been implemented in the order to present the program that has more features than RIB Karta but still understandable to people with non-GIS experience. When compared with one another, the studies show pros and cons within each of the programs. The investigations have been made after a survey template that was developed after meetings with MSB. Functions, analysis capabilities and ease of use are what have been taken into account. The most suitable software is therefore chosen after taking into account these distinguishing factors

    From the results of the studies Quantum GIS software is recommended for internal use in MSB and in RIB Karta. Based on its variety in terms of features and good usability we conclude that Quantum GIS is the best choice.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Pedersen, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Live-Chat Module for Web-based Systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

       To ensure that a customer is satisfied when they purchase a product, they need to be able toreceive assistance if the product does not work correctly or is in any other way unsatisfactory. Thisis why support is needed. There are many different types of support, but with an ever growingnumber of people having less time to spare in their every day life, a quick short answer issometimes preferred. This is why the market for Live-Chat support solutions has grown.

       The purpose of this thesis project is to develop a functional stand-alone Live-Chatdemonstration prototype according to Askås' demands and wishes. The demonstration prototypewas developed using the programming language Perl, with additional functionality developed injQuery, HTML and CSS. The project will be evaluated by its functionality and too which degree itcompares to similar solutions.

       The project was successful in the development of a functional demonstration prototypehowever further development is needed if it is to be used as a complement to Askås' web-shopsolution.

  • 14.
    Lenhard, Jörg
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ferme, Vincenzo
    Software Institute, Faculty of Informatics, USI Lugano, Switzerland.
    Harrer, Simon
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    Geiger, Matthias
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    Pautasso, Cesare
    Software Institute, Faculty of Informatics, USI Lugano, Switzerland.
    Lessons Learned from Evaluating Workflow Management Systems2017In: Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2017 Workshops / [ed] L. Braubach, J.M. Murillo, N. Kaviani, M. Lama, L. Burgueño, N. Moha & M. Oriol, Springer, 2017, p. 215-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work ow Management Systems (WfMSs) today act as ser- vice composition engines and service-oriented middleware to enable the execution of automated business processes. Automation based on WfMSs promises to enable the model-driven construction of exible and easily maintainable services with high-performance characteristics. In the past decade, signi cant e ort has been invested into standardizing WfMSs that compose services, with standards such as the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) or the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). One of the aims of standardization is to enable users of WfMSs to compare di erent systems and to avoid vendor lock-in. Despite these e orts, there are many expectations concerning portabil- ity, performance e ciency, usability, reliability and maintainability of WfMSs that are likely to be unful lled. In this work, we synthesize the ndings of two research initiatives that deal with WfMSs conformance and performance benchmarking to distill a set of lessons learned and best practices. These ndings provide useful advice for practitioners who plan to evaluate and use WfMSs and for WfMS vendors that would like to foster wider adoption of process-centric service composition middleware. 

  • 15.
    Lindblom, Mathias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    LogFilterUI: Enkelsidigt webbgränssnitt för LogFilter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish company Secorum AB has developed the tool LogFilter to reduce the exposure of sensitive information within log files. The tool is currently being controlled by configuration files which complicate the usability for the regular users. For continued growth, Secorum are in need of a user friendly web interface to show new users the potential functions of LogFilter. This dissertation describes the project LogFilterUI whose primary objective is to create a userfriendly web interface that shows the main features of LogFilter. The project resulted in a single-page web application written with the React and Redux frameworks with the main purpose of illustrating the potential of LogFilter. The application is now more user-friendly and a user can easily follow how implemented rules are applied to the log files. 

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Linus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Pantesjö, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hantering och modellering av laserskanningsdata i FME: Automatisering av modellering av tunnlar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building and construction industries implementation of BIM has resulted in an increased need to digitalise as-built basis. Older as-built documents, which is mostly made of paper plans, are missing their digital counterparts, which makes it that collection of new information, from the paper plans, can be vital.

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a technique that is applied for collection of data in the form of data point clouds and is a more frequent collection method for obtaining supplies of as-built. Modelling from three-dimensional point cloud data is usually a complicated matter and therefore connected with manual labour to produce an arbitrary result.

    The purpose with the bachelor thesis was to research the possibility to create a CAD-model of the layer of a tunnel from a point cloud with the use of a software called FME. The study area is a smaller tunnel segment and the collected data set is based from an earlier created point cloud. The point cloud is unprocessed and contains noise from deviant points and object of installations and construction. The earlier produced as-built, in form of a CAD-model, was applied as well to enable a comparison parallel to the newly created models in this thesis.

    FME contains several tools for handling point clouds and the work have included several tests where the different tools have been evaluated. The primary focus of the work has been to evaluate the possibilities of the tool PointCloudSurfaceBuilder, which function is to reconstruct point clouds to a mesh. A method was also created and examined to clean the point cloud from noise.

    Several tests were executed to see what kind of method works the best and models of different qualities were rendered. The construction method Poisson in the transformer PointCloudSurfaceBuilder produced the best results whereas it creates a “water tight” model that follows the point clouds spatial conditions in a better way than the as-built model. In the method of Poisson there is a parameter called Maximum Depth which showed the greatest impact for the quality of the result. For every increase of 1 in the parameter Maximum Depth was the resolution increased by a factor of two in every direction of x, y and z. The total values for amount of time, file size and number of triangles increased as well in a way parallel to the potential increase of the resolution. It is hard, if not impossible, to handle the models in CAD-environments above the value 9. That is because of too high detail in the data in relation to the size of the study area. Therefore, are the recommended values of the parameter 7 and 8 in case of modelling of similar environments in tunnel complexes.

  • 17.
    Murmann, Patrick
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Reinhardt, Delphine
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    To Be, or Not to Be Notified: Eliciting Privacy Notification Preferences for Online mHealth ServicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people are tracking and quantifying their fitness and health, and entrust online mobile health (mhealth) services with storing and processing their sensitive personal data. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) enable users to keep track of how their personal data are processed, and represent important building blocks to understand privacy implications and control one’s online privacy. Particularly, privacy notifications provide users of TETs with the insight necessary to make informed decision about controlling their personal data that they have disclosed previously. To investigate the notification preferences of users of online mhealth services, we conducted an online study. We analysed how notification scenarios can be grouped contextually, and how user preferences with respect to being notified relate to intervenability. Moreover, we examined to what extent ex post notification preferences correlate with privacy personas established in the context of trust in and reliability of online data services. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for the design of usable ex post TETs.

  • 18.
    Murmann, Patrick
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Reinhardt, Delphine
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    To Be, or Not to Be Notified: Eliciting Privacy Notification Preferences for Online mHealth Services2019In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection / [ed] Gurpreet Dhillon, Fredrik Karlsson, Karin Hedström, André Zúquete, Springer, 2019, p. 209-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people are tracking and quantifying their fitness and health, and entrust online mobile health (mhealth) services with storing and processing their sensitive personal data. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) enable users to keep track of how their personal data are processed, and represent important building blocks to understand privacy implications and control one’s online privacy. Particularly, privacy notifications provide users of TETs with the insight necessary to make informed decision about controlling their personal data that they have disclosed previously. To investigate the notification preferences of users of online mhealth services, we conducted an online study. We analysed how notification scenarios can be grouped contextually, and how user preferences with respect to being notified relate to intervenability. Moreover, we examined to what extent ex post notification preferences correlate with privacy personas established in the context of trust in and reliability of online data services. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for the design of usable ex post TETs.

  • 19.
    Neumann, Stephan
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Noll, Manuel
    Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Election-Dependent Security Evaluation of Internet Voting Schemes2017In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection: SEC 2017. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology / [ed] De Capitani di Vimercati S., Martinelli F., Springer, 2017, Vol. 502, p. 371-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variety of Internet voting schemes proposed in the literature build their security upon a number of trust assumptions. The criticality of these assumptions depends on the target election setting, particularly the adversary expected within that setting. Given the potential complexity of the assumptions, identifying the most appropriate Internet voting schemes for a specific election setting poses a significant burden to election officials. We address this shortcoming by the construction of an election-dependent security evaluation framework for Internet voting schemes. On the basis of two specification languages, the core of the framework essentially evaluates election-independent security models with regard to expected adversaries and returns satisfaction degrees for security requirements. These satisfaction degrees serve election officials as basis for their decision-making. The framework is evaluated against requirements stemming from measure theory.

  • 20. Nilson, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlsson, Janry
    Kartunderlag för räddningstjänstinsatser i Oslo, Norge2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Orban, Beata
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Test av enkla metoder för att skapa en tile cache i två GIS-programvaror2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet på uppdrag av Arvika kommun består av att undersöka olika GIS-program med kapaciteten att skapa tile cache som är baserad på en map cache.

     

    Av de programvaror som fanns tillgängliga på Arvika kommun uppfyllde två programvaror de kriterier som hade ställts. Programvarorna testades och den mest lämpade för ändamålet valdes ut. Det gjordes även ett antal intervjuer för att samla in användarens önskemål och synpunkter angående den nya webbkartan.

     

    Utifrån de testkartor som testades under arbetets gång resulterade det i att ArcMap var den programvara som uppfyllde bäst de krav och önskemål som Arvika kommun ställt.

     

  • 22.
    Papastergiou, Giorgos
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, U.K.
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Distributed Systems and Communication (DISCO).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Münster University of Applied Sciences, Steinfurt, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA.
    Mangiante, Simone
    EMC Corporation, Ovens, Ireland.
    De-Ossifying the Internet Transport Layer: A Survey and Future Perspectives2017In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 619-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that the Internet transport layer has become ossified, where further evolution has become hard or even impossible. This is a direct consequence of the ubiquitous deployment of middleboxes that hamper the deployment of new transports, aggravated further by the limited flexibility of the application programming interface (API) typically presented to applications. To tackle this problem, a wide range of solutions have been proposed in the literature, each aiming to address a particular aspect. Yet, no single proposal has emerged that is able to enable evolution of the transport layer. In this paper, after an overview of the main issues and reasons for transport-layer ossification, we survey proposed solutions and discuss their potential and limitations. The survey is divided into five parts, each covering a set of point solutions for a different facet of the problem space: (1) designing middlebox-proof transports; (2) signaling for facilitating middlebox traversal; (3) enhancing the API between the applications and the transport layer; (4) discovering and exploiting end-to-end capabilities; and (5) enabling user-space protocol stacks. Based on this analysis, we then identify further development needs toward an overall solution. We argue that the development of a comprehensive transport layer framework, able to facilitate the integration and cooperation of specialized solutions in an application-independent and flexible way, is a necessary step toward making the Internet transport architecture truly evolvable. To this end, we identify the requirements for such a framework and provide insights for its development

  • 23.
    Rignell, Elisabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Projektledarens förutsättningar för kunskapsöverföring mellan produktutvecklingsprojekt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapsöverföring mellan projekt är ett ansvarsområde inom projektledning. Arbetsformen projekt är mycket kunskapsintensiv och det är av största vikt för organisationer att omhänderta kunskap som genereras inom projektverksamheten. Det finns dokumenterade svårigheter kring kunskapsöverföring från både framgångrika samt problemfyllda projekt och oftast förblir kunskapen individbunden och odokumenterad.

    För att genomföra kunskapsöverföring mellan projekt på ett effektivt sätt krävs att projektledare har kunskap om specifika metoder samt pedagogiska färdigheter ihop med bred projektledarkunskap. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa projektledares uppfattning om kunskapsöverföring mellan produktutvecklingsprojekt och vilka metoder som används. Den kvalitativa ansatsen fenomenografi har används för att analysera resultatet. Studien omfattar totalt sex intervjuer av seniora projektledare verksamma inom produktutvecklingsprojekt på ett högteknologiskt företag i mellansverige.

    Projektledarna i denna studie använder metoder vid kunskapsöverföring som är dokumenterat framgångsrika vid kunskapsöverföring och organisatoriskt lärande. Projektledarna anser att kunskapsöverföring är en viktig aktivitet men deras utövandet bygger endast på erfarenhetsbaserad kunskap utan en teoretisk, pedagogisk förankring. Varken projektorganisationen eller linjeorganisationen prioriterar aktivteter kopplat till kunskapsöverföring i verksamheten. Projektverksamheten är i huvudsak fokuserad kring produktframtagning och kunskapsöverföring sker övervägande i samband med att problem uppstår i verksamheten. Projektteamens möjligheter att ta till sig kunskap under problemlösning är begränsade på grund av hög stressnivå. Dokumenteringen av kunskapsöverföring har ingen given mottagare i linjeorganisationen. De framgångsrika mjuka ledaregenskaperna vid kunskapsöverföring värderas inte explicit av verksamheten. Många aktiviteter kring kunskapsöverföring sker omedvetet i projektverksamheten. Fallstudien visar att det finns en förbättringspotential i det högteknologiska företagets projekt- och linjeverksamhet genom att öka fokuseringen på kunskapsöverföring och projektledares förutsättningar.

  • 24.
    Skymberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Angelroth, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Pilotstudie: Utvecklingsmöjligheter för kartstöd nationell naturolycksdatabas2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and the rest of the World is regularly struck by natural disasters. Due to this, the Swedish Rescue Agency has been commissioned by the Government to produce a national database for natural disasters in Sweden. 34 different authorities and organizations are involved in the process of designing the database.

    The database has got a map application designed to search for specific occurrences /natural disasters but this is not yet fully developed. Today the disasters are only marked with dots in the map, which does not give a satisfying overview of the size of the affected area.

    This work aims to complement the map application of the database with the spatial extent of the natural disasters and different areas with potential risk to increase the usefulness of the map. To make this possible data was collected from different authorities. The areas with risk of being flooded were already available in digital form while the areas with risk of landslides were georeferenced and digitized.

    Two different solutions were created, the first one a simplified version aimed for people with little or no experience of maps, the second one a more detailed version aimed for local authorities.

    The database is meant to be used for planning but also to gain knowledge from former disasters to improve future rescue missions.

  • 25.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Monitoring quality of service at Australian airports: A critical analysis2018In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 67, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of service monitoring forms a key element of the current light-handed regulation at Australian airports. The ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) evaluates and publicly reports the quality of service levels of the four largest airports on a yearly basis to pressure airports to maintain an acceptable service performance. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the methodology used by the ACCC. This analysis includes a critical review of the methodology based on secondary information in combination with primary research (i.e., data from 21 semi-structured interviews) that considers the current perception of the methodology among key stakeholder groups. The research finds that the methodology used by the ACCC is underpinned by some limitations, putting in question its effectiveness, reliability and validity. Particularly, its weak design does not allow for a comprehensive interpretation of the reported results or a reliable comparison across monitored airports, thus reduces transparency. Stakeholders pointed out that it is not possible to evaluate whether an airport undertakes infrastructure investments that ensure both the efficiency of ongoing airport operations and appropriate levels of service quality. These limitations add to the perception that the ACCC in its current function is not a ‘credible threat’ to airports with market power. Recommendations and future research directions are provided to address the identified limitations.

  • 26.
    Törebrand, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Geodatasamverkan - nyttan för en kommun att delta2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish model for developing the national infrastructure is based on increasing the cooperation between municipalities, government and businesses. The method to establish the infrastructure in Sweden is the geodatastrategin. The effort to implement the geodatastrategin has resulted in an interaction model, Geodatasamverkan.

     

    The purpose of this study is to alert municipalities and to investigate the usefulness of their participation in Geodatasamverkan. The study also presents examples of different applications where geodata can be used within a municipality.

     

    The report is based on literature reviews, surveys and interviews. Online Surveys were sent to some of Sweden's municipalities to get an overall idea of ​​how they make use of geodata and their general attitude towards Geodatasamverkan. Two different custom made questionnaires were sent out, one adapted to those municipalities that participate in Geodatasamverkan and one adapted to those who do not. Those who were asked are staff responsible for GIS at a total of 62 municipalities in Västra Götalands län, Dalarnas län, Örebro län and Värmlands län, which sums up to a total of 39 people.

     

    For a more detailed investigation, staff responsible for GIS at five different municipalities in Värmland were chosen for interviews. The interviewed persons were selected on the criteria that most municipalities can relate to the investigation. Within the selected municipalities the study includes municipalities with varying GIS activities and situations according to their participation in Geodatasamverkan.

     

    The result concludes that municipalities can benefit greatly from participating in Geodatasamverkan. However, it is necessary that geodata is used in a substantial way within the municipality, and that geodata is implemented in several administrations. Participation in Geodatasamverkan results in access for municipalities to a large amount of geodata for a minor fee. The survey shows that participating municipalities order more of the set-covering images, basic maps and elevation data compared to before. This is due to the previously high expenditures of this type of data. The administrative process to manage contracts and invoices decrease, since only one contract and one invoice needs to be dealt with for participation.

     

  • 27.
    Wicander, Gudrun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Mobile Supported e-Government Systems: Analysis of the Education Management Information System (EMIS) in Tanzania2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    e-Government systems are considered by both governments and international organisations to improve administration and management. In Tanzania, an e-government system for education administration, EMIS, is partly implemented but shows several limitations. Statistical data is collected but the process is resource demanding and much of the collected data are never put into the system, and therefore remain inaccessible from this electronic system.

    The overall aim of this study is to propose an approach to designing more efficient e-government systems within the education sector. The focus is on public schools. The more specific aim of the present study is to:

    explore more efficient data transfer (faster, more reliable, and potentially less resource demanding) by using mobile telephone technology, especially SMS, as a means for statistical data collection for Tanzanian education management.

    The study is guided by an overall research approach that comprises systems theory and a socio-technical view. This research is performed as a case study, inspired by the ethnographic method and comprises field studies in East Africa. A multi-technique approach is used for empirical data gathering, including literature study, interviews, and direct observations. The analytical process is performed by developing and applying three analytical models:

    • XIF - the eXtended Sustainable ICT Framework  
    • Triple A - Access, Attitude, Awareness
    • Seven Aspects – an Approach Towards Success

    The contributions of this thesis are as follows. A mobile supported SMS-based statistical data collection process employing a blended digital solution is proposed. Likely effects of such a system would be ‘better’ data e.g. less transmission errors, which provides for ‘better’ administration, ‘better’ decision-making, and also provides for transparency. Moreover, it is very likely that the proposed system is significantly less resource demanding than the present system.

    The three analytical models that are developed specifically for this study have generic characters and can be used during the implementation process of other e-government solutions.  The most important part of the contribution is not the technological solution per se; it is the process that foregoes the actual implementation. The proposal departs specifically from the Tanzanian educational context but has implications for e-government systems solutions and information systems implementation in developing countries in general.

    Finally, three overall reflections are made based on the major observations of the research findings: the Double ‘e’ Dilemma, on the problem of prioritising electronics before electricity, the Mobiles to Avoid Mobility paradox, highlighting connectivity before mobility, and the opportunity to use the SMS to Combat Corruption weapon.

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