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  • 1.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pettersson, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

  • 2.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Usable privacy for digital transactions: Exploring the usability aspects of three privacy enhancing mechanisms2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of personal identifiable information that people distribute over different online services has grown rapidly and considerably over the last decades. This has led to increased probabilities for identity theft, profiling and linkability attacks, which can in turn not only result in a threat to people’s personal dignity, finances, and many other aspects of their lives, but also to societies in general. Methods and tools for securing people’s online activities and protecting their privacy on the Internet, so called Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs), are being designed and developed. However, these technologies are often seen by ordinary users as complicated and disruptive of their primary tasks.

     

    In this licentiate thesis, I investigate the usability aspects of three main privacy and security enhancing mechanisms. These mechanisms have the goal of helping and encouraging users to protect their privacy on the Internet as they engage in some of the steps necessary to complete a digital transaction. The three mechanisms, which have been investigated within the scope of different research projects, comprise of (1) graphical visualizations of service providers’ privacy policies and user-friendly management and matching of users’ privacy preferences “on the fly”, (2) methods for helping users create appropriate mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials, and (3) employing touch-screen biometrics as a method to authenticate users into mobile devices and verify their identities during a digital transaction.

     

    Results from these investigations suggest that these mechanisms can make digital transactions privacy-friendly and secure while at the same time delivering convenience and usability for ordinary users.

  • 3.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management2012In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

  • 4.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 5.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Identity Management for online transactions - Using ‘Profiles’ to segregate personal information2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gullberg, Peter
    Gemalto, Gothenburg.
    Kling, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tavemark, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use2012In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: ACM Digital Library, 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

  • 7.
    Durl, James
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Co-designing with young consumers: Reflections, challenges and benefits2017In: Young Consumers, ISSN 1747-3616, E-ISSN 1758-7212, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 439-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore co-design as a method for actively involving young consumers in the design of an alcohol education program that utilizes an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) component. Design/methodology/approach - Dietrich et al. (2017) six-step framework was applied to a co-design project involving four groups of 14- to 16-year-old Australian high school students. Data collection included observations by three facilitators, written feedback from members of each group and video presentations of the generated ideas. The data analysis focused on investigating the applicability of the six-step framework to young consumers and evaluating the quality and practicality of the generated ideas. Findings - Sensitization is key to enabling young consumers to become equal participants during the co-design process. Sensitization allowed the participants to engage in the design task in a playful manner, which fostered active participation and creative insights during the co-design session. A team approach based on interactivity and group autonomy enabled adolescents to contribute insights into their specific needs and wants. This was complemented by a trusting environment and the presence of immediately available yet "hands off" facilitators. Research limitations/implications - The findings are limited to one specific sample and design task. Future research is required that investigates co-design with young consumers in different contexts. Practical implications - This paper provides guidance for the application of co-design with young consumers by highlighting the importance of sensitization and facilitation. Originality/value - This study marks one of the first approaches to co-designing alcohol education programs, including VR components, with young consumers. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the consequences of involving young consumers through co-design.

  • 8.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Going Mobile: Gamifying Digital News in Mobile Devices2014In: Persuasive Technology: Persuasive, motivating, empowering videogames. Adjunct proceedings. / [ed] Gamberini, L., Spagnolli, A., Chittaro, L., & Zamboni, L., Padova, Italy, 2014, p. 86-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My PhD research examines the application of gamification techniques in the distribution and consumption of news in the emerging mobile society. The focus is placed on persuasive design and game mechanics in order to motivate, engage, and create new habits of news consumption in the mobile audiences.

    New efforts are needed in order to capture the emerging individual structures of the self, through the engagement with technological personalized systems that turn life towards short term, fragmented information, on-the-go life styles. New techniques designed to overcome the challenges of going mobile and to empower and engage audiences that are arising, such as persuasive design and gamification.

  • 9.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Privacy in Social Collective Intelligence Systems2014In: Social Collective Intelligence: Combining the Powers of Humans and Machines to Build a Smarter Society / [ed] Miorandi, D., Maltese, V., Rovatsos, M., Nijholt, A., Stewart, J., Switzerland: Springer, 2014, 1, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of Social Collective Intelligent Systems (SCIS) on the individual right of privacy is discussed in this chapter under the light of the relevant privacy principles of the European Data Protection Legal Framework and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Privacy Guidelines. This chapter analyzes the impact and limits of profiling, provenance and reputation on the right of privacy and review the legal privacy protection for profiles. From the technical perspective, we discuss opportunities and challenges for designing privacy-preserving systems for SCIS concerning collectives and decentralized systems. Furthermore, we present a selection of privacy-enhancing technologies that are relevant for SCIS: anonymous credentials, transparency-enhancing tools and the PrimeLife Policy Language. Finally, we discuss how these technologies can help to enforce the main legal principles of the European Data Protection Legal Framework, and argue how provenance and reputation can be designed in a privacy preserving manner.

  • 10.
    Framner, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    A Configuration User Interface for Multi-Cloud Storage Based on Secret Sharing: An Exploratory Design Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Storing personal information in a secure and reliable manner may be crucial for organizational as well as private users. Encryption protects the confidentiality of data against adversaries but if the cryptographic key is lost, the information will not be obtainable for authorized individuals either. Redundancy may protect information against availability issues or data loss, but also comes with greater storage overhead and cost. Cloud storage serves as an attractive alternative to traditional storage as one is released from maintenance responsibilities and does not have to invest in in-house IT-resources. However, cloud adoption is commonly hindered due to privacy concerns.

    Instead of relying on the security of a single cloud, this study aims to investigate the applicability of a multi-cloud solution based on Secret Sharing, and to identify suitable options and guidelines in a configuration user interface (UI). Interviews were conducted with technically skilled people representing prospective users, followed by walkthroughs of a UI prototype.

    Although the solution would (theoretically) allow for employment of less “trustworthy” clouds without compromising the data confidentiality, the research results indicate that trust factors such as compliance with EU laws may still be a crucial prerequisite in order for users to utilize cloud services. Users may worry about cloud storage providers colluding, and the solution may not be perceived as adequately secure without the use of encryption. The configuration of the Secret Sharing parameters are difficult to comprehend even for technically skilled individuals and default values could/should be recommended to the user.

  • 11.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Applications of Privacy and Security Research in the Upcoming Battlefield of Things2018In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security / [ed] Audun Jøsang, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a trend scouting study on the applicability of contemporary information privacy and information security research in future defence scenarios in a 25-year-horizon. We sketch the expected digital warfare and defence environment as a “battlefield of things” where connected objects, connected soldiers and automated and autonomous sensing and acting systems are core elements. Based on this scenario, we discuss current research in information security and information privacy and their relevance and applicability for the future scenario.

  • 12.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    et al.
    Norsk Regnesentral Norwegian Comp Ctr, NO-0373 Oslo, Norway..
    Groven, Arne-Kristian
    Norsk Regnesentral Norwegian Comp Ctr, NO-0373 Oslo, Norway..
    Schulz, Trenton
    Norsk Regnesentral Norwegian Comp Ctr, NO-0373 Oslo, Norway..
    On the Internet of Things, Trust is Relative2012In: CONSTRUCTURING AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 267-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    End-users on the Internet of Things (IoT) will encounter many different devices and services; they will need to decide whether or not they can trust these devices and services with their information. We identify three items of trust information that end-users will need to determine if they should trust something on the IoT. We create a taxonomy of the likely scenarios end-users will encounter on the IoT and present five trust strategies for obtaining this trust information. Upon applying these strategies to our scenarios, we find that there is no strategy that can work efficiently and effectively in every situations; end-users will need to apply the strategy that best fits their current situation. Offering multiple trust strategies in parallel and having this information transparent to end-users will ensure a sustainable IoT.

  • 13.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    Nork Regnesentral.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    I’m Not That Old Yet! The Elderly and Us in HCI and Assistive Technology2018In: Proceedings of the Mobile Privacy and Security for an Ageing Population workshop at the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI) 2018, Barcelona: University of Bath; Cranfield university; Northumbria university, Newcastle; University of Portsmouth , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent HCI research in information security and privacy focuses on the Elderly. It aims at the provision of inclu-sive, Elderly-friendly interfaces for security and data protection features. Much attention is put on care situa-tions where the image of the Elderly is that of sick or disabled persons not mastering contemporary infor-mation technology. That population is however a frac-tion of the group called the Elderly. In this position pa-per, we argue that the Elderly are a very diverse popu-lation. We discuss issues rising from researchers and software architects’ misconception of the Elderly as technology-illiterate and unable. We suggest a more nuanced approach that includes changing personal abil-ities over the course of life.

  • 14.
    Gerber, Paul
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Renaud, Karen
    College of Science and Engineering, School of Computing Science, Human-Centred Security and Privacy Lead, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    The simpler, the better? Presenting the COPING Android permission-granting interface for better privacy-related decisions2017In: Journal of Information Security and Applications, ISSN 2214-2134, E-ISSN 2214-2126, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 8-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the great innovations of the modern world is the Smartphone app. The sheer multitude of available apps attests to their popularity and general ability to satisfy our wants and needs. The flip side of the functionality these apps offer is their potential for privacy invasion. Apps can, if granted permission, gather a vast amount of very personal and sensitive information. App developers might exploit the combination of human propensities and the design of the Android permission-granting interface to gain permission to access more information than they really need. This compromises personal privacy. The fact that the Android is the globally dominant phone means widespread privacy invasion is a real concern.

    We, and other researchers, have proposed alternatives to the Android permission-granting interface. The aim of these alternatives is to highlight privacy considerations more effectively during app installation: to ensure that privacy becomes part of the decision-making process. We report here on a study with 344 participants that compared the impact of a number of permission-granting interface proposals, including our own (called the COPING interface — COmprehensive PermIssioN Granting) and two Android interfaces. To conduct the comparison we carried out an online study with a mixed-model design.

    Our main finding is that the focus in these interfaces ought to be on improving the quality of the provided information rather than merely simplifying the interface. The intuitive approach is to reduce and simplify information, but we discovered that this actually impairs the quality of the decision. Our recommendation is that further investigation is required in order to find the “sweet spot” where understandability and comprehensiveness are maximised

  • 15.
    Hurley, Erin
    et al.
    Griffith University.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Co‐designing transformative services for sensitive topics2017In: / [ed] Linda Robinson, Linda Brennan, Mike Reid, Mel, 2017, p. 698-701Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformative service design is dominated by expert-driven design solutions which, as is evidenced in the current context of alcohol education, might not successfully capture user needs. Responding to the call for exploring possible alternatives to conventional design approaches, this study investigates how users can be involved through co-design and what contributions they can make during this process. A six-step co-design process was used to collect and evaluate the qualitative data. Findings show that the recruitment and facilitation stages are key to the success of co-design sessions. Additionally, it was found that the user-designed programs differed from previously expert-designed programs, namely in terms of the delivery platforms used, duration of the program, and the level of adolescent involvement. Ultimately, the study shows that co-design, if fully utilised and users are empowered to contribute actively, can allow for the design of transformative services that are more aligned to the specific user needs.

  • 16.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

  • 17.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fingerprint Recognition on Mobile Devices: Widely Deployed, Rarely Understood2019In: ARES 2018 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018)., New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2019, article id 39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only a few studies have addressed the users' conception of how fingerprint recognition used for different purposes on mobile devices works. This study contributes by investigating how different groups of individuals think that the fingerprint recognition works, why they think so, and also by pointing out differences in pin code and fingerprint issues. The study furthermore yields some results concerning individuals' attitudes towards how sensitive the use of fingerprint sensors is: non-users tended to be more afraid of third-party access than users. On the other hand, users tended to regard the fingerprint pattern as more sensitive than non-users.

    This study also manages to give some methodological contributions, namely that mockup user interfaces do not bias the parameters studied in this paper (e.g. understanding of access to fingerprint data), and that self-estimation of knowledge in Computer Security is not a good indicator of respondents' understanding of fingerprint security and privacy. Moreover, people who connected a low degree of sensitivity to fingerprint patterns gave very different reasons for their estimation of sensitivity. This prompts for more research, as it is unclear if different groups would benefit from different information and modes of visualisation to understand what are the issues involved in fingerprint recognition on mobile devices.

  • 18.
    Kulyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Tech. Univ. Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Reinheimer, Benjamin Maximmilian
    Tech. Univ. Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Gerber, Paul
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Volk, Florian
    Tech. Univ. Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Mühlhäuser, Max
    Tech. Univ. Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Advancing Trust Visualisations for Wider Applicability and User Acceptance2017In: Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS, 2017 IEEE, Piscataway: IEEE, 2017, p. 562-569Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are only a few visualisations targeting the communication of trust statements. Even though there are some advanced and scientifically founded visualisations-like, for example, the opinion triangle, the human trust interface, and T-Viz-the stars interface known from e-commerce platforms is by far the most common one. In this paper, we propose two trust visualisations based on T-Viz, which was recently proposed and successfully evaluated in large user studies. Despite being the most promising proposal, its design is not primarily based on findings from human-computer interaction or cognitive psychology. Our visualisations aim to integrate such findings and to potentially improve decision making in terms of correctness and efficiency. A large user study reveals that our proposed visualisations outperform T-Viz in these factors

  • 19.
    Lindegren, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Designing for user awareness and usability: An evaluation of authorization dialogs on a mobile device2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personal data is often disclosed with every registration, sharing, or request of an online service. With the increased usage of things connected to the Internet, users' information being collected and stored, the risks related to unknowingly sharing personal data increases. Sharing of personal information is a sensitive subject and can hurt people’s assets, dignity, personal integrity and other social aspects.

    In general, users’ concerns have grown regarding protecting their personal information which has led to the development of multiple privacy-oriented systems. In scenarios where users are logging onto a website or system, they rarely notice, understand or have desire to read the conditions to which they are implicitly agreeing. These systems are often referred to as identity management systems or single sign-on systems. Recent studies have shown that users are not aware of what data transactions take place by using various authentication solutions. It is critical for these types of system dealing with privacy that researchers examine users' understanding of the concepts through interface design.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the usability and user awareness of data transactions for identity management systems on mobile devices by constructing and evaluating different design concepts. Therefore, four different mobile prototypes were designed (called CREDENTIAL Wallet) and explored to measure the usability and also the user awareness of users’ disclosures. 20 usability tests were conducted per prototype.

    Multiple conclusions can be drawn from this study. The findings showed that the drag-and-drop prototype scored a high user awareness score in terms of participants remembering their shared data and having a good idea of them not sharing more data than they had actually shared. Consequently, the drag-and-drop prototype achieved the highest usability result. A prototype that utilized swiping was created to fit the mobile medium. The prototype showed the highest user awareness score in the context of participants stating what data they had shared. However, people using the swiping prototype thought they were sharing more data than they actually were. Data show that users have an incorrect mental model of the sharing of their fingerprint pattern. Finally, the writing concerns recommendations and challenges of identity management systems – e.g. the importance of tutorial screens.

    Future studies within the CREDENTIAL project are already underway concerning users' incorrect mental model of sharing fingerprint to the service provider side.

  • 20.
    Mayer, Peter
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    Gerber, Nina
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    McDermott, Ronja
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Vogt, Joachim
    Faculty of Human Sciences Technische, Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    Productivity vs security: mitigating conflicting goals in organizations2017In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of goal setting in organizations, especially regarding the mitigation of conflicting productivity and security goals.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper describes the results of a survey with 200 German employees regarding the effects of goal setting on employees’ security compliance. Based on the survey results, a concept for setting information security goals in organizations building on actionable behavioral recommendations from information security awareness materials is developed. This concept was evaluated in three small- to medium-sized organizations (SMEs) with overall 90 employees.

    Findings

    The survey results revealed that the presence of rewards for productivity goal achievement is strongly associated with a decrease in security compliance. The evaluation of the goal setting concept indicates that setting their own information security goals is welcomed by employees.

    Research limitations/implications

    Both studies rely on self-reported data and are, therefore, likely to contain some kind of bias.

    Practical implications

    Goal setting in organizations has to accommodate for situations, where productivity goals constrain security policy compliance. Introducing the proposed goal setting concept based on relevant actionable behavioral recommendations can help mitigate issues in such situations.

    Originality/value

    This work furthers the understanding of the factors affecting employee security compliance. Furthermore, the proposed concept can help maximizing the positive effects of goal setting in organizations by mitigating the negative effects through the introduction of meaningful and actionable information security goals.

  • 21.
    Mayer, Peter
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany.
    Kunz, Alexandra
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Technische Universität Darmstadt , Germany.
    Reliable behavioural factors in the information security context2017In: ARES '17 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, article id UNSP 9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users do often not behave securely when using information technology. Many studies have tried to identify the factors of behavioural theories which can increase secure behaviour. The goal of this work is to identify which of the factors are reliably associated with secure behaviour across multiple studies. Those factors are of interest to information security professionals since addressing them in security awareness and education campaigns can help improving security related processes of users. To attain our goal, we conducted a systematic literature review and assessed the reliability of the factors based on the effect sizes reported in the literature. Our results indicate that 11 out of the 14 factors from well established behavioural theories can be associated with reliable effects in the information security context. These factors cover very different aspects: influence of the users skills, whether the environment makes it possible to exhibit secure behaviour, the influence of friends or co-workers, and the perceived properties of the secure behaviour (e.g. response cost). Also, we identify areas, where more studies are needed to increase the confidence of the factors' reliability assessment.

  • 22.
    Momen, Nurul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bock, Sven
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    User Perception Analysis for Showing Personal Data Access as Privacy Implication Factor2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays users face difficulty to assess excessive data harvesting nature of applications. In order to addres this problem, our idea is to introduce an app market with privacy indicators to the users and observe their selection behavior. Additionally this project aims at sensitizing the user to an adequate selection of apps based on privacy invasive/preserving nature. We hypothesize that ex-ante privacy indicator can nudge the user towards informed decision making.

  • 23.
    Momen, Nurul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Piekarska, Marta
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Towards Improving Privacy Awareness Regarding Apps’ Permissions2017In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Digital Society and eGovernments – ICDS 2017, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2017, p. 18-23Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Murmann, Patrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eliciting Design Guidelines for Privacy Notifications in mHealth EnvironmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities of employing mobile health (mhealth) devices for the purpose of self-quantification and fitness tracking are increasing, yet few users of online mhealth services possess proven knowledge of how their personal data are processed once the data have been disclosed. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) can provide such insight and guide users in making informed decisions with respect to intervening with the processing of their personal data. At present, however, there are no suitable guidelines that aid designers of TETs in implementing privacy notifications that reflect their recipients’ needs in terms of what they want to be notified about and the level of guidance required to audit their data effectively. Based on an analysis of gaps related to TETs, the findings of a study on privacy notification preferences, and the findings on notifications and privacy notices discussed in the literature, this paper proposes a set of guidelines for the human-centred design of privacy notifications that facilitate ex post transparency.

  • 25.
    Murmann, Patrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Towards Usable Transparency via Individualisation2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The General Data Protection Regulation grants data subjects the legal rights of transparency and intervenability. Ex post transparency provides users of data services with insight into how their personal data have been processed, and potentially clarifies what consequences will or may arise due to the processing of their data. Technological artefacts, ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) convey such information to data subjects, provided the TETs are designed to suit the predisposition of their audience. Despite being a prerequisite for transparency, however, many of the TETs available to date lack usability in that their capabilities do not reflect the needs of their final users.

    The objective of this thesis is therefore to systematically apply the concept of human-centred design to ascertain design principles that demonstrably lead to the implementation of a TET that facilitates ex post transparency and supports intervenability. To this end, we classify the state of the art of usable ex post TETs published in the literature and discuss the gaps therein. Contextualising our findings in the domain of fitness tracking, we investigate to what extent individualisation can help accommodate the needs of users of online mobile health services. We introduce the notion of privacy notifications as a means to inform data subjects about incidences worthy of their attention and examine how far privacy personas reflect the preferences of distinctive groups of recipients. We suggest a catalogue of design guidelines that can serve as a basis for specifying context-sensitive requirements for the implementation of a TET that leverages privacy notifications to facilitate ex post transparency, and which also serve as criteria for the evaluation of a future prototype.

  • 26.
    Murmann, Patrick
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Reinhardt, Delphine
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    To Be, or Not to Be Notified: Eliciting Privacy Notification Preferences for Online mHealth ServicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people are tracking and quantifying their fitness and health, and entrust online mobile health (mhealth) services with storing and processing their sensitive personal data. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) enable users to keep track of how their personal data are processed, and represent important building blocks to understand privacy implications and control one’s online privacy. Particularly, privacy notifications provide users of TETs with the insight necessary to make informed decision about controlling their personal data that they have disclosed previously. To investigate the notification preferences of users of online mhealth services, we conducted an online study. We analysed how notification scenarios can be grouped contextually, and how user preferences with respect to being notified relate to intervenability. Moreover, we examined to what extent ex post notification preferences correlate with privacy personas established in the context of trust in and reliability of online data services. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for the design of usable ex post TETs.

  • 27.
    Murmann, Patrick
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Reinhardt, Delphine
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    To Be, or Not to Be Notified: Eliciting Privacy Notification Preferences for Online mHealth Services2019In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection / [ed] Gurpreet Dhillon, Fredrik Karlsson, Karin Hedström, André Zúquete, Springer, 2019, p. 209-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people are tracking and quantifying their fitness and health, and entrust online mobile health (mhealth) services with storing and processing their sensitive personal data. Ex post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs) enable users to keep track of how their personal data are processed, and represent important building blocks to understand privacy implications and control one’s online privacy. Particularly, privacy notifications provide users of TETs with the insight necessary to make informed decision about controlling their personal data that they have disclosed previously. To investigate the notification preferences of users of online mhealth services, we conducted an online study. We analysed how notification scenarios can be grouped contextually, and how user preferences with respect to being notified relate to intervenability. Moreover, we examined to what extent ex post notification preferences correlate with privacy personas established in the context of trust in and reliability of online data services. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for the design of usable ex post TETs.

  • 28.
    Persson, Roy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Effekten av prajming vid användartester2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom psykologin diskuteras ett fenomen benämnt prajming. Detta fenomen beskrivs vara en omedveten form av minne som påverkas av vår perception vid identifieringen av ord och objekt. Exempelvis sker detta när en person får se färgen grön vilket gör att denne snabbare känner ingen ordet gräsmatta. Detta beror på att ordet grön är nära associerat i minnet med gräs. På detta sätt, menar man, påverkar omedvetna associationer våra handlingar omedvetet.

     

    Prajming har tidigare studerats på flertalet områden och både bekräftats och vederlagts. Efter litteraturstudien som initialt genomfördes inför denna studie, har dock inga studier som undersöker prajming i samband med användartester hittats. Det ledde fram till syftet med denna studie som är ”att undersöka om prajming har någon effekt på testdeltagarens utförande i ett användartest”.

     

    Studien genomfördes med hjälp av användartester på en webbsite, sex stycken testdeltagare medverkade i testet. Testdeltagarna delades upp i två grupper, varav den ena gruppen utförde användartest utan att bli prajmade innan testet och den andra gruppen blev prajmade med en kort film innan testet. Resultatet i studien påvisar att de testdeltagare som innan användartestet blivit prajmade lyckades lösa uppgifterna snabbare. Resultatet demonstrerar effekten av prajming.

  • 29.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    The longevity of general purpose Wizard-of-Oz tools2015In: OzCHI '15: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction / [ed] Ploderer, Carter, Gibbs, Smith, Vetere, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 422-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wizard-of-Oz method has been around for decades, allowing researchers and practitioners to conduct prototyping without programming. An extensive literature review conducted by the authors revealed, however, that the re-usable tools supporting the method did not seem to last more than a few years. While generic systems start to appear around the turn of the millennium, most have already fallen out of use.

    Our interest in undertaking this review was inspired by the ongoing re-development of our own Wizard-of-Oz tool, the Ozlab, into a system based on web technology.

    We found three factors that arguably explain why Ozlab is still in use after 15 years instead of the two-three years lifetime of other generic systems: the general approach used from its inception; its inclusion in introductory HCI curricula, and the flexible and situation-dependent design of the wizard’s user interface.

  • 30.
    Rönnlund, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Problemet med ambitiösa människor: eller Varför chefer har för mycket att göra och vad du kan göra åt det2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Lugnt och skönt på jobbet? Knappast. För de flesta organisationer idag kan vi se hur antalet uppgifter vi förväntas klara av ökar. Det har blivit lätt att ställa krav på underlag från organisationen så vi lägger mer tid på att administrera den egna organisationen, vilket ger mindre tid att leverera det vi från början förväntades göra.

    Hur kan det bli så här? Bakom allt detta ligger ambitiösa människor. De är problemet. Vi har länge levt i villfarelsen att organisationers problem bottnar i att anställda är slöa, slappa och likgiltiga. En flora av teambuildingaktviteter har fått oss att försöka få människor att bli kreativa och entusiastiska. Väldigt lite resurser har lagts på att hantera de ambitiösa människorna, de som redan är allt detta. De som tar initiativ och ser till att saker händer. Ofta tyvärr inom fel områden.

    Det är dags att vi tar tillbaka vår egen organisation. Chefer måste börja säga nej till underlagslämnande och nya kontrollsystem. Utveckling måste bli liktydigt med förenkling, inte tillägg och detaljer. Vi måste börja åtgärda det som är viktigt för organisationen, inte det som är dåligt.

  • 31.
    Røssvoll, Till Halbach
    et al.
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Reducing the User Burden of Identity Management: A Prototype Based Case Study for a Social-Media Payment Application Trustworthy and Inclusive Identity Management for Applications in Social Media2013In: ACHI 2013, The Sixth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a prototype for inclusive and secure identity management regarding a bill sharing application in social media. Beginning with the principals of universal design, and involving groups of users with impairments, we designed a set of alternative authentication methods based on OpenID. This work explains the scenario and the particularities of designing a trust, security, and privacy infrastructure with a high degree of usability for diverse user groups, and which is aligned with the requirements from regulatory frameworks. The user trials show that several authentication alternatives in multiple modalities are welcomed by impaired users, but many have restrictions when it comes to payments in the context of social media.

  • 32. Schulz, Trenton
    et al.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Accessibility and Inclusion Requirements for Future e-Identity Solutions2014In: Computers Helping People with Special Needs: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Springer, 2014, p. 316-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future e-identity services will need to be accessible for people with different types of abilities. We review current sets of accessibility guidelines and standards, current assistive technology, and current e-identity technology to determine accessibility and inclusion requirements for a future e-identity solution. For our project, we found that the area we could influence the most was the development of user interface for the client for e-identity and focused on these areas with the assumption that users would have access to inclusive cards and card readers. The requirements are divided into content and presentation, control and operation, legal requirements, testing, and help and support. We also provide possible areas for future research.

  • 33. Schulz, Trenton
    et al.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Identifying Trust Strategies in the Internet of Things2013In: Proceedings of the User-Centered Trust in Interactive Systems Workshop: a Workshop from NordiCHI 2012: TRUST, Norsk Regnesentral , 2013, Vol. 1028, p. 19-25Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Schulz, Trenton
    et al.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Schlehahn, Eva
    Hansen, Marit
    Zwingelberg, Harald
    Identifying Trust Strategies in the Internet of Things FutureID Deliverable D22.7 Accessibility and Inclusion Requirements2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users in the Internet of Things (IoT) use strategies to determine if they should trust a system or service. These strategies are not actively declared, but it can be useful to know which strategy is being used. We provide possible actions that users may perform when using different trust strategies and possible ways these can be captured for user studies. This document defines the accessibility and inclusion requirements to be taken into account when developing the different prototypes in the FutureID project. It also serves as a back- ground document in informing project partners about different aspects of accessibility when dealing with ICT. This includes looking at definitions, different types of users, assistive tech- nology, and other existing work in the field. Legal requirements, including storing of personal information for making systems accessible, are also covered. The document includes the accessibility and inclusion requirements for both developing and testing the client.

  • 35.
    Schulz, Trenton
    et al.
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Solheim, Ivar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Tjøstheim, Ingvar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Petró, Dániel
    Arfwedson, Henrik
    Back, Niklas
    uTRUSTit: Deliverable D2.2 Definition of User Scenarios2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present scenarios in the three domains of smart home, smart office, and e-voting. The smart home consists of five scenarios; the smart office includes nine scenarios; e-voting has five scenarios. These scenarios cover a variety of situations that people may encounter in their everyday life and help to illustrate the trust issues that can show up when working with the Internet of Things (IoT). The scenarios form a foundation for many of the tasks and activities in the other work packages since the scenarios capture the functionality that we will work on. We also include a list of potential devices that may be used to realize these scenarios.

  • 36.
    Svensson, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    En applikation som stöd till personer med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodevelopmental disorders affect the way the brain handles information and can result in difficulties with concentration, shifting attention, memory and processing the surrounding environment. Clarifying pedagogy is a method that is used to support people with neurodevelopmental disorders.  Clarifying pedagogy aims to describe the environment and events clearly to the people with neurodevelopmental disorders. Aid included in clarifying pedagogy is schedules, checklist and time visualisations. This project is continuing the development of the Vardag-application for the company Altran. Vardag implements schedules in an application to help people with neurodevelopmental disorders. Vardag is implemented with React Native to make the application compatible with IOS and Android. A web API was developed and used to communicate between the application and the server.  During this project the features upload image, sub activities, visual themes and activities on a specific date was implemented.    

  • 37.
    Thomason, Gustav
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Skeleton screen – Hur påverkar de användarens upplevda hastighet av en webbplats?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sidladdningar på webbplatser har visat sig ha stor påverkan på hur användare beter sig på webbplatser. Redan efter 1 sekunds fördröjning börjar användarens beteende ändras. Laddningsindikatorer kan användas för att minska den upplevda hastigheten av sidladdningar. Det finns olika varianter av laddningsindikatorer som fungerar på olika sätt. En traditionell laddningsindikator är spinner och en nyare, mindre undersökt, heter skeleton screen. 

    Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats har varit att undersöka effektiviteten hos skeleton screen att påverka den upplevda hastigheten av sidladdningar. Dessutom var syftet att utforma och demonstrera ett test för att förse webbutvecklare med vägledning om hur liknande test kan genomföras i syfte att avgöra vilken laddningsindikator de bör välja att använda vid utveckling. En prototypisk webbsida skapades i två olika versioner, en med 2 sekunders fördröjning och en med 4 sekunders fördröjning vid sidladdning. För att ladda sidorna användes spinner eller skeleton screen. För att samla in användares upplevda hastighet av webbplatsen utfördes användartester där deltagarna för varje sida fick uppskatta hur lång tid nedladdningen tog. Totalt deltog 14 testpersoner i åldrarna 13–47 år. Resultatet visade på att skeleton screen påverkade testpersonernas upplevda hastighet som kortast i både versionerna. Medelvärdet av alla resultatet från testpersonerna visade på att vid 2 sekunders fördröjning upplevdes sidladdningar som 0.89 sekunder med skeleton screen och 1,95 sekunder med spinner. Vid 4 sekunders fördröjning upplevdes skeleton screen som 1,38 sekunder och spinner 3,81 sekunder. Trots att skeleton screen var den laddningsindikator som minskade upplevd hastighet mest, fanns det delade åsikter om vilken laddningsindikator testpersonerna föredrog baserat på design och tidigare erfarenheter. Skeleton screen verkar inte vara meningsfulla på sidor med enstaka produkter, utan effektiviteten av skeleton screen visades främst vid laddning av flera produkter.

  • 38.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Similar Information Privacy Behavior in 60-65s vs. 50-59ers - Findings From A European Survey on The Elderly2018In: Proceedings of the Mobile Privacy and Security for an Ageing Population workshop at the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI) 2018; September 3, 2018,  Barcelona, Spain, Barcelona: University of Bath; Cranfield university; Northumbria university, Newcastle; University of Portsmouth , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we presentfindings from a European survey with 10 countries on the subject sharing of personal information and concernsof the citizens. We compare the age group 60-65 years old with the age group 50-59, and in addition compare the Nordic region with the non-nordic population.There are more similarities than differences. The survey indicates that many of the elderly 60-65 take steps to protect their personal data.

  • 39.
    Tylénius, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Kunduppfattningar och användning av användarcentrerad design i intranät: En kvalitativ studie om kunduppfattningar och användning av användarcentrerad design i intranät ur ett leverantörsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användarcentrerad design utmärks enligt Saffer (2010:33–34) av att användarna är involverade i hela designprocessen. Detta kräver att kunden tillsätter resurser (Lindberg 2006:22). Enligt Hammarberg (Dunås 2017) är den inre digitaliseringen lika viktig som den yttre, därför finner uppsatsens författare det intressant att studier om användarcentrerad design i intranät är svårt att hitta. Syftet med studien är att undersöka kunduppfattningar och användning av användarcentrerad design i intranät ur ett leverantörsperspektiv. En teoretisk grundförståelse har samlats in genom litteraturstudier. Uppsatsens undersökningar har skett genom fokuserade intervjuer med tre intranätleverantörer i Sverige. En kompletterande dokumentstudie har gjorts av fackliga tidskrifter för att hitta användarnas uppfattning om it- system genom fackliga ombud. Studiens första slutsats är att kundens uppfattade organisationsnytta enligt leverantörernas perspektiv kan kopplas till att intranätet blir användbart, tillgängligt och accepterat samt att användarcentrerad design ger databaserade motiv och ökad interaktion. Studiens andra slutsats är att kundens uppfattade motargument till användarcentrerad design i intranät enligt leverantörerna är tid, pengar och bristande kunskap, vilket medför att investeringen kan vara svår att uppskatta. Tredje slutsatsen är att samtliga leverantörer använder aktiviteterna: förståelse, utvärdering, föreställning och design för att arbeta med användarcentrerad design i intranät. I förståelsen användes exempelvis workshops och card sorting, i utvärderingen användes bland annat testprotokoll, usability scale och three testing. I föreställningen nyttjas user stories och klickbara prototyper. I den konceptuella designen användes exempelvis user stories och power point samt att fysisk design uppnåddes med hjälp av agilt arbetssätt. Fjärde slutsatsen är att citaten och tolkningarna av fackföreningarnas tidskrifter tyder på att användarna inte är speciellt involverade i systeminförskaffandet och att användare mår dåligt över it- system vilket är intressant eftersom intervjuade leverantörer upplever att de arbetar användarcentrerat i designen av intranät.

  • 40.
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Sensory Digital Intonation2013In: The impact of performance as research: Proceedings of CARPA3 - colloquium on artistic research in performing arts / [ed] Arlander, Annette, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory Digital Intonation. The impact of artistic intuition and experience when fine-tuning digital artefacts. Throughout the artistic practice of the authors and their collaborative works (eg Artificial Body Voices, Robocygne, The Lamentations of Orpheus, The Crystal Cabinet, Olimpia, The Pearlfishers and Ombra Mai Fu) the development phase that we now denominate Sensory Digital Intonation has evolved. In the proposed presentation at Carpa 3, we will elaborate on this and show examples of how this practice has been and is carried out.

  • 41.
    Voronkov, Artem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Measuring the Usability of Firewall Rule SetsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Using the Wizard-of-Oz technique in requirements engineering processes: A trial in a tourism context2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore the possibility to use the experimental prototyping technique called Wizard of Oz as a requirements engineering technique in multimedia development with a focus on how to capture (and test) requirements for system responses in on-going GUI dialogues between user and system. The Wizard-of-Oz technique makes it possible to try interactive prototypes with users or in the development team without needing any programming to be conducted first.

    In a tourism context interactive prototypes made in the Wizard-of-Oz system called Ozlab were used to produce live answers to tourists. The prototyped information kiosk was offered as a complement to the already running tourist information website. The available surveys and web statistics regarding tourist information system could not provide non-functional requirements. Instead, three interviews and one observation were conducted, leading up to the four experiments where the WOz technique was tried as a requirements engineering technique in addition to the traditional data collection methods.

    The results of this study show how a graphical Wizard-of-Oz tool can be used as a complement to traditional requirements elicitation methods. The study also shows limitations to WOz based requirements engineering work; subject experts are needed in the wizard team, for example. The study also resulted in several developments of the experimental tool itself; the web feature was exploited much further than originally conceived by the Ozlab developers.

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